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Sastry G. Pantula

Other affiliations: Iowa State University
Bio: Sastry G. Pantula is an academic researcher from North Carolina State University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Autoregressive model & Estimator. The author has an hindex of 15, co-authored 44 publications receiving 2797 citations. Previous affiliations of Sastry G. Pantula include Iowa State University.

Papers
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BookDOI
01 Jan 1998
TL;DR: Linear regression models have been widely used in the business world, as well as in many other fields such as economics, engineering, social research and in the health and biological sciences as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: Linear regression models are widely used in the business world, as well as in many other fields such as economics, engineering, social research and in the health and biological sciences. In the business world regressions have been used in marketing analyses of customer behavior, in financial analyses of investment opportunities, in human resources to test the fairness of employment policies, in operations to identify the determinants of output quality, and in strategic planning to create sales forecasts.

761 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a proper sequence of statistical tests that allows the practitioner to handle cases in which a high order of differencing may be needed is presented, and the proper sequence is not the traditional sequence, which begins with a test for a single unit root.
Abstract: One way of handling nonstationarity in time series is to compute first differences and fit a model to the differenced series unless the differenced series also looks nonstationary. In that case, second- or higher-order differencing is done. To decide if the current degree of differencing is sufficient, one can look at the autocorrelation function for slow decay. A formal statistical test for the need to difference further is available if one is willing to assume that at most one more difference will render the series stationary. In this article, we present a proper sequence of statistical tests that allows the practitioner to handle cases in which a high order of differencing may be needed. The proper sequence is not the traditional sequence, which begins with a test for a single unit root.

638 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, several new criteria, based on maximum likelihood estimators and weighted symmetric estimators, have been proposed for testing the unit-root hypothesis in autoregressive processes.
Abstract: During the past 15 years, the ordinary least squares estimator and the corresponding pivotal statistic have been widely used for testing the unit-root hypothesis in autoregressive processes. Recently, several new criteria, based on maximum likelihood estimators and weighted symmetric estimators, have been proposed. In this article, we describe several different test criteria. Results from a Monte Carlo study that compares the power of the different criteria indicate that the new tests are more powerful against the stationary alternative. Of the procedures studied, the weighted symmetric estimator and the unconditional maximum likelihood estimator provide the most powerful tests against the stationary alternative. As an illustration, the weekly series of one-month treasury-bill rates is analyzed.

484 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present a reparameterization of the model for the stochastic difference equation for t = 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22,23,24,25,26,27,28,29,30,31,32,33,34,35,36,37,38,39,40,41,40
Abstract: Let Yt satisfy the stochastic difference equation for t = 1,2,…, where et are independent and identically distributed random variables with mean zero and variance σ2 and the initial conditions (Y−p+1,…, Y0) are fixed constants. It is assumed that the process is invertible and that the true, but unknown, roots m1,m2,…,mp of satisfy the hypothesis Hd: m1 = … = md = 1 and |mj| < 1 for j = d + 1,…,p. We present a reparameterization of the model for Yt that is convenient for testing the hypothesis Hd. We consider the asymptotic properties of (i) a likelihood ratio type “F-statistic” for testing the hypothesis Hd, (ii) a likelihood ratio type t-statistic for testing the hypothesis Hd against the alternative Hd−1. Using these asymptotic results, we obtain two sequential testing procedures that are asymptotically consistent.

311 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, an approach based on an instrumental variable estimator is proposed for testing the null hypothesis that a process Y t is an ARIMA( p, 1, q ) against the alternative that it is a stationary ARIMa( p + 1, 0, q ), which is an extension of the procedure suggested by Hall (1989a) for the case p = 0.

106 citations


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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It was found that methods specifically designed for collinearity, such as latent variable methods and tree based models, did not outperform the traditional GLM and threshold-based pre-selection and the value of GLM in combination with penalised methods and thresholds when omitted variables are considered in the final interpretation.
Abstract: Collinearity refers to the non independence of predictor variables, usually in a regression-type analysis. It is a common feature of any descriptive ecological data set and can be a problem for parameter estimation because it inflates the variance of regression parameters and hence potentially leads to the wrong identification of relevant predictors in a statistical model. Collinearity is a severe problem when a model is trained on data from one region or time, and predicted to another with a different or unknown structure of collinearity. To demonstrate the reach of the problem of collinearity in ecology, we show how relationships among predictors differ between biomes, change over spatial scales and through time. Across disciplines, different approaches to addressing collinearity problems have been developed, ranging from clustering of predictors, threshold-based pre-selection, through latent variable methods, to shrinkage and regularisation. Using simulated data with five predictor-response relationships of increasing complexity and eight levels of collinearity we compared ways to address collinearity with standard multiple regression and machine-learning approaches. We assessed the performance of each approach by testing its impact on prediction to new data. In the extreme, we tested whether the methods were able to identify the true underlying relationship in a training dataset with strong collinearity by evaluating its performance on a test dataset without any collinearity. We found that methods specifically designed for collinearity, such as latent variable methods and tree based models, did not outperform the traditional GLM and threshold-based pre-selection. Our results highlight the value of GLM in combination with penalised methods (particularly ridge) and threshold-based pre-selection when omitted variables are considered in the final interpretation. However, all approaches tested yielded degraded predictions under change in collinearity structure and the ‘folk lore’-thresholds of correlation coefficients between predictor variables of |r| >0.7 was an appropriate indicator for when collinearity begins to severely distort model estimation and subsequent prediction. The use of ecological understanding of the system in pre-analysis variable selection and the choice of the least sensitive statistical approaches reduce the problems of collinearity, but cannot ultimately solve them.

6,199 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a simple alternative test where the standard unit root regressions are augmented with the cross section averages of lagged levels and first-differences of the individual series is also considered.
Abstract: A number of panel unit root tests that allow for cross section dependence have been proposed in the literature, notably by Bai and Ng (2002), Moon and Perron (2003), and Phillips and Sul (2002) who use orthogonalization type procedures to asymptotically eliminate the cross dependence of the series before standard panel unit root tests are applied to the transformed series. In this paper we propose a simple alternative test where the standard DF (or ADF) regressions are augmented with the cross section averages of lagged levels and first-differences of the individual series. A truncated version of the CADF statistics is also considered. New asymptotic results are obtained both for the individual CADF statistics, and their simple averages. It is shown that the CADF_i statistics are asymptotically similar and do not depend on the factor loadings under joint asymptotics where N (cross section dimension) and T (time series dimension) tends to infinity, such that N/T tends to k, where k is a fixed finite non-zero constant. But they are asymptotically correlated due to their dependence on the common factor. Despite this it is shown that the limit distribution of the average CADF statistic exists and its critical values are tabulated. The small sample properties of the proposed tests are investigated by Monte Carlo experiments, for a variety of models. It is shown that the cross sectionally augmented panel unit root tests have satisfactory size and power even for relatively small values of N and T. This is particularly true of cross sectionally augmented and truncated versions of the simple average t-test of Im, Pesaran and Shin, and Choi's inverse normal combination test.

6,169 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a simple alternative where the standard ADF regressions are augmented with the cross section averages of lagged levels and first-differences of the individual series is proposed, and it is shown that the individual CADF statistics are asymptotically similar and do not depend on the factor loadings.
Abstract: A number of panel unit root tests that allow for cross section dependence have been proposed in the literature that use orthogonalization type procedures to asymptotically eliminate the cross dependence of the series before standard panel unit root tests are applied to the transformed series. In this paper we propose a simple alternative where the standard ADF regressions are augmented with the cross section averages of lagged levels and first-differences of the individual series. New asymptotic results are obtained both for the individual CADF statistics, and their simple averages. It is shown that the individual CADF statistics are asymptotically similar and do not depend on the factor loadings. The limit distribution of the average CADF statistic is shown to exist and its critical values are tabulated. Small sample properties of the proposed test are investigated by Monte Carlo experiments. The proposed test is applied to a panel of 17 OECD real exchange rate series as well as to log real earnings of households in the PSID data.

6,022 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Convergence of Probability Measures as mentioned in this paper is a well-known convergence of probability measures. But it does not consider the relationship between probability measures and the probability distribution of probabilities.
Abstract: Convergence of Probability Measures. By P. Billingsley. Chichester, Sussex, Wiley, 1968. xii, 253 p. 9 1/4“. 117s.

5,689 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors show how to estimate VAR's formulated in levels and test general restrictions on the parameter matrices even if the processes may be integrated or cointegrated of an arbitrary order.

4,959 citations