Other affiliations: Oxford Brookes University
Bio: Sarah Snow is an academic researcher from University of Worcester. The author has contributed to research in topics: Interpretative phenomenological analysis & Food group. The author has an hindex of 5, co-authored 9 publications receiving 94 citations. Previous affiliations of Sarah Snow include Oxford Brookes University.
TL;DR: It is suggested that friendships made at antenatal classes are not only unique but also support women’s mental health and enhance self-efficacy because the women give and gain reassurance that their babies are developing normally.
Abstract: This study explored how friendships made at antenatal classes preserve new mothers' well-being, postnatally. Eight women from the United Kingdom who had attended antenatal classes in the third trimester were interviewed following the birth of their first baby. Transcripts were analyzed using a constant comparative method. Findings suggest that friendships made at antenatal classes are not only unique but also support women's mental health and enhance self-efficacy because the women give and gain reassurance that their babies are developing normally. Such friendships may reduce demands on overstretched social and health-care services. Childbirth educators, midwives, and nurses can be encouraged to capitalize on the opportunity provided by antenatal classes to facilitate the formation of friendships that can help mothers to find “a new equilibrium.“
TL;DR: The application of phenomenology within midwifery research is intellectually challenging and theoretically complex, yet ultimately rewarding as discussed by the authors, and the potential offered by phenomenology towards a better understanding of women's experiences.
Abstract: The application of phenomenology within midwifery research is intellectually challenging and theoretically complex, yet ultimately rewarding. In this first article of two the attempt to think phenomenologically set against the background of a Master's research methodology and study findings is explored. A discussion of the origins and unique challenges presented by phenomenology is offered. The article aims to encourage debate about the potential offered by phenomenology towards a better understanding of women's experiences.
TL;DR: Within this Austrian sample, the prevalence rate of postpartum depression was high; while the consumption of oily fish and vegetarian diets negatively correlated with depression, Patient information positively correlated with the Consumption of fish oil supplements.
Abstract: Aim : In this retrospective survey women with and without self-reported postpartum depression (PPD) were compared in regards to consumption-frequency of foods and supplements rich in nutrients beneficial to nervous system (NS) health, in regards to consumption-frequency of compounds which may counteract the effect of the above and in regards to nutritional support provided to them during a pregnancy between 2003 and 2008. Background : Postpartum depression (PPD) is defined as a major depressive episode that begins within 1 month of delivery and is experienced by roughly 13% of mothers. Patients and methods : Four Hundred participants were recruited through the internet. Data gathered via multiple choice questionnaires was statistically analyzed using SPSS and Statistical software; statistical procedures included discriminant analysis, Pearson's product moment correlation, independent t-test and cross-tabulations. Results : Out of 400 participants 83 (20.8%) were affected by self-reported depression after a pregnancy between 2003 and 2008. Depressed subjects consumed oily fish and offal significantly more often than non depressed subjects. Depression was more prevalent among women with vegetarian diets. No significant difference concerning food group intake or the ratios between foods rich in nutrients beneficial to NS health and foods rich in compounds antagonising their effect were found between depressed and non depressed subjects. Iron supplementation correlated positively with zinc supplementation in both groups. Roughly 70% of women reported to have received no information about n-3 fatty acid fish oils during pregnancy; informed subjects consumed fish oils more often. The majority of subjects with self-reported depression described nutritional support during pregnancy as inadequate. Conclusion : Within this Austrian sample, the prevalence rate of postpartum depression was high; while the consumption of oily fish and vegetarian diets negatively correlated with depression, Patient information positively correlated with the consumption of fish oil supplements. These results indicate that further studies will be required in order to establish the exact relationship between nutrition and mental health during and after pregnancy.
TL;DR: Focusing on the present moment enabled participants better to identify the boundary between self and other, which led to an increased sense of control and a reconnection with and reframing of relationships with colleagues and the women in their care.
Abstract: Objective To ascertain how midwives perceived attending a mindfulness course impacted on their professional practice, particularly in regard to any stress they experienced at work. Design A qualitative study using Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with nine midwives. Setting A large maternity Trust in the United Kingdom. Intervention An eight-week mindfulness course, adapted from mindfulness-based cognitive therapy. Findings Four superordinate themes were identified as follows: "being challenged and committing," "containing the self," "reconnecting" and "moving forward with confidence." Focusing on the present moment enabled participants better to identify the boundary between self and other. This led to an increased sense of control and a reconnection with and reframing of relationships with colleagues and the women in their care. Key conclusions Mindfulness may provide an effective way to address the high levels of stress, role dissatisfaction and workplace bullying found in midwifery, by improving both the working environment and patient care. The pivotal role of positive workplace relationships in this process resonates with other nursing research and with contemporary philosophical thought. Relevance to clinical practice This study adds to a body of evidence which suggests investing in the well-being of midwifery staff improves both job satisfaction and women's experiences of care.
TL;DR: Findings from research examining women's experiences of midwifery students' care during labour and birth are critically explored to determine students' contribution to women's care and implications for midWifery practice.
Abstract: 2nd in 2-part series on the application of phenomenology to midwifery research, focusing on findings from research examining women's experiences of midwifery students' care during labour and birth. The results are critically explored to determine students' contribution to women's care and implications for midwifery practice.
••27 Apr 2013
TL;DR: This research used ethnographic methods to investigate whether technology plays a role in supporting new mothers and identified two core themes: the need to improve confidence as a mother and the need for more than 'just' a mother.
Abstract: New mothers can experience social exclusion, particularly during the early weeks when infants are solely dependent on their mothers. We used ethnographic methods to investigate whether technology plays a role in supporting new mothers. Our research identified two core themes: (1) the need to improve confidence as a mother; and (2) the need to be more than \'18just' a mother. We reflect on these findings both in terms of those interested in designing applications and services for motherhood and also the wider CHI community.
TL;DR: A design of pregestational nutrition intervention is required in order to avoid maternal undernutrition and consequent impaired fetal growth and possible unfavorable outcomes related to micronutrients deficiencies and their impact on fetal development.
Abstract: Vegetarian and vegan diets have increased worldwide in the last decades, according to the knowledge that they might prevent coronary heart disease, cancer, and type 2 diabetes. Althought plant-based diets are at risk of nutritional deficiencies such as proteins, iron, vitamin D, calcium, iodine, omega-3, and vitamin B12, the available evidence shows that well planned vegetarian and vegan diets may be considered safe during pregnancy and lactation, but they require a strong awareness for a balanced intake of key nutrients. A review of the scientific literature in this field was performed, focusing specifically on observational studies in humans, in order to investigate protective effects elicited by maternal diets enriched in plant-derived foods and possible unfavorable outcomes related to micronutrients deficiencies and their impact on fetal development. A design of pregestational nutrition intervention is required in order to avoid maternal undernutrition and consequent impaired fetal growth.
TL;DR: MBSR intervention was effective at improving, and maintaining, mindfulness and self-compassion levels and to improve burnout, depression, anxiety, stress, while compassion satisfaction may be related to cultivation of positive affect.
Abstract: Health care professionals (HCPs) are a population at risk for high levels of burnout and compassion fatigue. The aim of the present systematic review was to give an overview on recent literature about mindfulness and compassion characteristics of HCPs, while exploring the effectiveness of techniques, involving the two aspects, such as MBSR or mindfulness intervention and compassion fatigue-related programs. A search of databases, including PubMed and PsycINFO, was conducted following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines and the methodological quality for this systematic review was appraised using AMSTAR-2 (A MeaSurement Tool to Assess systematic Reviews-2). The number of articles that met the inclusion criteria was 58 (4 RCTs, 24 studies with pre-post measurements, 12 cross-sectional studies, 11 cohort studies and 7 qualitative studies). MBSR intervention was effective at improving, and maintaining, mindfulness and self-compassion levels and to improve burnout, depression, anxiety, stress. The most frequently employed interventional strategies were mindfulness-related trainings that were effective at improving mindfulness and self-compassion, but not compassion fatigue, levels. Compassion-related interventions have been shown to improve self-compassion, mindfulness and interpersonal conflict levels. Mindfulness was effective at improving negative affect and compassion fatigue, while compassion satisfaction may be related to cultivation of positive affect. This systematic review summarized the evidence regarding mindfulness- and compassion-related qualities of HCPs as well as potential effects of MBSR, mindfulness-related and compassion-related interventions on professionals' psychological variables like mindfulness, self-compassion and quality of life. Combining structured mindfulness and compassion cultivation trainings may enhance the effects of interventions, limit the variability of intervention protocols and improve data comparability of future research.
TL;DR: Dietary practices that increase zinc bioavailability, the consumption of foods fortified with zinc or low-dose supplementation are strategies that should be considered for improving the zinc status of vegetarians with low zinc intakes or serum zinc concentrations at the lower end of the reference range.
Abstract: Plant-based diets contain less saturated fat and cholesterol and more folate, fibre and phytochemicals than omnivorous diets, but some micronutrients, especially zinc, are poorly bioavailable. The findings of studies exploring the zinc intake and zinc status in populations that habitually consume vegetarian diets are inconsistent. This study aims to investigate the effects of plant-based diets on dietary zinc intake and status in humans using systematic review and meta-analysis techniques. Thirty-four studies were included in the systematic review. Of these, 26 studies (reporting 48 comparisons) compared males and/or females consuming vegetarian diets with non-vegetarian groups and were included in meta-analyses. Dietary zinc intakes and serum zinc concentrations were significantly lower (−0.88 ± 0.15 mg day−1, P < 0.001 and −0.93 ± 0.27 µmol L−1, P = 0.001 respectively; mean ± standard error) in populations that followed habitual vegetarian diets compared with non-vegetarians. Secondary analyses showed greater impact of vegetarian diets on the zinc intake and status of females, vegetarians from developing countries and vegans. Populations that habitually consume vegetarian diets have low zinc intakes and status. Not all vegetarian categories impact zinc status to the same extent, but a lack of consistency in defining vegetarian diets for research purposes makes dietary assessment difficult. Dietary practices that increase zinc bioavailability, the consumption of foods fortified with zinc or low-dose supplementation are strategies that should be considered for improving the zinc status of vegetarians with low zinc intakes or serum zinc concentrations at the lower end of the reference range. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry
TL;DR: Given the paucity of research examining diet quality and mental health in women during the perinatal period, further sufficiently powered studies are urgently required to examine this association.
Abstract: Background: While maternal nutrition during pregnancy is known to play a critical role in the health of both mother and offspring, the magnitude of this association has only recently been realized. Novel, epigenetic data suggest that maternal dietary intake has permanent phenotypic consequences for offspring, highlighting the potency of antenatal diet. To date, the relationship between poor antenatal diet and maternal mental health specifically, remains poorly understood. Therefore, we aimed to systematically review evidence that has examined associations between antenatal diet quality and the experience of depressive, anxiety and stress symptoms during the perinatal period. Methods: A search for peer-reviewed papers was conducted using Medline Complete, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Academic Search Premiere and Psychology and Behavioral Science Collection. Results: Nine studies (cohort = 4, cross-sectional = 5) published between 2005 and 2013 were eligible for inclusion in this review. A synthesis of findings revealed positive associations between poor quality and unhealthy diets and antenatal depressive and stress symptoms. Healthy diets were inversely associated with antenatal depressive and anxiety symptoms. Postnatal depressive symptoms demonstrated inconsistent results. Conclusions: Given the paucity of research examining diet quality and mental health in women during the perinatal period, further sufficiently powered studies are urgently required to examine this association.