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Author

Sandeep Kumar Arora

Bio: Sandeep Kumar Arora is an academic researcher from Lovely Professional University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Vehicular ad hoc network & Computer science. The author has an hindex of 5, co-authored 23 publications receiving 54 citations.

Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
01 Sep 2016-Optik
TL;DR: The optimal path is the path in which the header node is having the highest average sum of header numbers and the Packet delivery ratio and Throughput is found satisfactory as compared to the conventional techniques.

9 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Intrusion Detection System is implemented using NS-2 by modifying the original AODV protocol and removing the black hole node which drops the maximum packets and the Packet Delivery Ratio is improved by 60%.
Abstract: Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET) has no clear line of defense; i.e., no built-in security. Black hole attack found in network layer pretends that it has a shortest route to reach to the destination but actually consumes all the packets sent by the source. In this paper, Intrusion Detection System is implemented using NS-2 by modifying the original AODV protocol and removing the black hole node which drops the maximum packets. We also proposed a method of activating the promiscuous mode by selecting the path of highest sequence number which is helpful in achieving the better Quality of Services (QoS). The study was conducted to analyze the performance of the IDS technique over existing techniques which revealed that the Packet Delivery Ratio is improved by 60%.

9 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A Message Authentication Code scheme is presented, which uses the biological characteristics represented by Deoxyribonucleic acid combined with the output of Blum Blum Shub Random Number Generator, as a secret key along with a novel hash algorithm, which performs well under all the criteria and thus is capable of preserving integrity.
Abstract: In this era of universal electronic connectivity, communication is no more confined to transfer of data from one end to the other; rather it aims at secure data transfer. Communication sector has developed beyond this traditional boundary of data transfer and is now working on ways to provide data from the intended senders to the intended receivers in an unaltered form. Considering all these conditions, the data transfer needs to follow the principles of authentication, confidentiality and integrity. The former two have been addressed using digital signatures and encryption schemes respectively, while the solution to the later is the use of Message Authentication Code. This paper presents a Message Authentication Code scheme, which uses the biological characteristics represented by Deoxyribonucleic acid combined with the output of Blum Blum Shub Random Number Generator, as a secret key along with a novel hash algorithm. This Message Authentication Code structure is evaluated on the basis of National Institute of Science and Technology test suite for random numbers, avalanche criteria and network attacks. The results reveal that the proposed scheme performs well under all the criteria and thus is capable of preserving integrity; this increases its applicability in any data sensitive environment .

8 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
10 Nov 2014
TL;DR: Simulation results using Network Simulator 2(NS2) shows that, in a high mobility environment, malicious node could be detected and the packet delivery ratio has been improved.
Abstract: Mobile Adhoc Network (MANET) is vulnerable to many security issues and network attacks. We presented the comparison of three different routing protocols (AODV, DSR and DSDV) on the basis of different parameters. In this paper, black hole attack is implemented on AODV protocol which reduce the performance parameters of network by exploiting the packet sequence number included in any packet header. The proposed mechanism of Intrusion Detection System (IDS) is also implemented to enhance the network performance. Simulation results using Network Simulator 2(NS2) shows that, in a high mobility environment, malicious node could be detected and the packet delivery ratio has been improved.

7 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
01 Aug 2016
TL;DR: A VANET lane model for reducing the delay of the packets using high priority algorithm for cluster selection to transmit the safety messages rapidly and not affecting the overall transmission of the network is proposed.
Abstract: VANET is a field of technology through which road accidents can be reduced which leads to the reduction of the death rate. For this purpose, different protocols were proposed to improve the VANET network for safety messages, priority messages, and application based schemes, but MAC (Medium Access Control) is a branch where fewer researchers explored the literature. We proposed a VANET lane model for reducing the delay of the packets using high priority algorithm for cluster selection to transmit the safety messages rapidly. Therefore, cooperative clustering based MAC is one of the fields for broadcasting the safety messages to reduce the delay of transmission at the time of emergency. Cooperation is carried out using the cluster member node as a cooperative node for transmission of safety messages from source to destination without affecting the overall transmission of the network.

6 citations


Cited by
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The simulation under the veins framework is carried out to verify the feasibility of the scheme in reducing the selfish behavior and malicious attacks in IoV and propose an effective decentralized authentication mechanism for IoV on the basis of the consensus algorithm of blockchain technology.
Abstract: Thanks to the rapid development in mobile vehicles and wireless technologies, the Internet of Vehicles (IoV) has become an attractive application that can provide a large number of mobile services for drivers. Vehicles can be informed of the mobile position, direction, speed, and other real-time information of nearby vehicles to avoid traffic jams and accidents. However, the environments of IoV could be dangerous in the absence of security protections. Due to the openness and self-organization of IoV, there are enormous malicious attackers. To guarantee the safety of mobile services, we propose an effective decentralized authentication mechanism for IoV on the basis of the consensus algorithm of blockchain technology. The simulation under the veins framework is carried out to verify the feasibility of the scheme in reducing the selfish behavior and malicious attacks in IoV.

104 citations

01 Jan 2009
TL;DR: This paper gives a tutorial overview of OFDM highlighting the aspects that are likely to be important in optical applications and the constraints imposed by single mode optical fiber, multimode optical fiber and optical wireless.
Abstract: Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is a modulation technique which is now used in most new and emerging broadband wired and wireless communication systems because it is an effective solution to intersymbol interference caused by a dispersive channel. Very recently a number of researchers have shown that OFDM is also a promising technology for optical communications. This paper gives a tutorial overview of OFDM highlighting the aspects that are likely to be important in optical applications. To achieve good performance in optical systems OFDM must be adapted in various ways. The constraints imposed by single mode optical fiber, multimode optical fiber and optical wireless are discussed and the new forms of optical OFDM which have been developed are outlined. The main drawbacks of OFDM are its high peak to average power ratio and its sensitivity to phase noise and frequency offset. The impairments that these cause are described and their implications for optical systems discussed.

96 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: AODV is enhanced by integrating a new lightweight technique that uses timers and baiting in order to detect and isolate single and cooperative black-hole attacks.
Abstract: Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) is a type of wireless networks that provides numerous applications in different areas Security of MANET had become one of the hottest topics in networks fields MANET is vulnerable to different types of attacks that affect its functionality and connectivity The black-hole attack is considered one of the most widespread active attacks that degrade the performance and reliability of the network as a result of dropping all incoming packets by the malicious node Black-hole node aims to fool every node in the network that wants to communicate with another node by pretending that it always has the best path to the destination node AODV is a reactive routing protocol that has no techniques to detect and neutralize the black-hole node in the network In this research, we enhanced AODV by integrating a new lightweight technique that uses timers and baiting in order to detect and isolate single and cooperative black-hole attacks During the dynamic topology changing the suggested technique enables the MANET nodes to detect and isolate the black-hole nodes in the network The implementation of the proposed technique is performed by using NS-235 simulation tools The results of the suggested technique in terms of Throughput, End-to-End Delay, and Packet Delivery Ratio are very close to the native AODV without black holes

71 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The main aim of the paper is to discuss about the routing based on link stability and to increase the coverage area of the cluster to improve the mobility characteristics and the energy efficiency of the VANET.
Abstract: In recent years to improve the conventional vehicular ad-hoc network performance an intelligent incorporated vehicle are introduced. Designing of prediction based multi-hop clustering approach for VANET is a major challenge due to the dynamic change of network and link capacity. Several earlier proposed models do not consider the mobility characteristics, the dynamic topology and the limited driving direction of VANET and they do not consider the energy problems. The main aim of the paper is to discuss about the routing based on link stability and to increase the coverage area of the cluster to improve the mobility characteristics and the energy efficiency of the VANET. The summarized studies about both the category are discussed in order to improve the link stability, energy efficiency, network lifetime, data aggregation, Quality of service, load balancing and multipath. A systematic comprehensive survey has been conducted for link stability and energy efficient clustering based routing protocols reported from 2012 to 2018. By the help of the survey, a technical direction is provided to the researchers about the pros and cons of the earlier studies. To fulfil the research gap, a novel methodology is introduced which is the prediction based efficient multi-hop clustering approach with adaptive relay node selection for VANET. The model consists of four layers. They are multi-hop clustering algorithm, prediction based clustering approach, adaptive link selection method and improved routing protocol. 

35 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The framework, challenges and trends of Smart city IoT, use case for the smart street highlights the importance of proposed structure, and Smart City projects are discussed to recognize the importanceof IoT in smart cities and its future are identified.

33 citations