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Sara Rosenblum

Other affiliations: Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Bio: Sara Rosenblum is an academic researcher from University of Haifa. The author has contributed to research in topics: Handwriting & Psychology. The author has an hindex of 32, co-authored 121 publications receiving 3201 citations. Previous affiliations of Sara Rosenblum include Hebrew University of Jerusalem.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: These international clinical practice recommendations (CPR) for developmental coordination disorder (DCD) aim to address key questions on the definition, diagnosis, assessment, intervention, and psychosocial aspects of DCD relevant for clinical practice.
Abstract: Aim: These international clinical practice recommendations (CPR) for developmental coordination disorder (DCD), initiated by the European Academy of Childhood Disability (EACD), aim to address key questions on the definition, diagnosis, assessment, intervention, and psychosocial aspects of DCD relevant for clinical practice. Method: Key questions in five areas were considered through literature reviews and formal expert consensus. For recommendations based on evidence, literature searches on ‘mechanisms’, ‘assessment’, and ‘intervention’ were updated since the last recommendations in 2012. New searches were conducted for ‘psychosocial issues’ and ‘adolescents/adults’. Evidence was rated according to the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine (level of evidence [LOE] 1–4) and transferred into recommendations. For recommendations based on formal consensus, two meetings of an international, multidisciplinary expert panel were conducted with a further five Delphi rounds to develop good clinical practice (GCP) recommendations. Results: Thirty-five recommendations were made. Eight were based on the evidence from literature reviews (three on ‘assessment’, five on ‘intervention’). Twenty-two were updated from the 2012 recommendations. New recommendations relate to diagnosis and assessment (two GCPs) and psychosocial issues (three GCPs). Additionally, one new recommendation (LOE) reflects active video games as adjuncts to more traditional activity-oriented and participation-oriented interventions, and two new recommendations (one GCP, one LOE) were made for adolescents and adults with DCD. Interpretation: The CPR–DCD is a comprehensive overview of DCD and current understanding based on research evidence and expert consensus. It reflects the state of the art for clinicians and scientists of varied disciplines. The international CPR–DCD may serve as a basis for national guidelines. What this paper adds: Updated international clinical practice guidelines on developmental coordination disorder (DCD). Refined and extended recommendations on clinical assessment and intervention for DCD. A critical synopsis of current research on mechanisms of DCD. A critical synopsis of psychosocial issues in DCD, with implications for clinical practice. The first international recommendations to consider adolescents and adults with DCD.

356 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Future directions in handwriting evaluation that combine the assessment of the handwriting product with computerized analysis of the handwritten process are outlined.
Abstract: Handwriting is a complex human activity that entails an intricate blend of cognitive, kinesthetic, and perceptual-motor components. Children are expected to acquire a level of handwriting proficiency that enables them to make skillful use of handwriting as a tool to carry out their work at school. Poor handwriters have difficulty developing their writing skills and, as a result, often suffer in their educational and emotional development. This article highlights the importance of handwriting and reviews the development of methods used to evaluate handwriting difficulties. Included also is a discussion of methodological aspects of current handwriting evaluations and a presentation of research on the use of a computerized system that may be helpful in better understanding the handwriting process of poor writers. The article concludes by outlining future directions in handwriting evaluation that combine the assessment of the handwriting product with computerized analysis of the handwriting process.

210 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Two simple short and routine writing tasks which differentiate PD patients from healthy controls are identified and have future potential as cost-effective, fast and reliable biomarkers for PD.
Abstract: To date, clinical assessment remains the gold standard in the diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease (PD). We sought to identify simple characteristics of handwriting which could accurately differentiate PD patients from healthy controls. Twenty PD patients and 20 matched controls wrote their name and copied an address on a paper affixed to a digitizer. Mean pressure and mean velocity was measured for the entire task and the spatial and temporal characteristics were measured for each stroke. Results of the MANOVAs for the temporal, spatial, and pressure measures (stroke length, width, and height; mean pressure; mean time per stroke; mean velocity), for both the name writing and address copying tasks, showed significant group effects (F(6,32) = 6.72, p < 0.001; F(6,31) = 14.77, p < 0.001, respectively). A discriminant analysis was performed for the two tasks. One discriminant function was found for the group classification of all participants (Wilks’ Lambda = 0.305, p < 0.001). Based on this function, 97.5 % of participants were correctly classified (100 % of the controls and 95 % of PD patients). A Kappa value of 0.947 (p < 0.001) was calculated, demonstrating that the group classification did not occur by chance. In this pilot study we identified two simple short and routine writing tasks which differentiate PD patients from healthy controls. These writing tasks have future potential as cost-effective, fast and reliable biomarkers for PD.

166 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An evaluation of both handwriting process and product characteristics among children with DCD provides a more comprehensive picture of their deficits, and may enable practitioners to focus on children's main deficits and to tailor intervention methods so as to prevent academic underachievement and its consequences on their emotional well-being.

155 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The use of a computerized handwriting system provides objective temporal measures of handwriting performance, and may lead to the development of additional tools for the evaluation and treatment of handwriting difficulties.
Abstract: Objectives The purpose of this study was to use computerized temporal measures to examine and compare the writing process of proficient and non-proficient third-grade handwriters. Method A computerized digitizer system was used to compare the temporal handwriting measures of two groups of 8--9-year-old students. Classroom teachers used a questionnaire to identify 50 students who were non-proficient handwriters and 50 students who were proficient handwriters. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) analyses were used to test for the group differences across tasks for each dependent variable. Total time, "on paper" time, "in air" time, speed, and number of characters per minute were recorded as the participants performed graded writing tasks. Results Non-proficient handwriters required significantly more time to perform handwriting tasks [F(4,91) = 14.83, p < .0001]; their "in air" time, was especially longer as compared to the proficient handwriters [F(4,91) = 13.63, p < .0001]. Their handwriting speed was slower [F(4,91) = 5.99, p < .0002], and they wrote fewer characters per minute (F(4,91) = 14.63, p < .0001). Conclusion The use of a computerized handwriting system provides objective temporal measures of handwriting performance, and may lead to the development of additional tools for the evaluation and treatment of handwriting difficulties.

154 citations


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Journal Article
TL;DR: The International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society (MDS) Clinical Diagnostic Criteria for Parkinson9s disease as discussed by the authors have been proposed for clinical diagnosis, which are intended for use in clinical research, but may also be used to guide clinical diagnosis.
Abstract: Objective To present the International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society (MDS) Clinical Diagnostic Criteria for Parkinson9s disease. Background Although several diagnostic criteria for Parkinson9s disease have been proposed, none have been officially adopted by an official Parkinson society. Moreover, the commonest-used criteria, the UK brain bank, were created more than 25 years ago. In recognition of the lack of standard criteria, the MDS initiated a task force to design new diagnostic criteria for clinical Parkinson9s disease. Methods/Results The MDS-PD Criteria are intended for use in clinical research, but may also be used to guide clinical diagnosis. The benchmark is expert clinical diagnosis; the criteria aim to systematize the diagnostic process, to make it reproducible across centers and applicable by clinicians with less expertise. Although motor abnormalities remain central, there is increasing recognition of non-motor manifestations; these are incorporated into both the current criteria and particularly into separate criteria for prodromal PD. Similar to previous criteria, the MDS-PD Criteria retain motor parkinsonism as the core disease feature, defined as bradykinesia plus rest tremor and/or rigidity. Explicit instructions for defining these cardinal features are included. After documentation of parkinsonism, determination of PD as the cause of parkinsonism relies upon three categories of diagnostic features; absolute exclusion criteria (which rule out PD), red flags (which must be counterbalanced by additional supportive criteria to allow diagnosis of PD), and supportive criteria (positive features that increase confidence of PD diagnosis). Two levels of certainty are delineated: Clinically-established PD (maximizing specificity at the expense of reduced sensitivity), and Probable PD (which balances sensitivity and specificity). Conclusion The MDS criteria retain elements proven valuable in previous criteria and omit aspects that are no longer justified, thereby encapsulating diagnosis according to current knowledge. As understanding of PD expands, criteria will need continuous revision to accommodate these advances. Disclosure: Dr. Postuma has received personal compensation for activities with Roche Diagnostics Corporation and Biotie Therapies. Dr. Berg has received research support from Michael J. Fox Foundation, the Bundesministerium fur Bildung und Forschung (BMBF), the German Parkinson Association and Novartis GmbH.

1,655 citations

Journal Article
TL;DR: Overweight or obese children who were obese as adults had increased risks of type 2 diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and carotid-artery atherosclerosis.
Abstract: BACKGROUND Obesity in childhood is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. It is uncertain whether this risk is attenuated in persons who are overweight or obese as children but not obese as adults. METHODS We analyzed data from four prospective cohort studies that measured childhood and adult body-mass index (BMI, the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters). The mean length of follow-up was 23 years. To define high adiposity status, international age-specific and sex-specific BMI cutoff points for overweight and obesity were used for children, and a BMI cutoff point of 30 was used for adults. RESULTS Data were available for 6328 subjects. Subjects with consistently high adiposity status from childhood to adulthood, as compared with persons who had a normal BMI as children and were nonobese as adults, had an increased risk of type 2 diabetes (relative risk, 5.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.4 to 8.5), hypertension (relative risk, 2.7; 95% CI, 2.2 to 3.3), elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (relative risk, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.4 to 2.3), reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (relative risk, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.8 to 2.5), elevated triglyceride levels (relative risk, 3.0; 95% CI, 2.4 to 3.8), and carotid-artery atherosclerosis (increased intima-media thickness of the carotid artery) (relative risk, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.4 to 2.2) (P ≤ 0.002 for all comparisons). Persons who were overweight or obese during childhood but were nonobese as adults had risks of the outcomes that were similar to those of persons who had a normal BMI consistently from childhood to adulthood (P>0.20 for all comparisons). CONCLUSIONS Overweight or obese children who were obese as adults had increased risks of type 2 diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and carotid-artery atherosclerosis. The risks of these outcomes among overweight or obese children who became nonobese by adulthood were similar to those among persons who were never obese. (Funded by the Academy of Finland and others.).

984 citations

28 Sep 2011
TL;DR: These resources are focused on qualitative research methods and are particularly intended for those who are learning at and from work and support a University of Plymouth module, which can contribute to the University's Continual Professional Development (CPD) framework as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: These resources are focused on qualitative research methods. They are particularly intended for those who are learning at and from workand support a University of Plymouth module, which can contribute to the University's Continual Professional Development (CPD) framework. Through this framework learners can achieve a Bachelors in Professional Developments or a Masters in Professional Development. Within the University's CPD programme the resources will be introduced and used by a tutor who will support and facilitate student learning through use of the resources. This will be in the form of blended learning; a mixture of face to face and use of these on-line resources. Information in this document and the tutor notes included within the PowerPoint presentations are intended to support the wider use and reuse of these Open Educational Resources.

886 citations