Sarit K. Das
Other affiliations: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, University of Florida, Indian Institutes of Technology ...read more
Bio: Sarit K. Das is an academic researcher from Indian Institute of Technology Madras. The author has contributed to research in topics: Nanofluid & Heat transfer. The author has an hindex of 52, co-authored 273 publications receiving 17410 citations. Previous affiliations of Sarit K. Das include Massachusetts Institute of Technology & University of Florida.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: In this article, the authors investigated the increase of thermal conductivity with temperature for nano fluids with water as base fluid and particles of Al 2 O 3 or CuO as suspension material.
Abstract: Usual heat transfer fluids with suspended ultra fine particles of nanometer size are named as nanofluids, which have opened a new dimension in heat transfer processes. The recent investigations confirm the potential of nanofluids in enhancing heat transfer required for present age technology. The present investigation goes detailed into investigating the increase of thermal conductivity with temperature for nano fluids with water as base fluid and particles of Al 2 O 3 or CuO as suspension material. A temperature oscillation technique is utilized for the measurement of thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity is calculated from it
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present an exhaustive review of the literature in this area and suggest a direction for future developments, including heat transfer, material science, physics, chemical engineering and synthetic chemistry.
Abstract: Suspended nanoparticles in conventional fluids, called nanofluids, have been the subject of intensive study worldwide since pioneering researchers recently discovered the anomalous thermal behavior of these fluids. The enhanced thermal conductivity of these fluids with small-particle concentration was surprising and could not be explained by existing theories. Micrometer-sized particle-fluid suspensions exhibit no such dramatic enhancement. This difference has led to studies of other modes of heat transfer and efforts to develop a comprehensive theory. This article presents an exhaustive review of these studies and suggests a direction for future developments. The review and suggestions could be useful because the literature in this area is spread over a wide range of disciplines, including heat transfer, material science, physics, chemical engineering and synthetic chemistry.
TL;DR: An integrated approach to improved plasmonic therapy composed of multimodal nanomaterial optimization and computational irradiation protocol development is described and a single i.v. injection of PEG-NRs enabled destruction of all irradiated human xenograft tumors in mice.
Abstract: Plasmonic nanomaterials have the opportunity to considerably improve the specificity of cancer ablation by i.v. homing to tumors and acting as antennas for accepting externally applied energy. Here, we describe an integrated approach to improved plasmonic therapy composed of multimodal nanomaterial optimization and computational irradiation protocol development. We synthesized polyethylene glycol (PEG)-protected gold nanorods (NR) that exhibit superior spectral bandwidth, photothermal heat generation per gram of gold, and circulation half-life in vivo (t1/2, ~17 hours) compared with the prototypical tunable plasmonic particles, gold nanoshells, as well as ~2-fold higher X-ray absorption than a clinical iodine contrast agent. After intratumoral or i.v. administration, we fuse PEG-NR biodistribution data derived via noninvasive X-ray computed tomography or ex vivo spectrometry, respectively, with four-dimensional computational heat transport modeling to predict photothermal heating during irradiation. In computationally driven pilot therapeutic studies, we show that a single i.v. injection of PEG-NRs enabled destruction of all irradiated human xenograft tumors in mice. These studies highlight the potential of integrating computational therapy design with nanotherapeutic development for ultraselective tumor ablation.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors investigated the role of transient conduction in pool boiling and concluded that the change of surface characteristics during boiling due to trapped particles on the surface is the cause for the shift of the boiling characteristics in the negative direction.
Abstract: Common fluids with particles of the order of nanometers in size are termed as ‘nano-fluids’ which have created considerable interest in recent times for their improved heat transfer capabilities. With very small volume fraction of such particles the thermal conductivity and convective heat transfer capability of these suspensions are significantly enhanced without the problems encountered in common slurries such as clogging, erosion, sedimentation and increase in pressure drop. This naturally brings out the question whether such fluids can be used for two phase applications or in other words phase change in such suspensions will be assistant or detrimental to the process of heat transfer. The present paper investigates into this question through experimental study of pool boiling in water–Al 2 O 3 nano-fluids. The results indicate that the nano-particles have pronounced and significant influence on the boiling process deteriorating the boiling characteristics of the fluid. It has been observed that with increasing particle concentration, the degradation in boiling performance takes place which increases the heating surface temperature. This indicates that the role of transient conduction in pool boiling is overshadowed by some other effect. Since the particles under consideration are one to two orders of magnitude smaller than the surface roughness it was concluded that the change of surface characteristics during boiling due to trapped particles on the surface is the cause for the shift of the boiling characteristics in the negative direction. The results serve as a guidance for the design of cooling systems with nano-fluids where an overheating may occur if saturation temperature is attained. It also indicates the possibility of such engineered fluids to be used in material processing or heat treatment applications where a higher pre-assigned surface temperature is required to be maintained without changing the fluid temperature.
Massachusetts Institute of Technology1, Illinois Institute of Technology2, Franklin W. Olin College of Engineering3, Kent State University4, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute5, Texas A&M University6, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology7, Tokyo Institute of Technology8, University of Naples Federico II9, Sasol10, University of Leeds11, University of Pittsburgh12, Indian Institute of Technology Madras13, Université libre de Bruxelles14, Silesian University of Technology15, North Carolina State University16, ETH Zurich17, IBM18, The Chinese University of Hong Kong19, Stanford University20, University of Puerto Rico at Mayagüez21, South Dakota School of Mines and Technology22, Korea Aerospace University23, Nanyang Technological University24, Helmut Schmidt University25, National Institute of Standards and Technology26, Korea University27, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur28, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research29, Queen Mary University of London30, Argonne National Laboratory31
TL;DR: The International Nanofluid Property Benchmark Exercise (INPBE) as mentioned in this paper was held in 1998, where the thermal conductivity of identical samples of colloidally stable dispersions of nanoparticles or "nanofluids" was measured by over 30 organizations worldwide, using a variety of experimental approaches, including the transient hot wire method, steady state methods, and optical methods.
Abstract: This article reports on the International Nanofluid Property Benchmark Exercise, or INPBE, in which the thermal conductivity of identical samples of colloidally stable dispersions of nanoparticles or “nanofluids,” was measured by over 30 organizations worldwide, using a variety of experimental approaches, including the transient hot wire method, steady-state methods, and optical methods. The nanofluids tested in the exercise were comprised of aqueous and nonaqueous basefluids, metal and metal oxide particles, near-spherical and elongated particles, at low and high particle concentrations. The data analysis reveals that the data from most organizations lie within a relatively narrow band (±10% or less) about the sample average with only few outliers. The thermal conductivity of the nanofluids was found to increase with particle concentration and aspect ratio, as expected from classical theory. There are (small) systematic differences in the absolute values of the nanofluid thermal conductivity among the various experimental approaches; however, such differences tend to disappear when the data are normalized to the measured thermal conductivity of the basefluid. The effective medium theory developed for dispersed particles by Maxwell in 1881 and recently generalized by Nan et al. [J. Appl. Phys. 81, 6692 (1997)], was found to be in good agreement with the experimental data, suggesting that no anomalous enhancement of thermal conductivity was achieved in the nanofluids tested in this exercise.
TL;DR: In this paper, a sedimentological core and petrographic characterisation of samples from eleven boreholes from the Lower Carboniferous of Bowland Basin (Northwest England) is presented.
Abstract: Deposits of clastic carbonate-dominated (calciclastic) sedimentary slope systems in the rock record have been identified mostly as linearly-consistent carbonate apron deposits, even though most ancient clastic carbonate slope deposits fit the submarine fan systems better. Calciclastic submarine fans are consequently rarely described and are poorly understood. Subsequently, very little is known especially in mud-dominated calciclastic submarine fan systems. Presented in this study are a sedimentological core and petrographic characterisation of samples from eleven boreholes from the Lower Carboniferous of Bowland Basin (Northwest England) that reveals a >250 m thick calciturbidite complex deposited in a calciclastic submarine fan setting. Seven facies are recognised from core and thin section characterisation and are grouped into three carbonate turbidite sequences. They include: 1) Calciturbidites, comprising mostly of highto low-density, wavy-laminated bioclast-rich facies; 2) low-density densite mudstones which are characterised by planar laminated and unlaminated muddominated facies; and 3) Calcidebrites which are muddy or hyper-concentrated debrisflow deposits occurring as poorly-sorted, chaotic, mud-supported floatstones. These
TL;DR: In this article, the authors considered seven slip mechanisms that can produce a relative velocity between the nanoparticles and the base fluid and concluded that only Brownian diffusion and thermophoresis are important slip mechanisms in nanofluids.
Abstract: Nanofluids are engineered colloids made of a base fluid and nanoparticles (1-100 nm) Nanofluids have higher thermal conductivity' and single-phase heat transfer coefficients than their base fluids In particular the heat transfer coefficient increases appear to go beyond the mere thermal-conductivity effect, and cannot be predicted by traditional pure-fluid correlations such as Dittus-Boelter's In the nanofluid literature this behavior is generally attributed to thermal dispersion and intensified turbulence, brought about by nanoparticle motion To test the validity of this assumption, we have considered seven slip mechanisms that can produce a relative velocity between the nanoparticles and the base fluid These are inertia, Brownian diffusion, thermophoresis, diffusioplwresis, Magnus effect, fluid drainage, and gravity We concluded that, of these seven, only Brownian diffusion and thermophoresis are important slip mechanisms in nanofluids Based on this finding, we developed a two-component four-equation nonhomogeneous equilibrium model for mass, momentum, and heat transport in nanofluids A nondimensional analysis of the equations suggests that energy transfer by nanoparticle dispersion is negligible, and thus cannot explain the abnormal heat transfer coefficient increases Furthermore, a comparison of the nanoparticle and turbulent eddy time and length scales clearly indicates that the nanoparticles move homogeneously with the fluid in the presence of turbulent eddies so an effect on turbulence intensity is also doubtful Thus, we propose an alternative explanation for the abnormal heat transfer coefficient increases: the nanofluid properties may vary significantly within the boundary layer because of the effect of the temperature gradient and thermophoresis For a heated fluid, these effects can result in a significant decrease of viscosity within the boundary layer, thus leading to heat transfer enhancement A correlation structure that captures these effects is proposed
TL;DR: This Perspective explores and explains the fundamental dogma of nanoparticle delivery to tumours and answers two central questions: ‘ how many nanoparticles accumulate in a tumour?’ and ‘how does this number affect the clinical translation of nanomedicines?'
Abstract: This Perspective explores and explains the fundamental dogma of nanoparticle delivery to tumours and answers two central questions: ‘how many nanoparticles accumulate in a tumour?’ and ‘how does this number affect the clinical translation of nanomedicines?’
01 Jun 2005
TL;DR: It is argued that gold nanotechnology-enabled biomedicine is not simply an act of 'gilding the (nanomedicinal) lily', but that a new 'Golden Age' of biomedical nanotechnology is truly upon us.
Abstract: Gold nanoparticles have been used in biomedical applications since their first colloidal syntheses more than three centuries ago. However, over the past two decades, their beautiful colors and unique electronic properties have also attracted tremendous attention due to their historical applications in art and ancient medicine and current applications in enhanced optoelectronics and photovoltaics. In spite of their modest alchemical beginnings, gold nanoparticles exhibit physical properties that are truly different from both small molecules and bulk materials, as well as from other nanoscale particles. Their unique combination of properties is just beginning to be fully realized in range of medical diagnostic and therapeutic applications. This critical review will provide insights into the design, synthesis, functionalization, and applications of these artificial molecules in biomedicine and discuss their tailored interactions with biological systems to achieve improved patient health. Further, we provide a survey of the rapidly expanding body of literature on this topic and argue that gold nanotechnology-enabled biomedicine is not simply an act of ‘gilding the (nanomedicinal) lily’, but that a new ‘Golden Age’ of biomedical nanotechnology is truly upon us. Moving forward, the most challenging nanoscience ahead of us will be to find new chemical and physical methods of functionalizing gold nanoparticles with compounds that can promote efficient binding, clearance, and biocompatibility and to assess their safety to other biological systems and their long-term term effects on human health and reproduction (472 references).