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Seo-Young Cho

Bio: Seo-Young Cho is an academic researcher from University of Marburg. The author has contributed to research in topics: Social rights & Globalization. The author has an hindex of 15, co-authored 43 publications receiving 1712 citations. Previous affiliations of Seo-Young Cho include German Institute for Economic Research & Free University of Berlin.

Papers
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TL;DR: A positive impact of the CEDAW on women's social rights if combined with a higher degree of democracy is found, robust to the choice of control variables and the method of estimation.
Abstract: This paper analyzes empirically whether the ratification of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW), advocating the multiple dimensions of women’s rights, affects the level of women’s rights in a country. Measuring commitments to the CEDAW based on reservations by member states, I test whether the Convention enhances women’s rights; in particular, (i) whether the effects are stronger if a member country has a higher level of democracy; and (ii) whether the effects are most pronounced in the dimension of women’s social rights, a special focus of the Convention. Using panel data for 126 countries during 1981-2007, I do not find statistically significant effects of the CEDAW alone on any dimension of women’s rights. However, I do find a positive impact of the CEDAW on women’s social rights if combined with a higher degree of democracy. These findings are robust to the choice of control variables and the method of estimation. In particular, taking into account the potential reverse causality does not alter the main conclusions.

805 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors investigate the impact of legalized prostitution on human trafficking inflows and show that the scale effect dominates the substitution effect, leading to an expansion of the prostitution market, increasing human trafficking and reducing demand for trafficked women.
Abstract: This paper investigates the impact of legalized prostitution on human trafficking inflows. According to economic theory, there are two opposing effects of unknown magnitude. The scale effect of legalized prostitution leads to an expansion of the prostitution market, increasing human trafficking, while the substitution effect reduces demand for trafficked women as legal prostitutes are favored over trafficked ones. Our empirical analysis for a cross-section of up to 150 countries shows that the scale effect dominates the substitution effect. On average, countries where prostitution is legal experience larger reported human trafficking inflows.

183 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors investigate the impact of legalized prostitution on human trafficking inflows and show that the scale effect dominates the substitution effect, leading to an expansion of the prostitution market, increasing human trafficking and reducing demand for trafficked women.

141 citations

Posted Content
TL;DR: The authors analyzed the spread of policies dealing with international trafficking in human beings and identified pressure, externalities and learning or emulation as plausible diffusion mechanisms for spatial dependence in anti-trafficking policies.
Abstract: We analyze the spread of policies dealing with international trafficking in human beings. Arguing that countries are unlikely to make independent choices, we identify pressure, externalities and learning or emulation as plausible diffusion mechanisms for spatial dependence in anti-trafficking policies. We develop a new index measuring governments’ overall anti-trafficking policies for 177 countries over the 2000-2009 period. We also assess a country’s level of compliance in the three main constituent dimensions of anti-trafficking policies – prosecution, protection and prevention. Employing a spatial autoregressive model, we find that, with the exception of victim protection measures, anti-trafficking policies diffuse across contiguous countries and main trading partners due to externality effects. We find evidence for learning or emulation effects in all policy domains, with countries looking toward peers with similar political views or cultural values. Surprisingly, major destination countries do not seem to exert pressure on relevant main countries of origin or transit to ratchet up their policies.

96 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article developed an index measuring the three main dimensions of the anti-trafficking policies of the governments of up to 180 countries over the 2000−2010 period, and found that compliance with anti trafficking policies significantly decreases with corruption and is higher in countries that also respect the rights of women.
Abstract: We develop an index measuring the three main dimensions – prosecution, protection, and prevention – of the anti-trafficking policies of the governments of up to 180 countries over the 2000−2010 period. Overall, developed countries perform better than the rest of the world; compliance with prosecution policy is highest, while governmental efforts to protect victims of human trafficking remain weakest. We employ the new indices to investigate which factors determine anti-trafficking policies. We find that compliance with anti-trafficking policies significantly decreases with corruption and is higher in countries that also respect the rights of women. We also find some tentative evidence for spatial dependence in anti-trafficking policies.

79 citations


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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors investigated conditions sufficient for identification of average treatment effects using instrumental variables and showed that the existence of valid instruments is not sufficient to identify any meaningful average treatment effect.
Abstract: We investigate conditions sufficient for identification of average treatment effects using instrumental variables. First we show that the existence of valid instruments is not sufficient to identify any meaningful average treatment effect. We then establish that the combination of an instrument and a condition on the relation between the instrument and the participation status is sufficient for identification of a local average treatment effect for those who can be induced to change their participation status by changing the value of the instrument. Finally we derive the probability limit of the standard IV estimator under these conditions. It is seen to be a weighted average of local average treatment effects.

3,154 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The first phase of a three year study of 62 countries to evaluate how far the civil, economic, political, social and cultural rights of children have been affected worldwide suggests that there have been many rapid and widespread changes.

2,874 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The main objectives of the fifth EUPHIN-EAST meeting were to evaluate the functioning of the EUPHin-E East network using the experience of nine pilot countries and to agree further actions.

1,164 citations