Bio: Sergio Zuniga-Jara is an academic researcher from Catholic University of the North. The author has contributed to research in topics: Humanities & Psychology. The author has an hindex of 8, co-authored 25 publications receiving 184 citations.
••01 Jan 2016
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors analyzed the effect that a university course about the study of experiences in entrepreneurship on Entrepreneurial Intention (EI) of the students was analyzed.
Abstract: The effect that a university course about the study of experiences in entrepreneurship on Entrepreneurial Intention (EI) of the students was analyzed. Entrepreneurial Intention is considered a prerequisite for the decision to start a business. The increasing number of studies on EI reflects the importance assigned to this subject. The participants of the study are students belonging to a business studies school of a Chilean university. The research followed a methodology available in the literature that states that demographic variables, perceived capacity and educational level help in explaining the EI. The results of the study show that in the overall, entrepreneurial intention was negatively affected by the course. However, it was found that students who experienced the greatest change in their willingness to start a business were those who possessed two characteristics: they believed to have the necessary knowledge, skills and experience to start a new business, and belong to low income families.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors used the discount rate or cost of capital (WACC) used as an input to estimate the net present value (NPV) in aquaculture research over the last 25 years.
Abstract: This article reviews the discount rate or cost of capital (WACC) used as an input to estimate the net present value (NPV) in aquaculture research over the last 25 years. To that end, aquaculture articles, published in peer-reviewed journals using the Web of Science, Scopus, and ScienceDirect databases were collected. This article provides an approximate minimum profitability for new aquaculture feasibility studies according to the type of aquaculture marine commodities, the project type, and the location or country. The results show that the average WACC was 10.6%; this rate was significantly higher a) for algae than for crustaceans, mollusks, and fish; and b) for projects installed in developing countries than for developed countries. Because precisely estimating the WACC for each new project takes considerable time and is expensive, this study provides a useful baseline for many stakeholders, such as private investors, research centers, and government bodies, that provide financial support to aq...
••01 Jan 2014
TL;DR: In this article, the authors analyzed the academic success of university students using logit models and found that the main variables predicting academic success are: high school grades, scores obtained by the student on the math portion of the university admission test, and finally, the gap in terms of the number of years between the year of graduation from high school and university enrollment.
Abstract: In this study some determining aspects of the academic success of university students are analyzed. In this study the measure of success is the graduation of a student while student’s removal, transfer or dropout from the university is considered failure. To compare students’ success/failure rates, a database of 564 university students was used. The database included 13 explanatory variables classified into three categories: student’s personal characteristics, high school grades, and university admission test scores. Results using logit models, show that the main variables predicting academic success are: first, high school grades; second, scores obtained by the student on the math portion of the university admission test; and finally, the gap in terms of the number of years between the year of graduation from high school and the year of university enrollment.
TL;DR: A bioeconomic model for individual and artisanal culture of Kappaphycus alvarezii is constructed and suggests that this type of culture can fulfill an important social role as long as conflicts for marine space usage are resolved, climate conditions are favorable, and diseases and epiphytes are controlled.
Abstract: Commercial culture of red algal seaweeds, particularly Kappaphycus and Eucheuma, has increased significantly in recent years and, since 2008, has surpassed the production of all other farmed seaweeds. A number of countries have analyzed the feasibility of small-scale culture of Kappaphycus as a method of alleviating poverty in low-income coastal communities. In this study, a bioeconomic model for individual and artisanal culture of Kappaphycus alvarezii is constructed. The results of the study show that using the base model, the net present value is positive at the 6-month mark, once the business has started, and that the internal return rate is 210 %. These results are explained by the small investment required for a raft culture system. Sensitivity analysis shows that the business tolerates important unfavorable variations in the critical economical, technological, and biological variables. Finally, the results suggest that this type of culture can fulfill an important social role as long as conflicts for marine space usage are resolved, climate conditions are favorable, and diseases and epiphytes are controlled.
TL;DR: The results of the baseline model show that cultivation is not profitable in the long term considering the selling price and the harvest yield, but in a scenario in which productivity is 211 % higher than the base harvest, cultivation becomes profitable, with positive net present values (NPV) after 14 years.
Abstract: This study analyzed the economic feasibility of offshore commercial cultivation of Macrocystis pyrifera in northern Chile. To achieve this objective, a continuous-time model including biological, technological, and economic aspects was developed. To implement this model, the biomass growth until marketable size is reached was estimated for three periods of the year. A periodic system of cultivation and harvesting is described, and the main investments, operation costs, remunerations, and operational costs of cultivation and harvesting are defined. The results of the baseline model show that cultivation is not profitable in the long term considering the selling price and the harvest yield. Additionally, at baseline, the revenue is unable to cover the investment costs or the operation costs. However, in a scenario in which productivity is 211 % higher than the base harvest and prices are 25 % higher, cultivation becomes profitable, with positive net present values (NPV) after 14 years. Despite the aforementioned considerations, the opportunity for generating greater value from this type of cultivation is discussed, taking into account its characteristics as units that provide ecosystem services, which is a feature that is starting to be discussed in relation to marine environments.
08 Jul 2021
TL;DR: The results of a comprehensive mapping and detailed characterisation of the algae production at the European scale, encompassing macroalgae, microalgae and the cyanobacteria Spirulina, were presented and analyzed in this paper.
Abstract: The EU Bioeconomy Strategy aims to support the sustainable growth and development of the EU bio-based sectors while creating jobs, innovation and services. Despite the recognised potential of the algae biomass value chain, significant knowledge gaps still exist regarding the dimension, capability, organization and structure of the algae production in Europe. This study presents and analyses the results of a comprehensive mapping and detailed characterisation of the algae production at the European scale, encompassing macroalgae, microalgae and the cyanobacteria Spirulina. This work mapped 447 algae and Spirulina production units spread between 23 countries, which represents an important addition to the reported number of algae producing countries. More than 50% of these companies produce microalgae and/or Spirulina. Macroalgae production is still depending on harvesting from wild stocks (68% of the macroalgae producing units) but macroalgae aquaculture (land-based and at sea) is developing in several countries in Europe currently representing 32% of the macroalgae production units. France, Ireland and Spain are the top 3 countries in number of macroalgae production units while Germany, Spain and Italy stand for the top 3 for microalgae. Spirulina producers are predominantly located in France, Italy, Germany and Spain. Algae and Spirulina biomass is directed primarily for food and food-related applications including the extraction of high-value products for food supplements and nutraceuticals. Algae production in Europe remains limited by a series of technological, regulatory and market-related barriers. Yet, the results of this study emphasise that the European algae sector has a considerable potential for sustainable development as long as the acknowledged economic, social and environmental challenges are addressed.
TL;DR: This multidisciplinary field applied to the seaweed aquaculture is very promising to improve the methods and techniques; this area is developed under the denominated industry 4.0.
Abstract: Seaweeds (marine macroalgae) are autotrophic organisms capable of producing many compounds of interest. For a long time, seaweeds have been seen as a great nutritional resource, primarily in Asian countries to later gain importance in Europe and South America, as well as in North America and Australia. It has been reported that edible seaweeds are rich in proteins, lipids and dietary fibers. Moreover, they have plenty of bioactive molecules that can be applied in nutraceutical, pharmaceutical and cosmetic areas. There are historical registers of harvest and cultivation of seaweeds but with the increment of the studies of seaweeds and their valuable compounds, their aquaculture has increased. The methodology of cultivation varies from onshore to offshore. Seaweeds can also be part of integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA), which has great opportunities but is also very challenging to the farmers. This multidisciplinary field applied to the seaweed aquaculture is very promising to improve the methods and techniques; this area is developed under the denominated industry 4.0.
TL;DR: An offshore long-line macroalgae cultivation rig was designed by Ocean Rainforest Sp/f, tested in the Faroe Islands from 2010, and found suitable for cultivation in exposed and deep-water locations.
Abstract: The current work aimed to develop a cultivation method for macroalgae that can be applicable and economically profitable in the Atlantic Ocean. An offshore long-line macroalgal cultivation rig was designed by Ocean Rainforest Sp/f, tested in the Faroe Islands from 2010, and found suitable for cultivation in exposed and deep-water locations (water depth > 50 m). The economic risk related to lost cultivation structures was hereafter considered to be low. Saccharina latissima and Alaria esculenta were cultivated in commercial scale (5 km of growth lines). A high cost of seeding material and cost of deployment was reduced by testing multiple partial harvesting. Four non-destructive harvests were carried out in a two-year growth period without re-seeding of lines. In total, 3.2 t dry weight (dw) biomass was harvested and sold to customers within the food and cosmetic industries. The productivity was 1437.5 kg dw ha−1 yr−1 (including handling space). The 10-meter vertical growth lines had an average yield of 0.29 kg dw m−1 per harvest and four partial harvests were made over a 2-year period. An economic analysis showing the cost structure of important aspects of offshore macroalgae cultivation was conducted. The total cost per kg dw of cultivated S. latissima decreased when the number of possible harvests without re-seeding was increased (from € 36.73 to € 9.27). This work has demonstrated that large-scale kelp cultivation is possible using multiple partial harvesting in the Faroe Islands, and highlighted the need for further innovation to lower the cost per unit macroalgal produced.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors provide a detailed account of developments of commercial seaweed farming that has witnessed successful diversification of livelihood consistently for the last 10 years. But evidence-based policies are required for addressing prevailing environmental issues.
Abstract: There is an urgent need for diversifying livelihood of low-income artisanal fishermen due to rapidly dwindling fishery resources. CSIR-Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute takes pride in being first for pioneering Kappaphycus alvarezii cultivation, heralding an era of commercial seaweed farming in India. The invention of liquefying fresh seaweed biomass to obtain two products in an integrated manner, one being a granular residue rich in κ-carrageenan and the other being sap rich in potash and micronutrients (ca. 2 % w/v), with proven efficacy has provided a boost to commercial farming. The production has been substantially increased from 21 dry tonnes in 2001 to 1490 dry tonnes in 2013 with concomitant purchase value of <4.5 to 35 Rs kg−1 (dry). India is fast emerging as important production center in Southeast Asia for K. alvarezii production with estimated 765,000 man-days of employment, having annual turnover of around Rs 2 billion. At present, commercial farming is carried out following three techniques, namely floating bamboo raft, tube net, and longline method of which former two are widely practiced. The cultivation activity is well established in southern state of Tamil Nadu and progressing rapidly to other areas namely Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, and Maharashtra. The socioeconomic benefits accrued in this project are overwhelmingly positive, but evidence-based policies are required for addressing prevailing environmental issues. The steps toward developing value-added products with niche applications coupled with biotechnological interventions aimed at seed production through tissue culture for developing elite germplasm, etc. could further improve the prospects of taking this project to pan India level. The present review provides a detailed account of developments of commercial farming that has witnessed successful diversification of livelihood consistently for the last 10 years.