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Sarmistha Sen Raychaudhuri

Bio: Sarmistha Sen Raychaudhuri is an academic researcher from University of Calcutta. The author has contributed to research in topic(s): Plantago ovata & Callus. The author has an hindex of 13, co-authored 35 publication(s) receiving 586 citation(s).
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Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jan 2000-Botanical Review
TL;DR: This review evaluates the mode of action and effects of the SOD isoforms with respect to oxidative stress resistance, correlating age, species, and specificity of plants during development.
Abstract: Superoxide dismutase (SOD) isozymes are compartmentalized in higher plants and play a major role in combating oxygen radical mediated toxicity. In this review we evaluate the mode of action and effects of the SOD isoforms with respect to oxidative stress resistance, correlating age, species, and specificity of plants during development.

113 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: Investigation of the traditional uses of Momordica charantia in India revealed that it is one of the most important plant for ethnobotanical practices and Ethnobotanical uses of this plant in India suggest thatit is capable of lowering blood glucose level in diabetic patients.
Abstract: Momordica charantia is a tendril bearing medicinally important vine. Medicinal properties of the plant include antimicrobial, antihelminthic, anticancerous, antimutagenic, antitumourous, abortifacient, antifertility, antidiabetic. Amongst the various medicinal properties, antidiabetic property of M. charantia is of utmost importance to human beings and animals. Mixture of steroidal saponins known as charantins, insulin-like peptides and alkaloids are the hypoglycemic constituents of M. charantia and these constituents are concentrated in fruits of Momordica charantia. Momordica charantia can be considered as an alternative therapy for lowering blood glucose levels in patients with diabetes. Although Momordica charantia has hypoglycemic effects, but available scientific data is not sufficient to recommend its use for treating diabetes, in the absence of careful supervision and monitoring. Investigation of the traditional uses of Momordica charantia in India revealed that it is one of the most important plant for ethnobotanical practices. Ethnobotanical uses of this plant in India suggest that it is capable of lowering blood glucose level in diabetic patients. Furthermore, RAPD markers have been used to analyze the genetic diversity among 12 different accessions of M. charantia, collected from different districts of West Bengal. The clustering pattern based on RAPD markers was not in accordance with the grouping based on morphological characters. The presence of SCAR markers in the two varieties of M. charantia namely var. muricata and var. charantia has been determined so that nutritional and medicinal properties could be exploited judiciously.

81 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A positive correlation was found to exist between Somatic Embryogenesis enhancement and decrease in endogenous free PA levels when the media was supplemented with exogenous PAs.
Abstract: The effects of exogenous polyamines (PAs) on enhancement of somatic embryogenic calli was investigated in Momordicacharantia L. in vitro. Induction of somatic embryogenesis (SE) in leaf explants of M. charantia after 21 days of culture in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium was determined using scanning electron microscopy. During induction of SE there were high titers of Putrescine (Put) as compared to Spermidine (Spd) and Spermine (Spm), a prerequisite for cell division. Addition of PAs to the embryogenic media resulted in an increase in fresh weights and number of somatic embryos of 21-day old embryogenic calli. Put at a concentration of 1 mM showed maximum increase in fresh weights of embryogenic calli (5 fold) and number of somatic embryos produced per 0.2 g of callus (2.5 fold). Moreover addition of PAs to the embryogenic media resulted in lowering of endogenous free PA level of 21-day old embryogenic calli. Thus, when the media was supplemented with exogenous PAs a positive correlation was found to exist between Somatic Embryogenesis enhancement and decrease in endogenous free PA levels.

46 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Accumulation of polyphenols in callus culture of P. ovata is reported, which could be applied to isolation ofpolyphenols for various beneficial purposes and enhancement in the production of several polyphenol and also an increase in antioxidant activity in the additive-treated callus.
Abstract: BACKGROUND Plantago ovata, commonly called psyllium, is known to be a rich source of polyphenolic compounds. The present study was aimed at determining polyphenol content and studying their antioxidant activities in P. ovata during in vitro callus culture. An attempt was also made to enhance polyphenol content using external additives. The role of PAL gene in polyphenol accumulation was also studied. RESULTS The study indicated the presence of significant amounts of polyphenols, including flavonoids, in P. ovata callus. A gradual increase in polyphenol and flavonoid content was observed up to the third passage (63 days) of callus culture, which declined at the next passage. The third-passage callus showed highest antioxidant activity. High-performance liquid chromatographic results indicated the presence of high amounts of gallic acid and rutin in P. ovata calli; however, other polyphenols were also present but to a lesser extent. Additive supplementation was effective in enhancing polyphenol production and in increasing antioxidant activity in P. ovata callus. CONCLUSION The present research reported accumulation of polyphenols in callus culture of P. ovata, which could be applied to isolation of polyphenols for various beneficial purposes. It also indicated enhancement in the production of several polyphenols and also an increase in antioxidant activity in the additive-treated callus. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry

34 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The high expression of McSERK transcript in the embryogenic callus confirmed its association with somatic embryogenesis in M. charantia and showed that it corresponded to a monomeric protein.
Abstract: Somatic embryogenesis receptor kinase (SERK) gene is known to be a marker of somatic embryogenesis in several plant species. The present study reported the isolation and characterization of a SERK gene ortholog, designated as McSERK, in Momordica charantia, an important medicinal plant. The complete coding region of McSERK was found to encode a 627 amino acid protein which contained an N-terminal signal peptide, a leucine zipper, five leucine rich repeats, a serine-proline-proline domain, a transmembrane domain, a kinase domain and the C-terminal region, depicting the typical characteristic features of SERK-family proteins. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that McSERK was highly similar to the SERK proteins of Cucumis sativus, Glycine max and Medicago truncatula. Homology modeling was attempted to construct the three dimensional structure of McSERK protein which showed that it corresponded to a monomeric protein. McSERK expression was high in embryogenic callus but its expression was relatively low in different plant organs. The high expression of McSERK transcript in the embryogenic callus confirmed its association with somatic embryogenesis in M. charantia.

31 citations


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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This text is a general introduction to radiation biology and a complete, self-contained course especially for residents in diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine that follows the Syllabus in Radiation Biology of the RSNA.
Abstract: The text consists of two sections, one for those studying or practicing diagnostic radiology, nuclear medicine and radiation oncology; the other for those engaged in the study or clinical practice of radiation oncology--a new chapter, on radiologic terrorism, is specifically for those in the radiation sciences who would manage exposed individuals in the event of a terrorist event. The 17 chapters in Section I represent a general introduction to radiation biology and a complete, self-contained course especially for residents in diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine that follows the Syllabus in Radiation Biology of the RSNA. The 11 chapters in Section II address more in-depth topics in radiation oncology, such as cancer biology, retreatment after radiotherapy, chemotherapeutic agents and hyperthermia.

1,209 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The related works, which have revealed the changes in the basic antioxidant metabolism of plants under various abiotic constraints, are explored.
Abstract: Environmental stresses (salinity, drought, heat/cold, light and other hostile conditions) may trigger in plants oxidative stress, generating the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). These species are partially reduced or activated derivatives of oxygen, comprising both free radical $$ ( {\text{O}}_{2}^{\cdot - } ,{\text{OH}} \cdot , {\text{OH}}_{ 2} \cdot ) $$ and non-radical (H2O2) forms, leading to cellular damage, metabolic disorders and senescence processes. In order to overcome oxidative stress, plants have developed two main antioxidants defense mechanisms that can be classified as non-enzymatic and enzymatic systems. The first class (non-enzymatic) consists of small molecules such as vitamin (A, C and E), glutathione, carotenoids and phenolics that can react directly with the ROS by scavenging them. Second class is represented by enzymes among them superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and catalase which have the capacity to eliminate superoxide and hydrogen peroxide. In this review, we have tried to explore the related works, which have revealed the changes in the basic antioxidant metabolism of plants under various abiotic constraints.

375 citations


Book
01 Jan 2006-
TL;DR: This work aims to clarify the role of density in the development and application of allelopathy in agricultural and marine ecosystems and to investigate its role in the response to climate change.
Abstract: Preface.- List of contributors.- 1. Introduction to allelopathy Chou,C-H.- 2. Basic pathways for the origin of allelopathic compounds Seigler, D.S.- Methodological aspects. 3. Clues in the search of new herbicides Dayan, F.E., Duke, S.O.- 4. Distinguishing allelopathy from resource competition: the role of density Weidenhamer, J.D.- 5. Toxicity in allelopathy: in silico approach Lo Piparo, E. et al.- Physiological aspects of allelopathy. 6. Allelochemicals and photosynthesis Zhou, Y.H., Yu, J.Q.- 7. Cell cycle analyses for understanding growth inhibition Sanchez-Moreiras, A.M. et al. 8. Detoxification of allelochemicals. The case of bezoxazolin-2(3H)-one (BOA) Schulz, M. et al.- 9. Allelopathy and abiotic stress Pedrol, M.N. et al.- 10. Allelopathy and biotic stresses Gawronska, H., Golisz, A.- 11. Plant secondary metabolites. Targets and mechanisms of allelopathy Lotina-Hennsen, B. et al.- 12. Mitochondria as a site of allelochemical action Ishii-Iwamoto, E.L. et al.- Ecophysiology and allelopathy. 13. Weed germination, seedling growth and their lesson for allelopathy in agriculture Aliotta, A. et al.- 14. Allelopathy: A soil system perspective Blum, U.- 15. Microorganisms and allelopathy: A one-sided approach Vokou, D. et al.- Ecological aspects of allelopathy. 16. Ecological relationships and allelopathy Sinkkonen, A.- 17. Resistance and susceptibility of plant communities to invasion:revisiting rabotnov's ideas about community homeostasis Callaway, R.M., Hierro, J.L.- Allelopathy in different environments. 18. Allelopathy in marine ecosystems Graneli, E., Pavia, H.- 19. Allelopathy in aquatic environments Erhard, D.- 20. Forest ecosystems and allelopathy Reigosa, M.J., Gonzalez, L.- 21. Allelopathic interactions in agroecosystems Kohli, R.K. et al.- Applied aspects of allelopathy. 22. Playing with chemistry: studies on Orobanche spp. germination stimulants Macias, F.A. et al.- 23. Modes of action of phytotoxins from plants Duke, S.O., Dayan, F.E.- 24. Allelopathy in ecological sustainable agriculture Narwal, S.S.- 25. Parasitic weeds and allelopathy: from the hypothesis to the proof Qasem, J.R.-

305 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Udoamaka F. Ezuruike1, Jose M. Prieto1Institutions (1)
TL;DR: A review of medicinal plants traditionally used for diabetes management in Nigeria and ways in which their therapeutic potential can be properly harnessed for possible integration into the country's healthcare system are highlighted.
Abstract: The prevalence of diabetes is on a steady increase worldwide and it is now identified as one of the main threats to human health in the 21(st) century. In Nigeria, the use of herbal medicine alone or alongside prescription drugs for its management is quite common. We hereby carry out a review of medicinal plants traditionally used for diabetes management in Nigeria. Based on the available evidence on the species' pharmacology and safety, we highlight ways in which their therapeutic potential can be properly harnessed for possible integration into the country's healthcare system.

294 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Baby Joseph1, D. Jini1Institutions (1)
TL;DR: The present review is an attempt to highlight the antidiabetic activity as well as phytochemical and pharmacological reports on M. charantia and calls for better-designed clinical trials to further elucidate its possible therapeutic effects on diabetes.
Abstract: Diabetes mellitus is among the most common disorder in developed and developing countries, and the disease is increasing rapidly in most parts of the world. It has been estimated that up to one-third of patients with diabetes mellitus use some form of complementary and alternative medicine. One plant that has received the most attention for its anti-diabetic properties is bitter melon, Momordica charantia (M. charantia), commonly referred to as bitter gourd, karela and balsam pear. Its fruit is also used for the treatment of diabetes and related conditions amongst the indigenous populations of Asia, South America, India and East Africa. Abundant pre-clinical studies have documented in the anti-diabetic and hypoglycaemic effects of M. charantia through various postulated mechanisms. However, clinical trial data with human subjects are limited and flawed by poor study design and low statistical power. The present review is an attempt to highlight the antidiabetic activity as well as phytochemical and pharmacological reports on M. charantia and calls for better-designed clinical trials to further elucidate its possible therapeutic effects on diabetes.

275 citations


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Author's H-index: 13

No. of papers from the Author in previous years
YearPapers
20211
20191
20181
20173
20162
20151