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Author

Shahriar Shahabuddin

Other affiliations: Nokia Networks, Nokia
Bio: Shahriar Shahabuddin is an academic researcher from University of Oulu. The author has contributed to research in topics: MIMO & Clock rate. The author has an hindex of 10, co-authored 37 publications receiving 596 citations. Previous affiliations of Shahriar Shahabuddin include Nokia Networks & Nokia.

Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper discusses optimal and near-optimal detection principles specifically designed for the massive MIMO system such as detectors based on a local search, belief propagation and box detection, and presents recent advances of detection algorithms which are mostly based on machine learning or sparsity based algorithms.
Abstract: Massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) is a key technology to meet the user demands in performance and quality of services (QoS) for next generation communication systems. Due to a large number of antennas and radio frequency (RF) chains, complexity of the symbol detectors increased rapidly in a massive MIMO uplink receiver. Thus, the research to find the perfect massive MIMO detection algorithm with optimal performance and low complexity has gained a lot of attention during the past decade. A plethora of massive MIMO detection algorithms has been proposed in the literature. The aim of this paper is to provide insights on such algorithms to a generalist of wireless communications. We garner the massive MIMO detection algorithms and classify them so that a reader can find a distinction between different algorithms from a wider range of solutions. We present optimal and near-optimal detection principles specifically designed for the massive MIMO system such as detectors based on a local search, belief propagation and box detection. In addition, we cover detectors based on approximate inversion, which has gained popularity among the VLSI signal processing community due to their deterministic dataflow and low complexity. We also briefly explore several nonlinear small-scale MIMO (2-4 antenna receivers) detectors and their applicability in the massive MIMO context. In addition, we present recent advances of detection algorithms which are mostly based on machine learning or sparsity based algorithms. In each section, we also mention the related implementations of the detectors. A discussion of the pros and cons of each detector is provided.

262 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper outlines the 5G network threat landscape, the security vulnerabilities in the new technological concepts that will be adopted by 5G, and provides either solutions to those threats or future directions to cope with those security challenges.
Abstract: The development of the fifth generation (5G) wireless networks is gaining momentum to connect almost all aspects of life through the network with much higher speed, very low latency and ubiquitous connectivity. Due to its crucial role in our lives, the network must secure its users, components, and services. The security threat landscape of 5G has grown enormously due to the unprecedented increase in types of services and in the number of devices. Therefore, security solutions if not developed yet must be envisioned already to cope with diverse threats on various services, novel technologies, and increased user information accessible by the network. This paper outlines the 5G network threat landscape, the security vulnerabilities in the new technological concepts that will be adopted by 5G, and provides either solutions to those threats or future directions to cope with those security challenges. We also provide a brief outline of the post-5G cellular technologies and their security vulnerabilities which is referred to as future generations (XG) in this paper. In brief, this paper highlights the present and future security challenges in wireless networks, mainly in 5G, and future directions to secure wireless networks beyond 5G.

215 citations

Posted Content
TL;DR: This white paper explores the road to implementing broadband connectivity in future 6G wireless systems, from extreme capacity with peak data rates up to 1 Tbps, to raising the typical data rates by orders-of-magnitude, to support broadband connectivity at railway speeds up to 1000 km/h.
Abstract: This white paper explores the road to implementing broadband connectivity in future 6G wireless systems. Different categories of use cases are considered, from extreme capacity with peak data rates up to 1 Tbps, to raising the typical data rates by orders-of-magnitude, to support broadband connectivity at railway speeds up to 1000 km/h. To achieve these goals, not only the terrestrial networks will be evolved but they will also be integrated with satellite networks, all facilitating autonomous systems and various interconnected structures. We believe that several categories of enablers at the infrastructure, spectrum, and protocol/ algorithmic levels are required to realize the intended broadband connectivity goals in 6G. At the infrastructure level, we consider ultra-massive MIMO technology (possibly implemented using holographic radio), intelligent reflecting surfaces, user-centric and scalable cell-free networking, integrated access and backhaul, and integrated space and terrestrial networks. At the spectrum level, the network must seamlessly utilize sub-6 GHz bands for coverage and spatial multiplexing of many devices, while higher bands will be used for pushing the peak rates of point-to-point links. The latter path will lead to THz communications complemented by visible light communications in specific scenarios. At the protocol/algorithmic level, the enablers include improved coding, modulation, and waveforms to achieve lower latencies, higher reliability, and reduced complexity. Different options will be needed to optimally support different use cases. The resource efficiency can be further improved by using various combinations of full-duplex radios, interference management based on rate-splitting, machine-learning-based optimization, coded caching, and broadcasting.

212 citations

Posted Content
TL;DR: The road to vastly improving the broadband connectivity in future 6G wireless systems is explored, from extreme capacity with peak data rates up to 1 Tbps, to raising the typical data rates by orders-of-magnitude, and supporting broadband connectivity at railway speeds up to 1000 km/h.
Abstract: This paper explores the road to vastly improving the broadband connectivity in future 6G wireless systems. Different categories of use cases are considered, with peak data rates up to 1 Tbps. Several categories of enablers at the infrastructure, spectrum, and protocol/algorithmic levels are required to realize the intended broadband connectivity goals in 6G. At the infrastructure level, we consider ultra-massive MIMO technology (possibly implemented using holographic radio), intelligent reflecting surfaces, user-centric cell-free networking, integrated access and backhaul, and integrated space and terrestrial networks. At the spectrum level, the network must seamlessly utilize sub-6 GHz bands for coverage and spatial multiplexing of many devices, while higher bands will be mainly used for pushing the peak rates of point-to-point links. Finally, at the protocol/algorithmic level, the enablers include improved coding, modulation, and waveforms to achieve lower latency, higher reliability, and reduced complexity.

69 citations

Posted Content
TL;DR: The challenges in creating a trustworthy 6G are multidisciplinary spanning technology, regulation, techno-economics, politics and ethics, and the fundamental research challenges are addressed.
Abstract: The roles of trust, security and privacy are somewhat interconnected, but different facets of next generation networks. The challenges in creating a trustworthy 6G are multidisciplinary spanning technology, regulation, techno-economics, politics and ethics. This white paper addresses their fundamental research challenges in three key areas. Trust: Under the current "open internet" regulation, the telco cloud can be used for trust services only equally for all users. 6G network must support embedded trust for increased level of information security in 6G. Trust modeling, trust policies and trust mechanisms need to be defined. 6G interlinks physical and digital worlds making safety dependent on information security. Therefore, we need trustworthy 6G. Security: In 6G era, the dependence of the economy and societies on IT and the networks will deepen. The role of IT and the networks in national security keeps rising - a continuation of what we see in 5G. The development towards cloud and edge native infrastructures is expected to continue in 6G networks, and we need holistic 6G network security architecture planning. Security automation opens new questions: machine learning can be used to make safer systems, but also more dangerous attacks. Physical layer security techniques can also represent efficient solutions for securing less investigated network segments as first line of defense. Privacy: There is currently no way to unambiguously determine when linked, deidentified datasets cross the threshold to become personally identifiable. Courts in different parts of the world are making decisions about whether privacy is being infringed, while companies are seeking new ways to exploit private data to create new business revenues. As solution alternatives, we may consider blockchain, distributed ledger technologies and differential privacy approaches.

52 citations


Cited by
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper provides a tutorial overview of IRS-aided wireless communications, and elaborate its reflection and channel models, hardware architecture and practical constraints, as well as various appealing applications in wireless networks.
Abstract: Intelligent reflecting surface (IRS) is an enabling technology to engineer the radio signal propagation in wireless networks. By smartly tuning the signal reflection via a large number of low-cost passive reflecting elements, IRS is capable of dynamically altering wireless channels to enhance the communication performance. It is thus expected that the new IRS-aided hybrid wireless network comprising both active and passive components will be highly promising to achieve a sustainable capacity growth cost-effectively in the future. Despite its great potential, IRS faces new challenges to be efficiently integrated into wireless networks, such as reflection optimization, channel estimation, and deployment from communication design perspectives. In this paper, we provide a tutorial overview of IRS-aided wireless communications to address the above issues, and elaborate its reflection and channel models, hardware architecture and practical constraints, as well as various appealing applications in wireless networks. Moreover, we highlight important directions worthy of further investigation in future work.

1,325 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: 6G with additional technical requirements beyond those of 5G will enable faster and further communications to the extent that the boundary between physical and cyber worlds disappears.
Abstract: The fifth generation (5G) wireless communication networks are being deployed worldwide from 2020 and more capabilities are in the process of being standardized, such as mass connectivity, ultra-reliability, and guaranteed low latency. However, 5G will not meet all requirements of the future in 2030 and beyond, and sixth generation (6G) wireless communication networks are expected to provide global coverage, enhanced spectral/energy/cost efficiency, better intelligence level and security, etc. To meet these requirements, 6G networks will rely on new enabling technologies, i.e., air interface and transmission technologies and novel network architecture, such as waveform design, multiple access, channel coding schemes, multi-antenna technologies, network slicing, cell-free architecture, and cloud/fog/edge computing. Our vision on 6G is that it will have four new paradigm shifts. First, to satisfy the requirement of global coverage, 6G will not be limited to terrestrial communication networks, which will need to be complemented with non-terrestrial networks such as satellite and unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) communication networks, thus achieving a space-air-ground-sea integrated communication network. Second, all spectra will be fully explored to further increase data rates and connection density, including the sub-6 GHz, millimeter wave (mmWave), terahertz (THz), and optical frequency bands. Third, facing the big datasets generated by the use of extremely heterogeneous networks, diverse communication scenarios, large numbers of antennas, wide bandwidths, and new service requirements, 6G networks will enable a new range of smart applications with the aid of artificial intelligence (AI) and big data technologies. Fourth, network security will have to be strengthened when developing 6G networks. This article provides a comprehensive survey of recent advances and future trends in these four aspects. Clearly, 6G with additional technical requirements beyond those of 5G will enable faster and further communications to the extent that the boundary between physical and cyber worlds disappears.

935 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Significant technological breakthroughs to achieve connectivity goals within 6G include: a network operating at the THz band with much wider spectrum resources, intelligent communication environments that enable a wireless propagation environment with active signal transmission and reception, and pervasive artificial intelligence.
Abstract: 6G and beyond will fulfill the requirements of a fully connected world and provide ubiquitous wireless connectivity for all. Transformative solutions are expected to drive the surge for accommodating a rapidly growing number of intelligent devices and services. Major technological breakthroughs to achieve connectivity goals within 6G include: (i) a network operating at the THz band with much wider spectrum resources, (ii) intelligent communication environments that enable a wireless propagation environment with active signal transmission and reception, (iii) pervasive artificial intelligence, (iv) large-scale network automation, (v) an all-spectrum reconfigurable front-end for dynamic spectrum access, (vi) ambient backscatter communications for energy savings, (vii) the Internet of Space Things enabled by CubeSats and UAVs, and (viii) cell-free massive MIMO communication networks. In this roadmap paper, use cases for these enabling techniques as well as recent advancements on related topics are highlighted, and open problems with possible solutions are discussed, followed by a development timeline outlining the worldwide efforts in the realization of 6G. Going beyond 6G, promising early-stage technologies such as the Internet of NanoThings, the Internet of BioNanoThings, and quantum communications, which are expected to have a far-reaching impact on wireless communications, have also been discussed at length in this paper.

595 citations

Journal Article
TL;DR: In this article, the optimal number of scheduled users in a massive MIMO system with arbitrary pilot reuse and random user locations is analyzed in a closed form, while simulations are used to show what happens at finite $M$, in different interference scenarios, with different pilot reuse factors, and for different processing schemes.
Abstract: Massive MIMO is a promising technique for increasing the spectral efficiency (SE) of cellular networks, by deploying antenna arrays with hundreds or thousands of active elements at the base stations and performing coherent transceiver processing. A common rule-of-thumb is that these systems should have an order of magnitude more antennas $M$ than scheduled users $K$ because the users’ channels are likely to be near-orthogonal when $M/K > 10$ . However, it has not been proved that this rule-of-thumb actually maximizes the SE. In this paper, we analyze how the optimal number of scheduled users $K^\star$ depends on $M$ and other system parameters. To this end, new SE expressions are derived to enable efficient system-level analysis with power control, arbitrary pilot reuse, and random user locations. The value of $K^\star$ in the large- $M$ regime is derived in closed form, while simulations are used to show what happens at finite $M$ , in different interference scenarios, with different pilot reuse factors, and for different processing schemes. Up to half the coherence block should be dedicated to pilots and the optimal $M/K$ is less than 10 in many cases of practical relevance. Interestingly, $K^\star$ depends strongly on the processing scheme and hence it is unfair to compare different schemes using the same $K$ .

363 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This survey presents a detailed survey on wireless evolution towards 6G networks, characterized by ubiquitous 3D coverage, introduction of pervasive AI and enhanced network protocol stack, and related potential technologies that are helpful in forming sustainable and socially seamless networks.
Abstract: While 5G is being commercialized worldwide, research institutions around the world have started to look beyond 5G and 6G is expected to evolve into green networks, which deliver high Quality of Service and energy efficiency. To meet the demands of future applications, significant improvements need to be made in mobile network architecture. We envision 6G undergoing unprecedented breakthrough and integrating traditional terrestrial mobile networks with emerging space, aerial and underwater networks to provide anytime anywhere network access. This paper presents a detailed survey on wireless evolution towards 6G networks. In this survey, the prime focus is on the new architectural changes associated with 6G networks, characterized by ubiquitous 3D coverage, introduction of pervasive AI and enhanced network protocol stack. Along with this, we discuss related potential technologies that are helpful in forming sustainable and socially seamless networks, encompassing terahertz and visible light communication, new communication paradigm, blockchain and symbiotic radio. Our work aims to provide enlightening guidance for subsequent research of green 6G.

324 citations