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Sergio Cardoso

Bio: Sergio Cardoso is an academic researcher from University of the Basque Country. The author has contributed to research in topics: Population & Haplogroup. The author has an hindex of 18, co-authored 54 publications receiving 831 citations. Previous affiliations of Sergio Cardoso include Federal University of Rio de Janeiro.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Analysis of the genetic structure of populations carried out using analysis of molecular variance revealed moderate genetic variation within populations of endangered E. edulis, and genetic differentiation between populations was positively correlated with geographical distance.
Abstract: Heart-of-palm (Euterpe edulis Mart.) is a wild palm with a wide distribution throughout the Atlantic Rainforest. Populations of E. edulis represent important renewable natural resources but are currently under threat from predatory exploitation. Furthermore, because the species is indigenous to the Atlantic Rainforest, which is located in the most economically developed and populated region of Brazil, social and economic pressures have devastated heart-of-palm forests. In order to estimate the partitioning of genetic variation of endangered E. edulis populations, 429 AFLP markers were used to analyse 150 plants representing 11 populations of the species distribution range. Analysis of the genetic structure of populations carried out using analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed moderate genetic variation within populations (57. 4%). Genetic differentiation between populations (FST = 0.426) was positively correlated with geographical distance. These results could be explained by the historical fragmentation of the Atlantic coastal region, together with the life cycle and mating system. The data obtained in this work should have important implications for conservation and future breeding programmes of E. edulis.

91 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Genetic diversity in populations of the endangered tropical tree Caesalpinia echinata Lam is analyzed to suggest that the current tripartite distribution of the species is more consistent with the existence of separate glacial refugia, rather than reflecting any anthropogenic effects.
Abstract: Habitat fragmentation represents the single most serious threat to the survival of tropical ecosystems. In formulating strategies to counteract the detrimental effects of fragmentation, knowledge of the levels and patterns of genetic diversity within and between natural populations is vital to the establishment of any conservation programme. We utilized polymorphic chloroplast microsatellite markers to analyse genetic diversity in populations of the endangered tropical tree Caesalpinia echinata Lam. representing the entire extant range of the species. Levels of within-population diversity were low, with only two of seven populations studied displaying any variation. The vast majority of the genetic variation was partitioned between geographical regions (36%) and between populations within regions (55%). These levels of genetic structuring, coupled with a calculated pollen-to-seed flow ratio of ≈ 6.7:1, suggest that there has been little gene flow between the three major geographical regions over an extended period. Thus, the current tripartite distribution of the species is more consistent with the existence of separate glacial refugia, rather than reflecting any anthropogenic effects.

65 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A refined dissection of haplogroup J might provide more solid evidence about the process of postglacial recolonization of Europe, and thus about the shaping of the European gene pool, as well as a shift in the focus of attention of mtDNA analysts.
Abstract: This study provides a more complete characterization of the mitochondrial genome variability of the Basques, including data on the hypervariable segment HVII of the D-loop region, which remains relatively unknown. To that end, genomic DNA from 55 healthy men living in the Arratia Valley (Biscay province) and the Goiherri region (Guipuzcoa province) was examined by direct sequencing. Three-generation pedigree charts were compiled to ensure the collection from autochthonous individuals. The most notable findings emerging from the analysis of haplogroup composition are: (i) lack of U8a mitochondrial lineage, a rare subhaplogroup recently identified in Basques and proposed as a Paleolithic marker, (ii) low frequency of haplogroup V, which conflicts with results of earlier analyses describing high frequencies in southwestern Europe, and (iii) high frequency of haplogroup J, especially subhaplogroups J1c1 and J2a. The frequency of haplogroup J does not coincide with previous mtDNA studies in present-day Basques, but is congruent with frequencies found in prehistoric and historic Basque populations. In explaining divergence in haplogroup composition between modern Basque samples, we hypothesized spatial heterogeneity promoted by population fragmentation due to extreme limitation of dispersal opportunities during the Pleistocene glaciations. Similarities between extinct and extant Basque populations as for the high frequency of lineage J, as well as the abundance of this haplogroup in northern Spain endorse a shift in the focus of attention of mtDNA analysts. A refined dissection of haplogroup J might provide more solid evidence about the process of postglacial recolonization of Europe, and thus about the shaping of the European gene pool.

49 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This GHEP–EMPOP collaboration has significantly improved the quality of the individual mtDNA datasets and adds mtDNA population data as valuable resource to the EMPOP database (www.empop.org).
Abstract: Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) population data for forensic purposes are still scarce for some populations, which may limit the evaluation of forensic evidence especially when the rarity of a haplotype needs to be determined in a database search. In order to improve the collection of mtDNA lineages from the Iberian and South American subcontinents, we here report the results of a collaborative study involving nine laboratories from the Spanish and Portuguese Speaking Working Group of the International Society for Forensic Genetics (GHEP-ISFG) and EMPOP. The individual laboratories contributed population data that were generated throughout the past 10 years, but in the majority of cases have not been made available to the scientific community. A total of 1019 haplotypes from Iberia (Basque Country, 2 general Spanish populations, 2 North and 1 Central Portugal populations), and Latin America (3 populations from Sao Paulo) were collected, reviewed and harmonized according to defined EMPOP criteria. The majority of data ambiguities that were found during the reviewing process (41 in total) were transcription errors confirming that the documentation process is still the most error-prone stage in reporting mtDNA population data, especially when performed manually. This GHEP–EMPOP collaboration has significantly improved the quality of the individual mtDNA datasets and adds mtDNA population data as valuable resource to the EMPOP database (www.empop.org).

45 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The genetic identification of human remains found in 26 mass graves located in Northern Spain shows a partial identification success rate, which is clearly a consequence of the lack of both appropriate family members for genetic comparisons and accurate information about the victims' location.
Abstract: The Spanish Civil War (1936-1939) and posterior dictatorship (until 1970s) stands as one of the major conflicts in the recent history of Spain. It led to nearly two hundred thousand men and women executed or murdered extra-judicially or after dubious legal procedures. Nowadays, most of them remain unidentified or even buried in irretraceable mass graves across Spain. Here, we present the genetic identification of human remains found in 26 mass graves located in Northern Spain. A total of 252 post-mortem remains were analyzed and compared to 186 relatives, allowing the identification of 87 victims. Overall, a significant success of DNA profiling was reached, since informative profiles (≥ 12 STRs and/or mitochondrial DNA profile) were obtained in 85.71% of the remains. This high performance in DNA profiling from challenging samples demonstrated the efficacy of DNA extraction and amplification methods used herein, given that only around 14.29% of the samples did not provide an informative genetic profile for the analysis performed, probably due to the presence of degraded and/or limited DNA in these remains. However, this study shows a partial identification success rate, which is clearly a consequence of the lack of both appropriate family members for genetic comparisons and accurate information about the victims' location. Hence, further perseverance in the exhumation of other intact graves as well as in the search of more alleged relatives is crucial in order to facilitate and increase the number of genetic identifications.

39 citations


Cited by
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01 Aug 2000
TL;DR: Assessment of medical technology in the context of commercialization with Bioentrepreneur course, which addresses many issues unique to biomedical products.
Abstract: BIOE 402. Medical Technology Assessment. 2 or 3 hours. Bioentrepreneur course. Assessment of medical technology in the context of commercialization. Objectives, competition, market share, funding, pricing, manufacturing, growth, and intellectual property; many issues unique to biomedical products. Course Information: 2 undergraduate hours. 3 graduate hours. Prerequisite(s): Junior standing or above and consent of the instructor.

4,833 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The objectives of BIOS 781 are to present basic population and quantitative genetic principles, including classical genetics, chromosomal theory of inheritance, and meiotic recombination, and methods for genome-wide association and stratification control.
Abstract: LEARNING The objectives of BIOS 781 are to present: OBJECTIVES: 1. basic population and quantitative genetic principles, including classical genetics, chromosomal theory of inheritance, and meiotic recombination 2. an exposure to QTL mapping methods of complex quantitative traits and linkage methods to detect co-segregation with disease 3. methods for assessing marker-disease linkage disequilibrium, including case-control approaches 4. methods for genome-wide association and stratification control.

1,516 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Oct 2005-Heredity
TL;DR: A simulation approach is used to assess the magnitude of expected genetic change, and 31 studies of 23 neotropical tree species are reviewed to assess whether empirical case studies conform to theory.
Abstract: The theoretical impacts of anthropogenic habitat degradation on genetic resources have been well articulated. Here we use a simulation approach to assess the magnitude of expected genetic change, and review 31 studies of 23 neotropical tree species to assess whether empirical case studies conform to theory. Major differences in the sensitivity of measures to detect the genetic health of degraded populations were obvious. Most studies employing genetic diversity (nine out of 13) found no significant consequences, yet most that assessed progeny inbreeding (six out of eight), reproductive output (seven out of 10) and fitness (all six) highlighted significant impacts. These observations are in line with theory, where inbreeding is observed immediately following impact, but genetic diversity is lost slowly over subsequent generations, which for trees may take decades. Studies also highlight the ecological, not just genetic, consequences of habitat degradation that can cause reduced seed set and progeny fitness. Unexpectedly, two studies examining pollen flow using paternity analysis highlight an extensive network of gene flow at smaller spatial scales (less than 10 km). Gene flow can thus mitigate against loss of genetic diversity and assist in long-term population viability, even in degraded landscapes. Unfortunately, the surveyed studies were too few and heterogeneous to examine concepts of population size thresholds and genetic resilience in relation to life history. Future suggested research priorities include undertaking integrated studies on a range of species in the same landscapes; better documentation of the extent and duration of impact; and most importantly, combining neutral marker, pollination dynamics, ecological consequences, and progeny fitness assessment within single studies.

521 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
05 Jul 2013-Science
TL;DR: Findings suggest that somatic, perhaps brain-only, mosaic mutations may be important for other neurodevelopmental diseases, however, finding the mutations and the affected cells may require special study designs and technology.
Abstract: Genetic mutations causing human disease are conventionally thought to be inherited through the germ line from one's parents and present in all somatic (body) cells, except for most cancer mutations, which arise somatically. Increasingly, somatic mutations are being identified in diseases other than cancer, including neurodevelopmental diseases. Somatic mutations can arise during the course of prenatal brain development and cause neurological disease-even when present at low levels of mosaicism, for example-resulting in brain malformations associated with epilepsy and intellectual disability. Novel, highly sensitive technologies will allow more accurate evaluation of somatic mutations in neurodevelopmental disorders and during normal brain development.

494 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Iñigo Olalde1, Selina Brace2, Morten E. Allentoft3, Ian Armit4  +166 moreInstitutions (69)
08 Mar 2018-Nature
TL;DR: Genome-wide data from 400 Neolithic, Copper Age and Bronze Age Europeans is presented, finding limited genetic affinity between Beaker-complex-associated individuals from Iberia and central Europe, and excludes migration as an important mechanism of spread between these two regions.
Abstract: From around 2750 to 2500 bc, Bell Beaker pottery became widespread across western and central Europe, before it disappeared between 2200 and 1800 bc. The forces that propelled its expansion are a matter of long-standing debate, and there is support for both cultural diffusion and migration having a role in this process. Here we present genome-wide data from 400 Neolithic, Copper Age and Bronze Age Europeans, including 226 individuals associated with Beaker-complex artefacts. We detected limited genetic affinity between Beaker-complex-associated individuals from Iberia and central Europe, and thus exclude migration as an important mechanism of spread between these two regions. However, migration had a key role in the further dissemination of the Beaker complex. We document this phenomenon most clearly in Britain, where the spread of the Beaker complex introduced high levels of steppe-related ancestry and was associated with the replacement of approximately 90% of Britain's gene pool within a few hundred years, continuing the east-to-west expansion that had brought steppe-related ancestry into central and northern Europe over the previous centuries.

479 citations