Satish V. Khedkar
Bio: Satish V. Khedkar is an academic researcher. The author has contributed to research in topics: Biodiesel & Biodiesel production. The author has an hindex of 5, co-authored 13 publications receiving 181 citations.
TL;DR: In this article, an experimental method developed for the extraction of oil from algae which is obtained from open pond system is discussed. But, it is observed that the solvent extraction method recovers almost all the oil and leaves behind only 0.5% to 0.7% residual oil in the raw material.
Abstract: Algae are a filamentous waste plant growing in any type of water such as fresh, sea water etc. Normally algae are regarded as a menace in water bodies. Algae oil is an interesting sustainable feedstock for biodiesel manufacturing. There are various methods for extracting the oil from algae, such as mechanical pressing, hexane solvent extraction etc. The paper discusses experimental method developed for the extraction of oil from algae which is obtained from open pond system. It is observed that the solvent extraction method recovers almost all the oil and leaves behind only 0.5% to 0.7% residual oil in the raw material. Because of the high percentage of recovered oil, solvent extraction is found to be an effective method for extraction of oils and fats, but is having disadvantage of being costly as compared to expeller method. An experimental investigation shows that expeller pressing method can recover 75% of the oil from algae. Even though expeller pressing method is an economical method than the hexane solvent extraction method, further to make this method more effective, some modifications in the design of expeller are required which will increase the recovery of oil.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors contribute in the search for less expensive adsorbents and their utilization possibilities for various agricultural waste byproducts such as seaweed, algae, chitosan, egg shell and saw dust etc.
Abstract: The adsorption process is being widely used by various researchers for the removal of heavy metals from waste streams and activated carbon has been frequently used as an adsorbent. Despite its extensive use in the water and wastewater treatment industries, activated carbon remains an expensive material. In recent years, the need for safe and economical methods for the elimination of heavy metals from contaminated waters has necessitated research interest towards the production of low cost alternatives to commercially available activated carbon. Therefore there is an urgent need that all possible sources of agro-based inexpensive adsorbents should be explored and their feasibility for the removal of heavy metals should be studied in detail. The objective of this study is to contribute in the search for less expensive adsorbents and their utilization possibilities for various agricultural waste by-products such as seaweed, algae, chitosan, egg shell and saw dust etc. for the elimination of heavy metals from wastewater.
TL;DR: Enzymes are proteins, which act as catalysts, which lower the energy required for a reaction to occur, without being used up in the reaction.
Abstract: Enzymes are proteins, which act as catalysts. Enzymes lower the energy required for a reaction to occur, without being used up in the reaction. Many types of industries, to aid in the generation of their products, utilize enzymes. Examples of these products are; cheese, alcohol and bread. Fermentation is a method of generating enzymes for industrial purposes. Fermentation involves the use of microorganisms, like bacteria and yeast to produce the enzymes. There are two methods of fermentation used to produce enzymes. These are submerged fermentation and solid-state fermentation. Submerged fermentation involves the production of enzymes by microorganisms in a liquid nutrient media. Solid-state fermentation is the cultivation of microorganisms, and hence enzymes on a solid substrate. Carbon containing compounds in or on the substrate are broken down by the microorganisms, which produce the enzymes either intracellular or extracellular. The enzymes are recovered by methods such as centrifugation, for extracellularly produced enzymes and lysing of cells for intracellular enzymes. Many industries are dependent on enzymes for the production of their goods. Industries that use enzymes generated by fermentation are the brewing, wine making, baking and cheese making.
01 Jan 2011
TL;DR: In this article, the authors discussed about the prospect of making biodiesel from algae oil and used it to diesel engine for performance evaluation, the oil has been converted to biodiesel by the well-known transesterification process.
Abstract: Biodiesel has become more attractive recently because of its environmental benefits and the fact that it is made from renewable resources. The world is getting modernized and industrialized day by day. As a result vehicles and engines are increasing. But energy sources used in these engines are limited and decreasing gradually. This situation leads to seek an alternative fuel for diesel engine. Biodiesel is an alternative fuel for diesel engine. The esters of vegetables oil animal fats are known as Biodiesel. This paper discussed about the prospect of making of biodiesel from Algae oil. Algae are generally microscopic organisms, are generally thought of as simple aquatic plants which do not have roots, stems or leave and have primitive methods of reproduction. Aquatic algae are found in both fresh and marine waters. They range in size from large kelp (meters in length) to those visible only under a microscope. Algae vary considerably in size, shape, and growth form. The Algae contain 2-65% oil with different species. In this study the oil has been converted to biodiesel by the well-known transesterification process and used it to diesel engine for performance evaluation.
TL;DR: The use of KOH instead of NaOH as catalyst gave better quality of biodiesel as mentioned in this paper, while solvent extraction produced high quality oil than mechanical extraction, and the use of solvent extraction was more suitable for transesterification.
Abstract: Energy plays an important role in the development of any nation. But with the present rate of consumption, conventional sources of energy like natural gas and petroleum will be exhausted shortly. That’s why the concept of using bioenergy is giving attention worldwide. Hence, biofuels appears to be a proven renewable energy option. In this paper, we address the issue of producing vegetable oil from Jatropha Curcas seeds, using both mechanical and solvent extraction methods. We are also interested in the production of biodiesel from the raw oil obtained (i.e transesterification or alcoholysis). Results showed that solvent extraction produced high quality oil than mechanical extraction. It was also found that parameters such as oil temperature, reaction temperature, ratio of alcohol to oil and purity of reactants are factors that affect the transesterification process. The use of KOH instead of NaOH as catalyst gave better quality of biodiesel.
TL;DR: In this article, a batch adsorption system was used for the removal of copper ions from aqueous solutions using a local natural abundant agricultural waste in Egypt, where the peanut hull was used as an adsorbent without any chemical or physical treatment.
Abstract: Peanut hull is a local natural abundant agricultural waste in Egypt. The peanut hull was used as an adsorbent without any chemical or physical treatment for copper ions Cu(II) removal from aqueous solutions. Effects of various parameters such as contact time, particle size and dosage of adsorbent, initial pH, solution temperature, and initial concentration of Cu(II) were investigated for a batch adsorption system.The optimum operating conditions were (1 h, 150 rpm shaking speed, 25 °C, pH = 4, 1 g peanut hulls of particle size
TL;DR: In this article, the authors compile scattered information on the different adsorbents that are used for heavy metal removal and to provide information on commercially available and natural bio-adsorbents used for removal of chromium, cadmium and copper, in particular.
Abstract: Heavy metals are discharged into water from various industries. They can be toxic or carcinogenic in nature and can cause severe problems for humans and aquatic ecosystems. Thus, the removal of heavy metals from wastewater is a serious problem. The adsorption process is widely used for the removal of heavy metals from wastewater because of its low cost, availability and eco-friendly nature. Both commercial adsorbents and bioadsorbents are used for the removal of heavy metals from wastewater, with high removal capacity. This review article aims to compile scattered information on the different adsorbents that are used for heavy metal removal and to provide information on the commercially available and natural bioadsorbents used for removal of chromium, cadmium and copper, in particular.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors reviewed the current status of algae as a potential feedstock with diverse benefit for the resolution of the global energy demand, and environmental pollution control of GHG.
Abstract: An algal feedstock or biomass may contain a very high oil fraction, and thus could be used for the production of advanced biofuels via different conversion processes. Its major advantage apart from its large oil fraction is the ability to convert almost all the energy from the feedstock into different varieties of useful products. In the research to displace fossil fuels, algae feedstock has emerged as a suitable candidate not only because of its renewable and sustainable features but also for its economic credibility based on the potential to match up with the global demand for transportation fuels. Cultivating this feedstock is very easy and could be developed with little or even no supervision, with the aid of wastewater not suitable for human consumption while absorbing CO2 from the atmosphere. The overall potential for algae applications generally shows that this feedstock is still an untapped resource, and it could be of huge commercial benefits to the global economy at large because algae exist in millions compared to terrestrial plants. Algae applications are evident for everyday consumption via foods products, non-foods products, fuel, and energy. Biofuels derived from algae have no impact on the environment and the food supply unlike biofuels produced from crops. However, any cultivation method employed could control the operating cost and the technicalities involved, which will also influence the production rate and strain. The scope of this paper is to review the current status of algae as a potential feedstock with diverse benefit for the resolution of the global energy demand, and environmental pollution control of GHG.
TL;DR: The importance of the algal cell contents, various strategies for product formation through various conversion technologies, and its future scope as an energy security are discussed.
Abstract: An initiative has been taken to develop different solid, liquid, and gaseous biofuels as the alternative energy resources. The current research and technology based on the third generation biofuels derived from algal biomass have been considered as the best alternative bioresource that avoids the disadvantages of first and second generation biofuels. Algal biomass has been investigated for the implementation of economic conversion processes producing different biofuels such as biodiesel, bioethanol, biogas, biohydrogen, and other valuable co-products. In the present review, the recent findings and advance developments in algal biomass for improved biofuel production have been explored. This review discusses about the importance of the algal cell contents, various strategies for product formation through various conversion technologies, and its future scope as an energy security.
TL;DR: The present review begins with an introduction of cellular morphologies and life cycle of H. pluvialis from green vegetative motile stage to red non-motile haematocyst stage and aims to serve as a present knowledge for researchers dealing with the bioproduction of astaxanthin from H. PlUVialis.
Abstract: Haematococcus pluvialis is one of the most abundant sources of natural astaxanthin as compared to others microorganism. Therefore, it is important to understand the biorefinery of astaxanthin from H. pluvialis, starting from the cultivation stage to the downstream processing of astaxanthin. The present review begins with an introduction of cellular morphologies and life cycle of H. pluvialis from green vegetative motile stage to red non-motile haematocyst stage. Subsequently, the conventional biorefinery methods (e.g., mechanical disruption, solvent extraction, direct extraction using vegetable oils, and enhanced solvent extraction) and recent advanced biorefinery techniques (e.g., supercritical CO2 extraction, magnetic-assisted extraction, ionic liquids extraction, and supramolecular solvent extraction) were presented and evaluated. Moreover, future prospect and challenges were highlighted to provide a useful guide for future development of biorefinery of astaxanthin from H. pluvialis. The review aims to serve as a present knowledge for researchers dealing with the bioproduction of astaxanthin from H. pluvialis.