Other affiliations: University of Southern Denmark, University of Eastern Piedmont, Harvard University
Bio: Sara Cabodi is an academic researcher from University of Turin. The author has contributed to research in topics: Proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase Src & Signal transduction. The author has an hindex of 25, co-authored 52 publications receiving 3203 citations. Previous affiliations of Sara Cabodi include University of Southern Denmark & University of Eastern Piedmont.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: Data indicate that integrin-mediated adhesion induces assembly of a macromolecular complex containing c-Src and p130Cas and leads to phosphorylation of specific EGF receptor tyrosine residues.
Abstract: Integrin-mediated cell adhesion cooperates with growth factor receptors in the control of cell proliferation, cell survival, and cell migration. One mechanism to explain these synergistic effects is the ability of integrins to induce phosphorylation of growth factor receptors, for instance the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor. Here we define some aspects of the molecular mechanisms regulating integrin-dependent EGF receptor phosphorylation. We show that in the early phases of cell adhesion integrins associate with EGF receptors on the cell membrane in a macromolecular complex including the adaptor protein p130Cas and the c-Src kinase, the latter being required for adhesion-dependent assembly of the macromolecular complex. We also show that the integrin cytoplasmic tail, c-Src kinase, and the p130Cas adaptor protein are required for phosphorylation of EGF receptor in response to integrin-mediated adhesion. We show that integrins induce phosphorylation of EGF receptor on tyrosine residues 845, 1068, 1086, and 1173, but not on residue 1148, a major site of phosphorylation in response to EGF. In addition we find that integrin-mediated adhesion increases the amount of EGF receptor expressed on the cell surface. Therefore these data indicate that integrin-mediated adhesion induces assembly of a macromolecular complex containing c-Src and p130Cas and leads to phosphorylation of specific EGF receptor tyrosine residues.
TL;DR: Recent developments that highlight a fundamental role in cell transformation and microbial pathogenesis and the implications of these developments on p130Cas function under normal and pathological conditions are discussed.
Abstract: The Cas family of multiadaptor and scaffold molecules has an essential role in intracellular signaling events. Although these proteins do not have enzymatic or transcriptional activity, they spatially and temporally control signaling events through their ability to undergo changes in phosphorylation and to associate with effectors proteins in multimolecular complexes. The involvement of p130Cas in cell motility as a component of the integrin signaling machinery is well established. Here, we discuss recent developments that highlight a fundamental role in cell transformation and microbial pathogenesis and the implications of these developments on p130Cas function under normal and pathological conditions.
TL;DR: In this paper, the relevance of adaptor proteins in signalling that originates from integrin-mediated cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) adhesion and growth factor stimulation in the context of cell transformation and tumour progression is discussed.
Abstract: Current evidence highlights the ability of adaptor (or scaffold) proteins to create signalling platforms that drive cellular transformation upon integrin-dependent adhesion and growth factor receptor activation. The understanding of the biological effects that are regulated by these adaptors in tumours might be crucial for the identification of new targets and the development of innovative therapeutic strategies for human cancer. In this Review we discuss the relevance of adaptor proteins in signalling that originates from integrin-mediated cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) adhesion and growth factor stimulation in the context of cell transformation and tumour progression. We specifically underline the contribution of p130 Crk-associated substrate (p130CAS; also known as BCAR1), neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally down-regulated 9 (NEDD9; also known as HEF1), CRK and the integrin-linked kinase (ILK)-pinch-parvin (IPP) complex to cancer, along with the more recently identified p140 Cas-associated protein (p140CAP; also known as SRCIN1).
01 Jan 2010
TL;DR: The contribution of p130 Crk-associated substrate, neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally down-regulated 9, CRK and the integrin-linked kinase (ILK)–pinch–parvin (IPP) complex to cancer, along with the more recently identified p140 Cas-associated protein are highlighted.
TL;DR: In differentiating keratinocytes tyrosine phosphorylation plays a positive role in control of cell adhesion, and this regulatory function appears to be important both in vitro and in vivo.
Abstract: In their progression from the basal to upper differentiated layers of the epidermis, keratinocytes undergo significant structural changes, including establishment of close intercellular contacts. An important but so far unexplored question is how these early structural events are related to the biochemical pathways that trigger differentiation. We show here that β-catenin, γ-catenin/plakoglobin, and p120-Cas are all significantly tyrosine phosphorylated in primary mouse keratinocytes induced to differentiate by calcium, with a time course similar to that of cell junction formation. Together with these changes, there is an increased association of α-catenin and p120-Cas with E-cadherin, which is prevented by tyrosine kinase inhibition. Treatment of E-cadherin complexes with tyrosine-specific phosphatase reveals that the strength of α-catenin association is directly dependent on tyrosine phosphorylation. In parallel with the biochemical effects, tyrosine kinase inhibition suppresses formation of cell adhesive structures, and causes a significant reduction in adhesive strength of differentiating keratinocytes. The Fyn tyrosine kinase colocalizes with E-cadherin at the cell membrane in calcium-treated keratinocytes. Consistent with an involvement of this kinase, fyn-deficient keratinocytes have strongly decreased tyrosine phosphorylation levels of β- and γ-catenins and p120-Cas, and structural and functional abnormalities in cell adhesion similar to those caused by tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Whereas skin of fyn−/− mice appears normal, skin of mice with a disruption in both the fyn and src genes shows intrinsically reduced tyrosine phosphorylation of β-catenin, strongly decreased p120-Cas levels, and important structural changes consistent with impaired keratinocyte cell adhesion. Thus, unlike what has been proposed for oncogene-transformed or mitogenically stimulated cells, in differentiating keratinocytes tyrosine phosphorylation plays a positive role in control of cell adhesion, and this regulatory function appears to be important both in vitro and in vivo.
TL;DR: Reduction of lysyl oxidase-mediated collagen crosslinking prevented MMTV-Neu-induced fibrosis, decreased focal adhesions and PI3K activity, impeded malignancy, and lowered tumor incidence, and data show how collagenCrosslinking can modulate tissue fibrosis and stiffness to force focal adhesion, growth factor signaling and breast malignancies.
Abstract: Tumors are characterized by extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling and stiffening. The importance of ECM remodeling to cancer is appreciated; the relevance of stiffening is less clear. We found that breast tumorigenesis is accompanied by collagen crosslinking, ECM stiffening, and increased focal adhesions. Induction of collagen crosslinking stiffened the ECM, promoted focal adhesions, enhanced PI3 kinase (PI3K) activity, and induced the invasion of an oncogene-initiated epithelium. Inhibition of integrin signaling repressed the invasion of a premalignant epithelium into a stiffened, crosslinked ECM and forced integrin clustering promoted focal adhesions, enhanced PI3K signaling, and induced the invasion of a premalignant epithelium. Consistently, reduction of lysyl oxidase-mediated collagen crosslinking prevented MMTV-Neu-induced fibrosis, decreased focal adhesions and PI3K activity, impeded malignancy, and lowered tumor incidence. These data show how collagen crosslinking can modulate tissue fibrosis and stiffness to force focal adhesions, growth factor signaling and breast malignancy.
TL;DR: Clinical developments emphasize the need to identify how integrin antagonists influence the tumour and its microenvironment.
Abstract: The integrin family of cell adhesion receptors regulates a diverse array of cellular functions crucial to the initiation, progression and metastasis of solid tumours. The importance of integrins in several cell types that affect tumour progression has made them an appealing target for cancer therapy. Integrin antagonists, including the alphavbeta3 and alphavbeta5 inhibitor cilengitide, have shown encouraging activity in Phase II clinical trials and cilengitide is currently being tested in a Phase III trial in patients with glioblastoma. These exciting clinical developments emphasize the need to identify how integrin antagonists influence the tumour and its microenvironment.
TL;DR: The most fascinating aspect of Trk receptor-mediated signaling is its interplay with signaling promoted by the pan-neurotrophin receptor p75NTR, which activates a distinct set of signaling pathways within cells that are in some instances synergistic and in other instances antagonistic to those activated by Trk receptors.
Abstract: Trk receptors are a family of three receptor tyrosine kinases, each of which can be activated by one or more of four neurotrophins-nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and neurotrophins 3 and 4 (NT3 and NT4). Neurotrophin signaling through these receptors regulates cell survival, proliferation, the fate of neural precursors, axon and dendrite growth and patterning, and the expression and activity of functionally important proteins, such as ion channels and neurotransmitter receptors. In the adult nervous system, the Trk receptors regulate synaptic strength and plasticity. The cytoplasmic domains of Trk receptors contain several sites of tyrosine phosphorylation that recruit intermediates in intracellular signaling cascades. As a result, Trk receptor signaling activates several small G proteins, including Ras, Rap-1, and the Cdc-42-Rac-Rho family, as well as pathways regulated by MAP kinase, PI 3-kinase and phospholipase-C-gamma (PLC-gamma). Trk receptor activation has different consequences in different cells, and the specificity of downstream Trk receptor-mediated signaling is controlled through expression of intermediates in these signaling pathways and membrane trafficking that regulates localization of different signaling constituents. Perhaps the most fascinating aspect of Trk receptor-mediated signaling is its interplay with signaling promoted by the pan-neurotrophin receptor p75NTR. p75NTR activates a distinct set of signaling pathways within cells that are in some instances synergistic and in other instances antagonistic to those activated by Trk receptors. Several of these are proapoptotic but are suppressed by Trk receptor-initiated signaling. p75NTR also influences the conformations of Trk receptors; this modifies ligand-binding specificity and affinity with important developmental consequences.
TL;DR: Adhesion formation and disassembly drive the migration cycle by activating Rho GTPases, which in turn regulate actin polymerization and myosin II activity, and therefore adhesion dynamics.
Abstract: Cell migration affects all morphogenetic processes and contributes to numerous diseases, including cancer and cardiovascular disease. For most cells in most environments, movement begins with protrusion of the cell membrane followed by the formation of new adhesions at the cell front that link the actin cytoskeleton to the substratum, generation of traction forces that move the cell forwards and disassembly of adhesions at the cell rear. Adhesion formation and disassembly drive the migration cycle by activating Rho GTPases, which in turn regulate actin polymerization and myosin II activity, and therefore adhesion dynamics.
TL;DR: The changing force that cells experience needs to be considered when trying to understand the complex nature of tumorigenesis.
Abstract: Cells within tissues are continuously exposed to physical forces including hydrostatic pressure, shear stress, and compression and tension forces. Cells dynamically adapt to force by modifying their behaviour and remodelling their microenvironment. They also sense these forces through mechanoreceptors and respond by exerting reciprocal actomyosin- and cytoskeletal-dependent cell-generated force by a process termed 'mechanoreciprocity'. Loss of mechanoreciprocity has been shown to promote the progression of disease, including cancer. Moreover, the mechanical properties of a tissue contribute to disease progression, compromise treatment and might also alter cancer risk. Thus, the changing force that cells experience needs to be considered when trying to understand the complex nature of tumorigenesis.