Other affiliations: Nanyang Technological University, Georgia Institute of Technology
Bio: Sathyan Subbiah is an academic researcher from Indian Institute of Technology Madras. The author has contributed to research in topic(s): Machining & Diamond turning. The author has an hindex of 12, co-authored 52 publication(s) receiving 648 citation(s). Previous affiliations of Sathyan Subbiah include Nanyang Technological University & Georgia Institute of Technology.
Topics: Machining, Diamond turning, Stress (mechanics), Diamond, Graphite
Papers published on a yearly basis
19 Jan 2011-Nanoscale Research Letters
TL;DR: Characterization of the obtained layers shows that the process is able to synthesize graphene layers with an area of a few micrometers, and application of oscillation enhances the quality of the layers produced with the layers having a reduced crystallite size as determined from the Raman spectrum.
Abstract: A novel method to synthesize few layer graphene from bulk graphite by mechanical cleavage is presented here. The method involves the use of an ultrasharp single crystal diamond wedge to cleave a highly ordered pyrolytic graphite sample to generate the graphene layers. Cleaving is aided by the use of ultrasonic oscillations along the wedge. Characterization of the obtained layers shows that the process is able to synthesize graphene layers with an area of a few micrometers. Application of oscillation enhances the quality of the layers produced with the layers having a reduced crystallite size as determined from the Raman spectrum. Interesting edge structures are observed that needs further investigation.
15 Feb 2008-Materials Science and Engineering A-structural Materials Properties Microstructure and Processing
TL;DR: Subbiah et al. as discussed by the authors investigated the effect of finite edge radius on ductile fracture by performing a series of experiments with inserts of different edge radii at various uncut chip thickness values ranging from 15 to 105μm.
Abstract: Evidence of ductile fracture leading to material separation has been reported recently in ductile metal cutting [S. Subbiah, S.N. Melkote, ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng. 28(3) (2006)]. This paper investigates the effect of finite edge radius on such ductile fracture. The basic question of whether such ductile fracture occurs in the presence of a finite edge radius is explored by performing a series of experiments with inserts of different edge radii at various uncut chip thickness values ranging from 15 to 105 μm. Chip–roots are obtained in these experiments using a quick-stop device and examined in a scanning electron microscope. Clear evidence of material separation is seen at the interface zone between the chip and machined surface even when the edge radius is large compared to the uncut chip thickness. Failure is seen to occur at the upper, middle, and/or the lower edges of the interface zone. Based on these observations, a hypothesis is presented for the events leading to the occurrence of this failure when cutting with an edge radius tool. Finite element simulations are performed to study the nature of stress state ahead of the tool edge with and without edge radius. Hydrostatic stress is seen to be tensile in front of the tool and hence favors the occurrence of ductile fracture leading to material separation. The stress components are, however lower than those seen with a sharp tool.
01 Jul 2012-Precision Engineering-journal of The International Societies for Precision Engineering and Nanotechnology
TL;DR: In this paper, the effect of side wall edge strengthening on the formation of top burrs in micro-milling slots in Al-6061 alloy using a carbide tool is investigated.
Abstract: Experimental investigations on the effect of side wall edge strengthening, to reduce top burr formation, in micro-milling slots in Al-6061 alloy using a carbide tool are reported here. The side edge is strengthened by increasing the edge angle to a value higher than the usual 90°. Side edge angle is varied in two ways: one, by changing the work geometry and two, by introducing a taper into the milling tool. The burrs formed are examined qualitatively in a scanning electron microscope and quantitatively using a surface profiler. The analysis of the results shows that top burrs are reduced both by strengthening the side edge and also by the effect of the taper angle in the micro-milling tool. The effect of the side edge angle in the tool can be attributed to the edge strengthening. On the other hand, an analysis of the tapered tool geometry indicates that the velocity rake, normal rake and effective rake angles increase with the taper angle and can hence explain the observed burr reductions.
TL;DR: In this article, a small sawing action is applied along the cutting edge and perpendicular to the cutting velocity to enhance the ductile fracture occurring ahead of the cutting tool as the chip separates from the bulk work material.
Abstract: In the conventional use of vibration-assisted machining the vibratory motion is applied to the tool either linearly along the direction of the cutting velocity or elliptically in the plane containing the cutting velocity and surface normal. In contrast to this, this study investigates vibrations that are applied along the cutting edge and perpendicular to the cutting velocity. Such a vibratory motion is expected to provide a small sawing action that will enhance the ductile fracture occurring ahead of the cutting tool as the chip separates from the bulk work material. This enhancement in fracture will then contribute to reducing the chip thickness and cutting forces. Also, the sawing action reduces the imprint left behind by the cutting tool leading to a better surface finish. To confirm these predictions orthogonal cutting with the assistance of transverse vibrations applied to the cutting tool are performed on Al-2024 tubes using a carbide cutting tool. Experiments are performed at different conditions of cutting speeds, feeds and amplitudes of vibration at a fixed vibration frequency of 40 kHz. Cutting forces, chip thickness, and surface finishes are measured and compared with similar cutting conditions without application of vibration. In general, a reduction in cutting forces and feed forces is observed when transverse vibrations are applied. Chip thickness is also reduced and surface finish is improved upon application of vibration. Some explanations are offered to support these results.
TL;DR: In this article, a numerical finite element model is developed to study the energy consumed in material separation in micro-cutting, and the ductile fracture of A12024-T3 in a complex stress state ahead of the tool is captured using a damage model.
Abstract: Orthogonal cutting experiments using a quick-stop device are performed on A12024-T3 and OFHC copper to study the chip-workpiece interface in a scanning electron microscope. Evidence of ductile tearing ahead of the tool at cutting speeds of 150 m/min has been found. A numerical finite element model is then developed to study the energy consumed in material separation in micro-cutting. The ductile fracture of A12024-T3 in a complex stress state ahead of the tool is captured using a damage model. Chip formation is simulated via the use of a sacrificial layer and sequential elemental deletion in this layer Element deletion is enforced when the accumulated damage exceeds a predetermined value. A Johnson-Cook damage model that is load history dependent and with strain-to-fracture dependent on stress, strain rate, and temperature is used to model the damage. The finite element model is validated using the cutting forces obtained from orthogonal micro-cutting experiments. Simulations are performed over a range of uncut chip thickness values. It is found that at lower uncut chip thickness values, the percentage of energy expended in material separation is higher than at higher uncut chip thicknesses. This work highlights the importance of the energy associated with material separation in the nonlinear scaling effect of specific cutting energy in micro-cutting.
01 May 1993
TL;DR: Comparing the results to the fastest reported vectorized Cray Y-MP and C90 algorithm shows that the current generation of parallel machines is competitive with conventional vector supercomputers even for small problems.
Abstract: Three parallel algorithms for classical molecular dynamics are presented. The first assigns each processor a fixed subset of atoms; the second assigns each a fixed subset of inter-atomic forces to compute; the third assigns each a fixed spatial region. The algorithms are suitable for molecular dynamics models which can be difficult to parallelize efficiently—those with short-range forces where the neighbors of each atom change rapidly. They can be implemented on any distributed-memory parallel machine which allows for message-passing of data between independently executing processors. The algorithms are tested on a standard Lennard-Jones benchmark problem for system sizes ranging from 500 to 100,000,000 atoms on several parallel supercomputers--the nCUBE 2, Intel iPSC/860 and Paragon, and Cray T3D. Comparing the results to the fastest reported vectorized Cray Y-MP and C90 algorithm shows that the current generation of parallel machines is competitive with conventional vector supercomputers even for small problems. For large problems, the spatial algorithm achieves parallel efficiencies of 90% and a 1840-node Intel Paragon performs up to 165 faster than a single Cray C9O processor. Trade-offs between the three algorithms and guidelines for adapting them to more complex molecular dynamics simulations are also discussed.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors highlight the recent progress on mechanical exfoliation for graphene production during the last decade, focusing on the widely used sonication method with the latest insight into sonication-induced defects, newly explored ball milling method, the fluid dynamics method that has emerged in the last three years, and the innovative supercritical fluid method.
Abstract: Mass production and commercial availability are prerequisites for the viability and wide application of graphene. The exfoliation of graphite to give graphene is one of the most promising ways to achieve large-scale production at an extremely low cost. This review focuses on discussing different exfoliation techniques based on a common mechanical mechanism; because a deep understanding of the exfoliation mechanism can provide fruitful information on how to efficiently achieve high-quality graphene by optimizing exfoliation techniques. We highlight the recent progress on mechanical exfoliation for graphene production during the last decade. The emphasis is set on the widely used sonication method with the latest insight into sonication-induced defects, the newly explored ball milling method, the fluid dynamics method that has emerged in the last three years, and the innovative supercritical fluid method. We also give an outlook on how to achieve high-quality graphene efficiently using mechanical exfoliation techniques. We hope this review will point towards a rational direction for the scalable production of graphene.
TL;DR: A modified approach for exfoliating thin monolayer and few-layer flakes from layered crystals, suggesting that this modified exfoliation method provides an effective way for producing large area, high-quality flakes of a wide range of 2D materials.
Abstract: Mechanical exfoliation has been a key enabler of the exploration of the properties of two-dimensional materials, such as graphene, by providing routine access to high-quality material. The original exfoliation method, which remained largely unchanged during the past decade, provides relatively small flakes with moderate yield. Here, we report a modified approach for exfoliating thin monolayer and few-layer flakes from layered crystals. Our method introduces two process steps that enhance and homogenize the adhesion force between the outermost sheet in contact with a substrate: Prior to exfoliation, ambient adsorbates are effectively removed from the substrate by oxygen plasma cleaning, and an additional heat treatment maximizes the uniform contact area at the interface between the source crystal and the substrate. For graphene exfoliation, these simple process steps increased the yield and the area of the transferred flakes by more than 50 times compared to the established exfoliation methods. Raman and AFM characterization shows that the graphene flakes are of similar high quality as those obtained in previous reports. Graphene field-effect devices were fabricated and measured with back-gating and solution top-gating, yielding mobilities of ∼4000 and 12,000 cm(2)/(V s), respectively, and thus demonstrating excellent electrical properties. Experiments with other layered crystals, e.g., a bismuth strontium calcium copper oxide (BSCCO) superconductor, show enhancements in exfoliation yield and flake area similar to those for graphene, suggesting that our modified exfoliation method provides an effective way for producing large area, high-quality flakes of a wide range of 2D materials.
01 Jan 2009-CIRP Annals
TL;DR: In this article, a systematic review on size effects in manufacturing of metallic components is presented, where the typology of size effects is explained, followed by a description of size effect on strength and tribology, and last three sections describe size effects on formability, forming processes and cutting processes.
Abstract: In manufacturing of metallic components, the size of the part plays an important role for the process behaviour. This is due to so called size effects, which lead to changes in the process behaviour even if the relationship between the main geometrical features is kept constant. The aim of this paper is to give a systematic review on such effects and their potential use or remedy. First, the typology of size effects will be explained, followed by a description of size effects on strength and tribology. The last three sections describe size effects on formability, forming processes and cutting processes.
TL;DR: Molecular dynamics simulations have been used to understand the occurrence of brittle-ductile transition due to the high-pressure phase transformation (HPPT), which induces Herzfeld-Mott transition.
Abstract: Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation has enhanced our understanding about ductile-regime machining of brittle materials such as silicon and germanium. In particular, MD simulation has helped understand the occurrence of brittle–ductile transition due to the high-pressure phase transformation (HPPT), which induces Herzfeld–Mott transition. In this paper, relevant MD simulation studies in conjunction with experimental studies are reviewed with a focus on (i) the importance of machining variables: undeformed chip thickness, feed rate, depth of cut, geometry of the cutting tool in influencing the state of the deviatoric stresses to cause HPPT in silicon, (ii) the influence of material properties: role of fracture toughness and hardness, crystal structure and anisotropy of the material, and (iii) phenomenological understanding of the wear of diamond cutting tools, which are all non-trivial for cost-effective manufacturing of silicon. The ongoing developmental work on potential energy functions is reviewed to identify opportunities for overcoming the current limitations of MD simulations. Potential research areas relating to how MD simulation might help improve existing manufacturing technologies are identified which may be of particular interest to early stage researchers.