Bio: Sanda Skejić is an academic researcher. The author has contributed to research in topics: Bay & Phytoplankton. The author has an hindex of 13, co-authored 40 publications receiving 519 citations.
TL;DR: The demonstration of differential dietary selectivity by different sized animals has implications for future trophic studies of this endangered species and provides the first demonstration of predation on zooplankton by P. nobilis.
Abstract: The endangered fan shell Pinna nobilis is a large bivalve mollusc (<120 cm shell length) endemic to the Mediterranean that lives one-third buried in soft substrata, generally in shallow coastal waters. We hypothesised that P. nobilis of different sizes would ingest different food sources, because small fan shells will inhale material from closer to the substratum than do large fan shells. We studied stomach contents and faeces of 18 fan shells, 6 small (mean 23.0 cm length), 6 medium-sized (mean 41.5 cm length) and 6 large (mean 62.7 cm length) living in a small area of a low-energy coastal detritic bottom characterised by mud, sand and macroalgae at Mali Ston Bay, Croatia. We found that all P. nobilis ingested copious quantities of undetermined detritus (probably at least 95% of ingested material), phytoplankton, micro and mesozooplankton and pollen grains. Large P. nobilis stomach contents showed a preponderance of water column calanoid copepods, while small fan shells had higher numbers of bivalve larvae. All fan shells took in high numbers of harpacticoid copepods that are benthonic, feeding on microbial communities of detritus and benthic vegetation. There was also a significant selection of phytoplankton species, some apparently occurring between inhalation and ingestion. The stomach contents of small P. nobilis had a higher organic matter content than either medium-sized or large fan shells; this indicated that small fan shells ingested detritus of higher organic content than did larger P. nobilis. As the faeces of all P. nobilis had similar organic matter content, this also indicates higher assimilation efficiencies in small fan shells. The demonstration of differential dietary selectivity by different sized animals has implications for future trophic studies of this endangered species. This study also provides the first demonstration of predation on zooplankton by P. nobilis.
TL;DR: Diatoms were the most abundant functional group and they prevailed during the colder part of the year while the dinoflagellate contribution to the phytoplankton community increased in the warmer period from May to August.
Abstract: Evaluation of a 45-year data set of primary production (PP), a 30-year data set of phytoplankton biomass, and a 51-year data set of species composition shows an increase of phytoplankton biomass and abundance in the period from the mid-1980s to the mid-1990s. Phytoplankton biomass showed bimodal seasonal cycles, with winter and spring maxima, which did not change over the past 30 years. Diatoms were the most abundant functional group and they prevailed during the colder part of the year while the dinoflagellate contribution to the phytoplankton community increased in the warmer period from May to August. Diatoms showed a significant negative correlation with sea surface temperature (SST), while dinoflagellates were positively correlated with SST. An increase of phytoplankton abundance, particularly dinoflagellate, in the period from the mid-1980s to the mid-1990s coincided with years characterized by a high North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index. Primary production and chlorophyll a concentration in the spring period were negatively correlated with the NAO winter (DJFM) index, probably caused by increased precipitation associated with a low or negative NAO index. PP in winter during the mixing period was positively related to the NAO winter index associated with higher temperatures and dry conditions which brought more clear days and increased input of solar radiation.
TL;DR: This investigation indicates the first presence of domoic acid in Croatian shellfish, but in concentrations under the regulatory limit (20 μg g-1), therefore shellfish consumption was not found to endanger human health.
Abstract: This is the first study that presents concentrations of domoic acid detected in the whole shellfish tissue from breeding and harvesting areas along the Croatian coast of the Adriatic Sea during the period 2006 to 2008. Shellfish sample analyses after SAX cleaning procedures, using a UV-DAD-HPLC system, showed the presence of domoic acid in four species. The most prevalent of those species were the blue mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis), followed by European flat oyster (Ostrea edulis), Mediterranean scallop (Pecten jacobaeus) and proteus scallop (Flexopecten proteus). Domoic acid, a potentially lethal phycotoxin that causes amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP), was detected for the first time in January 2006 with the highest value of 6.5486 μg g-1 in whole shellfish tissue. Pseudo-nitzschia spp. bloom events preceded these high domoic acid concentrations. According to this study, retention of domoic acid in the blue mussel M. galloprovincialis is more than 42 days. This investigation indicates the first presence of domoic acid in Croatian shellfish, but in concentrations under the regulatory limit (20 μg g-1), therefore shellfish consumption was not found to endanger human health.
Aarhus University1, University of Tartu2, Finnish Environment Institute3, Centre national de la recherche scientifique4, University of Malta5, Rijkswaterstaat6, Dutch Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality7, Naturalis8, Leiden University9, University of the Azores10, Smithsonian Environmental Research Center11, University of Lisbon12, University of Alicante13, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences14, Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science15
TL;DR: The analysis revealed that a large number of NIS was not reported from the initial assessments, and several NIS initially listed are currently considered as native in Europe or were proven to be historical misreportings.
TL;DR: The response of phytoplankton diversity was not linear, as the highest diversity was observed in the area with intermediate disturbance level, and boundary values for different water quality classes for coastal waters under indirect freshwater influence are obtained according to gradient between concentration of chlorophyll a and pressure index (LUSI), which empirically fit to exponential equation.
TL;DR: Increased knowledge over the last decade of Pseudo-nitzschia and its production of DA is summarized, including changes in worldwide range, phylogeny, physiology, ecology, monitoring and public health impacts.
TL;DR: Gaps in knowledge include further information about the whole genome of Pseudo-nitzschia, mechanisms of DA production and decline, presence or absence of a resting stage, heterotrophic ability, impact of viruses and fungi, and a more complete description of the ecological and physiological roles of DA.
Abstract: LELONG A., HEGARET H., SOUDANT P. AND BATES S.S. 2012. Pseudo-nitzschia (Bacillariophyceae) species, domoic acid and amnesic shellfish poisoning: revisiting previous paradigms. Phycologia 51: 168-216. DOI: 10.2216/11-37 Pseudo-nitzschia is a globally distributed diatom genus, some species of which produce domoic acid (DA), the neurotoxin that causes amnesic shellfish poisoning. This toxin killed at least three humans in 1987, launching numerous studies concerning the identification, distribution, ecology and physiology of Pseudo-nitzschia spp. Since previous reviews in 1998, knowledge has been gained about the fate of DA, including its accumulation by marine animals and its degradation by light and bacteria. Molecular techniques and more precise microscopy have enabled the description of new Pseudo-nitzschia species, 15 since 2002, including ones that are cryptic and pseudo-cryptic. An increasing number of the 37 identified species, including oceanic and coastal species, have been studied in laboratory culture. The sexual reproduction of 14 species has been documented. Fourteen species have now been shown to be toxigenic, although some strains are not always toxic under the testing conditions. The biotic and abiotic factors that modify DA production are reviewed, with a focus on how new discoveries have changed our original hypotheses about control mechanisms. Recent studies confirm that silicate and phosphate limitation trigger DA production. However, stress by low concentrations of iron or high concentrations of copper are newly discovered triggers, suggesting a trace-metal chelation role for DA. Organic sources of nitrogen (urea and glutamine), as well as changes in pH, CO2, salinity and bacterial concentration, also enhance DA production. Laboratory and field studies sometimes give divergent results for conditions that are conducive to toxin production. Gaps in knowledge include further information about the whole genome of Pseudo- nitzschia (including sexual stages), mechanisms of DA production and decline, presence or absence of a resting stage, heterotrophic ability, impact of viruses and fungi, and a more complete description of the ecological and physiological roles of DA.
TL;DR: Several Dinophysis species produce diarrhoetic toxins (okadaic acid and dinophysistoxins) and cause gastointestinal illness, Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP), even at low cell densities (<103 cells·L−1) as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: Several Dinophysis species produce diarrhoetic toxins (okadaic acid and dinophysistoxins) and pectenotoxins, and cause gastointestinal illness, Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP), even at low cell densities (<103 cells·L−1). They are the main threat, in terms of days of harvesting bans, to aquaculture in Northern Japan, Chile, and Europe. Toxicity and toxin profiles are very variable, more between strains than species. The distribution of DSP events mirrors that of shellfish production areas that have implemented toxin regulations, otherwise misinterpreted as bacterial or viral contamination. Field observations and laboratory experiments have shown that most of the toxins produced by Dinophysis are released into the medium, raising questions about the ecological role of extracelular toxins and their potential uptake by shellfish. Shellfish contamination results from a complex balance between food selection, adsorption, species-specific enzymatic transformations, and allometric processes. Highest risk areas are those combining Dinophysis strains with high cell content of okadaates, aquaculture with predominance of mytilids (good accumulators of toxins), and consumers who frequently include mussels in their diet. Regions including pectenotoxins in their regulated phycotoxins will suffer from much longer harvesting bans and from disloyal competition with production areas where these toxins have been deregulated.
TL;DR: This review covers new information since two previous reviews in 2012, including how and why DA and its isomers are produced, the world distribution of potentially toxigenic Nitzschia species, the prevalence of DA isomers, and molecular markers to discriminate between toxigenics and non-toxigenic species.
TL;DR: It is shown that the presence of allochtonous organisms from Atlantic/Western Mediterranean and Eastern Mediterranean/temperate zone in the Adriatic are concurrent with the anticyclonic and cyclonic circulations of the NIG, respectively, and a revision of the theory of AdRIatic ingressions formulated in the early 1950s is proposed.
Abstract: . Analysis of 20-year time-series of the vertically averaged salinity and nutrient data in the Southern Adriatic shows that the two parameters are subject to strong decadal variability. In addition, it is documented that nutrient and salinity variations are out of phase. Nutrients in the Ionian and in the Adriatic vary in parallel except that generally the nutrient content in the Adriatic is lower than in the Ionian, a fact that has been attributed to primary producer consumption following the winter convective mixing. As shown earlier, North Ionian Gyre (NIG) changes its circulation sense on a decadal scale due to the Bimodal Oscillating System, i.e. the feedback mechanism between the Adriatic and Ionian. Cyclonic circulation causes a downwelling of the nitracline along the borders of the NIG and a decrease in the nutrient content of the water flowing into the Adriatic across the Otranto Strait, and vice versa. In addition, the highly oligotrophic central area of the Ionian shows annual blooms only during cyclonic NIG circulation. Inversion of the sense of the NIG results in the advection of Modified Atlantic Water or of the Levantine/Eastern Mediterranean waters in the Adriatic. Here, we show that the presence of allochtonous organisms from Atlantic/Western Mediterranean and Eastern Mediterranean/temperate zone in the Adriatic are concurrent with the anticyclonic and cyclonic circulations of the NIG, respectively. On the basis of the results presented, a revision of the theory of Adriatic ingressions formulated in the early 1950s is proposed.