TL;DR: From 1814 to 1913, the Irish police enforced laws that benefited the Protestant minority as discussed by the authors and used excessive force against the Irish peasantry while the government covered up their misdeeds and added a word of praise for them.
Abstract: From 1814 to 1913 the Irish police enforced laws that benefited the Protestant minority. Specifically, they collected tithes-payments to the Protestant Church-from tenant farmers who were mainly Catholic; aided landlords in the collection of rents and the eviction of tenants; suppressed the political groups who were trying to gain some rights for Irish peasants; and enforced insurrection, coercion, and criminal acts that were designed to impose tighter controls on the Catholic population through suppression of meetings, limits on freedom of speech, curfew, and imprisonment without trial. The Irish police were fully supported by the British administration in Dublin. At times, they used excessive force against the Irish peasantry while the government covered up their misdeeds and, on occasion, added a word of praise for them. The police were created, paid, directed, and pensioned off by the government. Thereby the British administration created a repressive police force to enforce its laws in Ireland.
15 Apr 2005
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors analyze current understanding of group learning and the factors that influence it and outline a framework that should be useful in present analytical efforts and for identifying areas requiring further study.
Abstract: Better ways are needed to understand how terrorist groups become more effective and dangerous. Learning is the link between what a group wants to do and its ability to actually do it; therefore, a better understanding of group learning might contribute to the design of better measures for combating terrorism. This study analyzes current understanding of group learning and the factors that influence it and outlines a framework that should be useful in present analytical efforts and for identifying areas requiring further study.
31 Jan 1966
01 Jan 2008
TL;DR: In this article, the Provisional IRA's evolving attitude to the "problem" of Ulster unionism, and republicanism's various estimations of the likely efficacy of violence throughout the period.
Abstract: Analyses of the Provisional IRA in Northern Ireland tend to underplay the influence of political strategy in the 1970s, preferring to emphasise militarism. Similarly, the persistence of militarism in the 1980s is often obscured by the attention paid to a ‘new’ republican political orientation. This article seeks to draw attention to the IRA's evolving attitude to the ‘problem’ of Ulster unionism, and republicanism's various estimations of the likely efficacy of violence throughout the period. Republicanism is best understood as a deeply rooted working-class ethno-nationalist movement interacting closely with the other agents of the Northern Ireland conflict: constitutional nationalism, unionism and the British government. ‘Armed struggle’ became a declining asset for republicanism as it came to be seen less as a form of ‘popular guerrilla warfare’ and more as ‘terrorism’. 1
01 Jan 2004
TL;DR: This article examined the relationship between the Irish, American, and British governments, the role of Irish Americans in shaping each government's policy, and the consequences of those policies in the postwar period.
Abstract: This dissertation looks at new evidence and asks new questions about Irish and Irish-American identity and U.S.-Irish relations from 1932 to 1945, especially during the critical years of World War II. It explores the relationship among the Irish, American, and British governments, the role of Irish Americans in shaping each government’s policy, and the consequences of those policies in the postwar period. Through extensive use of primary sources in Ireland and the United States, it builds on recent trends in the history of American foreign relations, contributes a fresh perspective to the relatively new field of Irish diplomatic history, exposes the myths surrounding Irish neutrality, and brings to light new evidence on the role of Irish Americans in shaping official diplomacy. The dissertation is divided into five chapters. The first chapter examines the IrishAmerican pattern of immigration, the history of Irish-American involvement in Irish nationalist groups prior to the outbreak of World War II, and subsequent efforts by the American, British, and Irish governments variously to control, discourage, or incite Irish Americans. The second chapter examines the context of the relationship between the U.S. and Irish governments from 1932, the year de Eamon de Valera took office as President of the Executive Council and Franklin Roosevelt was elected president, until the outbreak of the European war in September 1939. Chapter three examines the tense years from