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Sargur N. Srihari

Bio: Sargur N. Srihari is an academic researcher from University at Buffalo. The author has contributed to research in topics: Handwriting & Handwriting recognition. The author has an hindex of 55, co-authored 397 publications receiving 15181 citations. Previous affiliations of Sargur N. Srihari include Microsoft & University of Pennsylvania.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The nature of handwritten language, how it is transduced into electronic data, and the basic concepts behind written language recognition algorithms are described.
Abstract: Handwriting has continued to persist as a means of communication and recording information in day-to-day life even with the introduction of new technologies. Given its ubiquity in human transactions, machine recognition of handwriting has practical significance, as in reading handwritten notes in a PDA, in postal addresses on envelopes, in amounts in bank checks, in handwritten fields in forms, etc. This overview describes the nature of handwritten language, how it is transduced into electronic data, and the basic concepts behind written language recognition algorithms. Both the online case (which pertains to the availability of trajectory data during writing) and the off-line case (which pertains to scanned images) are considered. Algorithms for preprocessing, character and word recognition, and performance with practical systems are indicated. Other fields of application, like signature verification, writer authentification, handwriting learning tools are also considered.

2,653 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This work proposes three methods based on the highest rank, the Borda count, and logistic regression for class set reranking that have been tested in applications of degraded machine-printed characters and works from large lexicons, resulting in substantial improvement in overall correctness.
Abstract: A multiple classifier system is a powerful solution to difficult pattern recognition problems involving large class sets and noisy input because it allows simultaneous use of arbitrary feature descriptors and classification procedures. Decisions by the classifiers can be represented as rankings of classifiers and different instances of a problem. The rankings can be combined by methods that either reduce or rerank a given set of classes. An intersection method and union method are proposed for class set reduction. Three methods based on the highest rank, the Borda count, and logistic regression are proposed for class set reranking. These methods have been tested in applications of degraded machine-printed characters and works from large lexicons, resulting in substantial improvement in overall correctness. >

1,703 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors used computer algorithms for extracting features from scanned images of handwriting, e.g., line separation, slant, character shapes, etc., to quantitatively establish individuality by using machine learning approaches.
Abstract: Motivated by several rulings in United States courts concerning expert testimony in general, and handwriting testimony in particular, we undertook a study to objectively validate the hypothesis that handwriting is individual. Handwriting samples of 1500 individuals, representative of the U.S. population with respect to gender, age, ethnic groups, etc., were obtained. Analyzing differences in handwriting was done by using computer algorithms for extracting features from scanned images of handwriting. Attributes characteristic of the handwriting were obtained, e.g., line separation, slant, character shapes, etc. These attributes, which are a subset of attributes used by forensic document examiners (FDEs), were used to quantitatively establish individuality by using machine learning approaches. Using global attributes of handwriting and very few characters in the writing, the ability to determine the writer with a high degree of confidence was established. The work is a step towards providing scientific support for admitting handwriting evidence in court. The mathematical approach and the resulting software also have the promise of aiding the FDE.

506 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a word image is transformed through a hierarchy of representation levels: points, contours, features, letters, and words, and a unique feature representation is generated bottom-up from the image using statistical dependences between letters and features.
Abstract: Cursive script word recognition is the problem of transforming a word from the iconic form of cursive writing to its symbolic form. Several component processes of a recognition system for isolated offline cursive script words are described. A word image is transformed through a hierarchy of representation levels: points, contours, features, letters, and words. A unique feature representation is generated bottom-up from the image using statistical dependences between letters and features. Ratings for partially formed words are computed using a stack algorithm and a lexicon represented as a trie. Several novel techniques for low- and intermediate-level processing for cursive script are described, including heuristics for reference line finding, letter segmentation based on detecting local minima along the lower contour and areas with low vertical profiles, simultaneous encoding of contours and their topological relationships, extracting features, and finding shape-oriented events. Experiments demonstrating the performance of the system are also described. >

502 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The proposed distance measure has the advantage over the traditional distance measures regarding the overlap between two distributions; it takes the similarity of the non-overlapping parts into account as well as that of overlapping parts.

403 citations


Cited by
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Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jan 1998
TL;DR: In this article, a graph transformer network (GTN) is proposed for handwritten character recognition, which can be used to synthesize a complex decision surface that can classify high-dimensional patterns, such as handwritten characters.
Abstract: Multilayer neural networks trained with the back-propagation algorithm constitute the best example of a successful gradient based learning technique. Given an appropriate network architecture, gradient-based learning algorithms can be used to synthesize a complex decision surface that can classify high-dimensional patterns, such as handwritten characters, with minimal preprocessing. This paper reviews various methods applied to handwritten character recognition and compares them on a standard handwritten digit recognition task. Convolutional neural networks, which are specifically designed to deal with the variability of 2D shapes, are shown to outperform all other techniques. Real-life document recognition systems are composed of multiple modules including field extraction, segmentation recognition, and language modeling. A new learning paradigm, called graph transformer networks (GTN), allows such multimodule systems to be trained globally using gradient-based methods so as to minimize an overall performance measure. Two systems for online handwriting recognition are described. Experiments demonstrate the advantage of global training, and the flexibility of graph transformer networks. A graph transformer network for reading a bank cheque is also described. It uses convolutional neural network character recognizers combined with global training techniques to provide record accuracy on business and personal cheques. It is deployed commercially and reads several million cheques per day.

42,067 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Machine learning addresses many of the same research questions as the fields of statistics, data mining, and psychology, but with differences of emphasis.
Abstract: Machine Learning is the study of methods for programming computers to learn. Computers are applied to a wide range of tasks, and for most of these it is relatively easy for programmers to design and implement the necessary software. However, there are many tasks for which this is difficult or impossible. These can be divided into four general categories. First, there are problems for which there exist no human experts. For example, in modern automated manufacturing facilities, there is a need to predict machine failures before they occur by analyzing sensor readings. Because the machines are new, there are no human experts who can be interviewed by a programmer to provide the knowledge necessary to build a computer system. A machine learning system can study recorded data and subsequent machine failures and learn prediction rules. Second, there are problems where human experts exist, but where they are unable to explain their expertise. This is the case in many perceptual tasks, such as speech recognition, hand-writing recognition, and natural language understanding. Virtually all humans exhibit expert-level abilities on these tasks, but none of them can describe the detailed steps that they follow as they perform them. Fortunately, humans can provide machines with examples of the inputs and correct outputs for these tasks, so machine learning algorithms can learn to map the inputs to the outputs. Third, there are problems where phenomena are changing rapidly. In finance, for example, people would like to predict the future behavior of the stock market, of consumer purchases, or of exchange rates. These behaviors change frequently, so that even if a programmer could construct a good predictive computer program, it would need to be rewritten frequently. A learning program can relieve the programmer of this burden by constantly modifying and tuning a set of learned prediction rules. Fourth, there are applications that need to be customized for each computer user separately. Consider, for example, a program to filter unwanted electronic mail messages. Different users will need different filters. It is unreasonable to expect each user to program his or her own rules, and it is infeasible to provide every user with a software engineer to keep the rules up-to-date. A machine learning system can learn which mail messages the user rejects and maintain the filtering rules automatically. Machine learning addresses many of the same research questions as the fields of statistics, data mining, and psychology, but with differences of emphasis. Statistics focuses on understanding the phenomena that have generated the data, often with the goal of testing different hypotheses about those phenomena. Data mining seeks to find patterns in the data that are understandable by people. Psychological studies of human learning aspire to understand the mechanisms underlying the various learning behaviors exhibited by people (concept learning, skill acquisition, strategy change, etc.).

13,246 citations

Christopher M. Bishop1
01 Jan 2006
TL;DR: Probability distributions of linear models for regression and classification are given in this article, along with a discussion of combining models and combining models in the context of machine learning and classification.
Abstract: Probability Distributions.- Linear Models for Regression.- Linear Models for Classification.- Neural Networks.- Kernel Methods.- Sparse Kernel Machines.- Graphical Models.- Mixture Models and EM.- Approximate Inference.- Sampling Methods.- Continuous Latent Variables.- Sequential Data.- Combining Models.

10,141 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper demonstrates how constraints from the task domain can be integrated into a backpropagation network through the architecture of the network, successfully applied to the recognition of handwritten zip code digits provided by the U.S. Postal Service.
Abstract: The ability of learning networks to generalize can be greatly enhanced by providing constraints from the task domain. This paper demonstrates how such constraints can be integrated into a backpropagation network through the architecture of the network. This approach has been successfully applied to the recognition of handwritten zip code digits provided by the U.S. Postal Service. A single network learns the entire recognition operation, going from the normalized image of the character to the final classification.

9,775 citations

01 Jan 2002

9,314 citations