Sara Jerop Ruto
Bio: Sara Jerop Ruto is an academic researcher. The author has contributed to research in topic(s): Primary education & Formal system. The author has an hindex of 1, co-authored 1 publication(s) receiving 16 citation(s).
Topics: Primary education, Formal system, Basic education, Curriculum
01 Jan 2004
TL;DR: In this article, the authors investigate how alternative learning approaches such as NFS contribute to the provision of basic education in Kenya and propose a more comprehensive educational plan that would accommodate vulnerable children and their quest for formal education.
Abstract: The drive to access basic education to school aged children, has preoccupied successive governments in independent Kenya. This has been evidenced by a series of activities aimed at boosting school enrolment and learning ranging from heavy allocation of the national budget to education, currently standing at 6.3% of the GDP, to the current implementation of the free primary education policy. Yet despite all this effort attaining EFA has remained illusive. So while primary school enrolment in 2003 rose from 5.8 to 7.1 million, it is estimated that there are still 2 million non-enrolled children. It is this reality of OOS children, that has over the years prompted a number of individuals or organizations, operating outside the formal system to initiate endeavours offering formal education. From individual cases in the 1980s, these initiatives multiplied in the 1990s and came to be formally recognised a Non Formal Schools (NFS). Policy documents exalted their role in reaching specific populations of excluded children and hence achieving EFA. However, no detailed study had been conducted on NFS in terms of their numbers, education provisions, to whom they are offered, how they are offered, their viability of replication and their overall place in the primary school education plan in the country. The task of this study was therefore to investigate how alternative learning approaches, such as NFS contribute to the provision of basic education in Kenya. This was done by examining the characteristics of NFS with respect to school orientation and classroom culture and how this enhances the attainment of basic education skills. Specifically, the study sought to (a) identify and analyse NFS according to school category and functions (b) understand their learning processes and factors impacting on them and (c) thereafter posit the contributions NFS are making towards enhancing the provision of basic education in Kenya. The study designed to answer the above objectives adopted an interactive research design comprising the quantitative and qualitative paradigms. First an institutional mapping survey comprising 30 institutions was conducted. Thereafter 8 cases were selected for detailed study. Additionally a desk review of NFE approaches targeting school aged children in selected countries was undertaken. The selection of the sites was informed by the fact that NFS are visible from a geographic point of view as they are mainly to be found in rural-remote districts and urban poor areas. Hence NFS in Samburu and Marsabit to represent Rural and Kisumu and Nairobi too represent Urban were studied. The data collection and analysis procedures were guided by the “nine building blocks of education” framework suggested by Anderson (1992) who suggests that optimum outcomes in education are the result of effective interaction among the 9 blocks viz. the learners, teachers, time, place, curriculum, pedagogy, community participation, administration and finances. The work is also presented along these nine blocks. On the whole, the study reveals that there has been an overly romanticism of the role of “alternative provisions”. NFS are ascribed a big role without accompanying changes in policy and financing and without a full examination of its ability to provide an equitable learning experience. The schools are envisioned to augment the countries basic education plan and yet they have not been properly empowered to do so. Government documents depict a lack of clarity of the place of NFS in the overall basic education plan. For instance, they are quoted to be complementary institutions but the findings suggest that the majority of NFS, especially in urban are parallel institutions, competing against formal education rather than complementing it and operating in a vague and uncoordinated linkage with formal institutions (e.g. primary schools, examination council) offering basic education. The wording “non” has been used to justify difference which unfortunately has taken the shape of “just teaching” questionable content using equally questionably pedagogical skills. It is evident that NFS needs streamlining and this study makes suggestions on a more comprehensive educational plan that would accommodate vulnerable children and their quest for formal education. In this sense, this work belongs to the broader theme of school reform.
12 Jul 2016-Comparative Education
TL;DR: This paper examined the role of English and local languages in current education practice in the 21 countries of UNICEF's Eastern and Southern Africa Region and concluded that English is not the villain in this context.
Abstract: In 2014, UNICEF commissioned a review of language policy and education quality in the 21 countries of UNICEF’s Eastern and Southern Africa Region. This paper examines findings from the review, related to the role of English and local languages in current education practice in the region. National language policies and implementation practices are examined, as is the mismatch between the two. The evident widespread use of English as the language of instruction in primary classrooms of Eastern and Southern Africa, even where the pupils do not speak English, generates two central questions: (1) Is English really the villain in this context? And (2) Why do teachers and pupils in these classrooms have to choose one language or another as medium of instruction?
01 Jan 2016
01 Jan 2008
12 Dec 2005
TL;DR: In this paper, a study examines reading habits of Kikuyu speakers in Nyeri District (Central Kenya) and Luo speakers in Kisumu District (West Kenya) from a reader-oriented perspective.
Abstract: This study examines reading habits of Kikuyu speakers in Nyeri District (Central Kenya) and Luo speakers in Kisumu District (West Kenya) It applies the uses and gratifications approach and describes reading habits from a reader-oriented perspective Four aspects of reading are highlighted: i) the social image of reading, ii) factors which impact on reading, iii) reading habits and functions of reading, iv) the language use in reading Based on observations, interviews and survey data the author shows that the majority of readers have a positive attitude towards reading, which is associated with education and knowledge Different types of readers and factors impacting on reading are described The study shows that the major break in the development of reading habits coincides with leaving school Reading decreases due to lack of access to reading material Furthermore, it is shown, that English (the official language of the country) is the dominant language of reading Informants able to read English judge their reading proficiency higher and they indicate to read more often than informants who do not speak English but Swahili (the official and national language) and other African languages The latter lack access to adequate reading material The author concludes with the recommendation to enhance access to reading material in African languages in order to promote the development of reading habits Die Dissertation untersucht das freiwillige Buch-, Zeitschriften- und Zeitungslesen von Kikuyusprechern im Distrikt Nyeri (Zentralkenia) und Luosprechern im Distrikt Kisumu (Westkenia) Mit der Perspektive des Nutzen- und Belohnungsansatzes der Medien- und Kommunikationswissenschaft stellt sie den Mediennutzer in den Mittelpunkt und untersucht vier Aspekte des Lesens: i) das soziale Image des Lesens, ii) Faktoren, die auf das Lesen einwirken, iii) gegenwartige Lesegewohnheiten und Funktionen des Lesens und iv) den Sprachgebrauch beim Lesen im mehrsprachigen Kontext Kenias Auf der Grundlage von Beobachtungen, Interviews und Fragebogenumfragen zeigt die Autorin, dass die Mehrheit der Befragten eine positive Haltung gegenuber dem Lesen hat, das mit Bildung und Wissenserweiterung in Verbindung gebracht wird Faktoren, die trotz des positiven Images des Lesens die Leseaktivitat einschranken, werden anhand von verschiedenen Lesertypen beschrieben Es wird gezeigt, dass der groste Bruch in der Leseentwicklung mit dem Austritt aus der Schule zusammenfallt und auf den erschwerten Zugang zu Lesematerialien in auserschulischen Kontexten zuruckgeht Hinsichtlich der Rolle der Sprachen im Leseprozess, zeigt die Studie, dass Englisch (offizielle Sprache des Landes) die dominante Lesesprache ist Informanten, die Englisch lesen konnen, bewerten ihre Lesefahigkeit besser und geben eine hohere Lesefrequenz an als Informanten, die nicht in Englisch, sondern in einer afrikanischen Erstsprache oder Swahili (offizielle und Nationalsprache) lesen Letzteren ist der Zugang zu der Mehrzahl von Publikationen versperrt, die in Kenia in Englisch erscheinen Die Autorin schliest mit den Empfehlungen nicht nur die Zugangsproblematik (dh den physischen Zugang zu Lesematerialien) in auserschulischen Kontexten zu verbessern, sondern auch den Gebrauch der afrikanischen Sprachen im Bildungssystem und bei der Produktion von Lesematerialien zu berucksichtigen, um der Mehrheit der Bevolkerung den Zugang zu Buchern, Zeitschriften und Zeitungen und die Ausbildung von Lesegewohnheiten zu ermoglichen
01 Jan 2016
TL;DR: It is concluded that environmental clubs are important tools for environmental awareness creation since they offer interactive teaching pedagogies that enhance active teaching and learning of environmental education concepts obtained from class.
Abstract: Environmental awareness is one of the goals of environmental education. Insufficient environmental awareness aggravates the problem of environmental degradation. Environmental clubs in primary schools are voluntary groups that promote participation of learners in learning about and working towards conservation and sustainability of the environment. The study on influence of environmental clubs on environmental awareness of pupils was carried out in Mbeere South Sub-County, Embu County. The study investigated environmental knowledge, environmental attitude and taking action for environmental protection as components of environmental awareness. The study objectives were to establish whether environmental clubs members possessed different environmental knowledge, environmental attitudes and taking action for environmental protection when compared to non-environmental club members. Data were collected from a sample of 250 randomly selected respondents by use of questionnaires. The club patrons were interviewed to give information about how the clubs were organised and the activities learners engaged in their respective schools. The data collected were presented in form of tables and graphs. It was analysed using percentages, t-test and Chi-square. On club affiliation and environmental knowledge difference, the study found a t-value of 3.66 which was higher than t-value at p≥0.05. The study concluded that club members and non-club members had different environmental knowledge abilities. On gender affiliation and environmental knowledge, the t-value obtained was 0.07219 which was below the t-value at p≥0.05. The study concluded that gender had no influence on environmental knowledge of respondents. Respondents were exposed to attitudinal questions which were analysed using Chi-square. The chi-square values obtained were 18.452, 8.755, 8.838, 87.718 and 55.517. More than half of the chi-square values obtained were above 9.488, the chi-square value at p≥0.05. The study concluded that participating in environmental clubs had influence on environmental attitudes of the respondents. The chi-square results obtained when respondents were categorised by gender were 0.071, 10.542, 3.197, 4.125 and 9.077of which four values obtained were below Chi-square value at p≥0.05. The study concluded that gender had no influence on environmental attitude of respondents. Club affiliation was analysed against taking action for environmental protection and the percentages obtained for club members against nonclub members respectively were; 63% against 37%, 56 % against 44%, 52% against 48% and 55% against 45% on the four areas tested. Club members had a higher participation than non-club members. On gender and participation the percentages obtained for boys against girls were; 35% against 65%, 39% against 61%, 37% against 63%, and 53% against 47% leading to a conclusion that girls participated in activities geared towards environmental protection more than boys in the study area. The study concluded that environmental clubs are important tools for environmental awareness creation since they offer interactive teaching pedagogies that enhance active teaching and learning of environmental education concepts obtained from class. The study recommends that environmental education be taught both theoretically in class and practically in the field. This will elevate learners‟ role as informed decision-makers and action-takers in an effort to improve environmental awareness and thereby reducing environmental degradation.