Shamsul Rahman Mohamed Kutty
Bio: Shamsul Rahman Mohamed Kutty is an academic researcher from Universiti Teknologi Petronas. The author has contributed to research in topics: Wastewater & Adsorption. The author has an hindex of 17, co-authored 117 publications receiving 1449 citations.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: Electrochemical treatment using graphite carbon electrode was found to be effective in BOD, COD and color removal but was not effective in increasing the BOD/COD ratio or enhancing biodegradability of the leachate.
Abstract: This study investigated the electrochemical oxidation of stabilized leachate from Pulau Burung semi-aerobic sanitary landfill by conducting laboratory experiments with sodium sulfate Na 2 SO 4 (as electrolyte) and graphite carbon electrodes. The control parameters were influent COD, current density and reaction time, while the responses were BOD removal, COD removal, BOD:COD ratio, color and pH. Na 2 SO 4 concentration was 1 g/L. Experiments were conducted based on a three-level factorial design and response surface methodology (RSM) was used to analyze the results. The optimum conditions were obtained as 1414 mg/L influent COD concentration, 79.9 mA/cm 2 current density and 4 h reaction time. This resulted in 70% BOD removal, 68% COD removal, 84% color removal, 0.04 BOD/COD ratio and 9.1 pH. Electrochemical treatment using graphite carbon electrode was found to be effective in BOD, COD and color removal but was not effective in increasing the BOD/COD ratio or enhancing biodegradability of the leachate. The color intensity of the treated samples increased at low influent COD and high current density due to corrosion of electrode material.
TL;DR: The results showed that boron removal efficiency enhanced with increase in current density and treatment time, and also increased when pH was increased from 4 to 7 and subsequently decreased at pH 10.0.
Abstract: This work investigated the removal of boron from wastewater and its recovery by electrocoagulation and hydrothermal mineralization methods respectively. The experimental design was developed using Box-Behnken Model. An initial study was performed based on four preselected variables (pH, current density, concentration and time) using synthetic wastewater. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to evaluate the effect of process variables and their interaction on boron removal. The optimum conditions were obtained as pH 6.3, current density 17.4 mA/cm 2 , and time 89 min. At these applied optimum conditions, 99.7% boron removal from an initial concentration of 10.4 mg/L was achieved. The process was effectively optimized by RSM with a desirability value of 1.0. The results showed that boron removal efficiency enhanced with increase in current density and treatment time. Removal efficiency also increased when pH was increased from 4 to 7 and subsequently decreased at pH 10. Adsorption kinetics study revealed that the reaction followed pseudo second order kinetic model; evidenced by high correlation and goodness of fit. Thermodynamics study showed that mechanism of boron adsorption was chemisorption and the reaction was endothermic in nature. Furthermore, the adsorption process was spontaneous as indicated by negative values of the adsorption free energy. Treatment of real produced water using electrocoagulation resulted in 98% boron removal. The hydrothermal mineralization study showed that borate minerals (Inyoite, Takadaite and Nifontovite) can be recovered as recyclable precipitate from electrocoagulation flocs of produced water.
TL;DR: This study explores the potential of producing biodiesel using lipids from H. illucens larvae and finds FAME derived from larvae lipids is feasible to be used for biodiesel production.
Abstract: Hermetia illucens larvae by nature are a decomposer which fed on organic wastes. This study explores the potential of producing biodiesel using lipids from H. illucens larvae. Three types of organic wastes (sewage sludge, fruit waste and palm decanter cake from oil palm mill) were selected based on considerable generation and disposal concern in the area of study as well as lack of investigations as feed for Hermetia illucens larvae in current literatures. Growth rate of the larvae was determined with studying the changes in the biomass per day. H. illucens larvae fed with fruit waste and palm decanter cake have shown growth rates of 0.52±0.02 and 0.23±0.09 g d(-1), respectively. No positive sign of growth were observed in the larvae fed with treated sewage sludge (-0.04±0.01 g d(-1)). Biodiesel as fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) was synthesized by transesterification of the larvae lipid using sulphuric acid as catalyst in methanol. FAME produced was ascertained using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and GC-MS. The main compositions of fatty acid were found to be C12:0, C16:0 and C18:1n9c. Fatty acid composition of C12:0 fed with fruit waste, sewage sludge and palm decanter was found to be most abundant in the larvae lipid. The amount of C12:0 obtained was 76.13%, 58.31% and 48.06%, respectively. In addition, fatty acid of C16:0 was attained at 16.48% and 25.48% fed with sewage sludge and palm decanter, respectively. Based on the findings, FAME derived from larvae lipids is feasible to be used for biodiesel production.
TL;DR: Results indicated that it improved the crude oil biodegradation rate, and all DCO bioreactors demonstrated higher and faster removal than CO bioreACTors.
Abstract: Hydrocarbon pollution in marine ecosystems occurs mainly by accidental oil spills, deliberate discharge of ballast waters from oil tankers and bilge waste discharges; causing site pollution and serious adverse effects on aquatic environments as well as human health. A large number of petroleum hydrocarbons are biodegradable, thus bioremediation has become an important method for the restoration of oil polluted areas. In this research, a series of natural attenuation, crude oil (CO) and dispersed crude oil (DCO) bioremediation experiments of artificially crude oil contaminated seawater was carried out. Bacterial consortiums were identified as Acinetobacter, Alcaligenes, Bacillus, Pseudomonas and Vibrio. First order kinetics described the biodegradation of crude oil. Under abiotic conditions, oil removal was 19.9% while a maximum of 31.8% total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) removal was obtained in natural attenuation experiment. All DCO bioreactors demonstrated higher and faster removal than CO bioreactors. Half life times were 28, 32, 38 and 58 days for DCO and 31, 40, 50 and 75 days for CO with oil concentrations of 100, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/L, respectively. The effectiveness of Corexit 9500 dispersant was monitored in the 45 day study; the results indicated that it improved the crude oil biodegradation rate.
TL;DR: In this paper, boron removal from produced water was investigated and the obtained optimum conditions were applied to treat real produced water at optimum conditions of pH 7, charge loading 2400 ǫ/m3 and contact time 90 min.
Abstract: Produced water is the largest wastestream of oil and gas exploration but its chemical composition hinders its beneficial use. Effective treatment and reuse of produced water can mitigate scarcity of fresh water, especially in arid areas. Presence of inorganic compounds such as boron in produced water renders its beneficial use difficult. In this study, boron removal from produced water was investigated. Synthetic wastewater was prepared simulating the range of boron concentrations in produced water. Four operating parameters pH (3–11), charge loading (1200–3600 Ah/m3), contact time (15–90 min) and concentration (10–30 mg/L) were selected and their optimum conditions investigated. The obtained optimum conditions were applied to treat real produced water. Residual boron concentration of 0.3 mg/L was obtained from initial boron concentration of 15 mg/L in real produced water at optimum conditions of pH 7, charge loading 2400 Ah/m3 and contact time 90 min. Boron adsorption could be represented by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. Electrocoagulation can be used for the effective removal of boron from produced water.
TL;DR: This book by a teacher of statistics (as well as a consultant for "experimenters") is a comprehensive study of the philosophical background for the statistical design of experiment.
Abstract: THE DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF EXPERIMENTS. By Oscar Kempthorne. New York, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1952. 631 pp. $8.50. This book by a teacher of statistics (as well as a consultant for \"experimenters\") is a comprehensive study of the philosophical background for the statistical design of experiment. It is necessary to have some facility with algebraic notation and manipulation to be able to use the volume intelligently. The problems are presented from the theoretical point of view, without such practical examples as would be helpful for those not acquainted with mathematics. The mathematical justification for the techniques is given. As a somewhat advanced treatment of the design and analysis of experiments, this volume will be interesting and helpful for many who approach statistics theoretically as well as practically. With emphasis on the \"why,\" and with description given broadly, the author relates the subject matter to the general theory of statistics and to the general problem of experimental inference. MARGARET J. ROBERTSON
TL;DR: In this article, low-cost byproducts from agricultural, household and industrial sectors have been recognized as a sustainable solution for wastewater treatment, which allow achieving the removal of pollutants from wastewater and at the same time to contribute to the waste minimization, recovery and reuse.
Abstract: Low-cost by-products from agricultural, household and industrial sectors have been recognized as a sustainable solution for wastewater treatment. They allow achieving the removal of pollutants from wastewater and at same time to contribute to the waste minimization, recovery and reuse. Despite numerous reviews have been published in the last few years, a direct comparison of data obtained using different sorbents is difficult nowadays because of inconsistencies in the data presentation. In this context, the aim of the study was to revise the current literature concerning the application of low-cost adsorbents for wastewater treatment highlighting, systematically, both adsorbents characteristics and adsorption capacities. For this scope, low-cost sorbents have been divided into the following five groups: (i) Agricultural and household wastes, (ii) industrial by-products, (iii) sludge, (iv) sea materials, (v) soil and ore materials and (vi) novel low-cost adsorbents. The affinity of sorbents in removing various pollutants, their applications on real wastewater, costs and considerations on their reuse after adsorption processes, has been discussed. Finally, in order to better highlights the affinity of sorbents for more pollutants (dyes, heavy metals, biorecalcitrant compounds, nitrogen and phosphate compounds), simple methodological tools such as “adsorbents-pollutants” matrices have been proposed and applied. In this manner, the adsorbent candidates for replacing commercial activated carbons have been identified.
01 Jan 2016
TL;DR: The wastewater engineering treatment disposal and reuse is universally compatible with any devices to read and an online access to it is set as public so you can download it instantly.
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TL;DR: In this article, a review of the most relevant papers dealing with photo-Fenton processes at neutral pH is presented, where suitable criteria for choosing chelating agent and operating conditions are proposed.
Abstract: The occurrence of new emerging contaminants in surface waters has recently grabbed increased attention of the scientific community. The adoption of Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) represents an efficient strategy to remove recalcitrant compounds from aqueous streams and achieve high mineralization levels. Amongst AOPs, the photo-Fenton process has been widely investigated due to the possibility of using a renewable energy source (i.e., solar energy) and low concentration of catalyst. On the other hand, the use of photo-Fenton process is restricted to acidic pH values, with associate high operating costs for industrial scale applications. To overcome these drawbacks, photo-Fenton processes modified by adding selected chelating agents can be successfully performed at neutral pH. The present review aims at examining and comparing the most relevant papers dealing with photo-Fenton processes at neutral pH that appeared in the literature so far. Such papers were classified by chelating species adopted. In particular, for each iron(III)-ligand complex, the mechanism of photolysis, the speciation diagram, the light absorption properties, the quantum yields, biodegradation and toxicity, and some example of applications are reported. As a conclusion, suitable criteria for choosing chelating agent and operating conditions in photo-Fenton processes at neutral pH are proposed.
TL;DR: A comprehensive review of recent literature that has been dedicated to utilizing electrocoagulation for water treatment, focusing on current successes on specific applications in water and wastewater treatment, as well as potentials for future applications is offered.
Abstract: Electrocoagulation is an effective electrochemical approach for the treatment of different types of contaminated water and has received considerable attention in recent years due its high efficiency in dealing with numerous stubborn pollutants. It has been successful in dealing with organic and inorganic contaminants with negligible or almost no generation of by-product wastes. During the past decade, vast amount of research has been devoted to utilizing electrocoagulation for the treatment of several types of wastewater, ranging from polluted groundwater to highly contaminated refinery wastewater. This paper offers a comprehensive review of recent literature that has been dedicated to utilizing electrocoagulation for water treatment, focusing on current successes on specific applications in water and wastewater treatment, as well as potentials for future applications. The paper examines such aspects as theory, potential applications, current challenges, recent developments as well as economical concerns associated with the technology. Most of the recent EC research has been focusing on pollutant-specific evaluation without paying attention to cell design, process modeling or industrial applications. This review attempts to highlight the main achievements in the area and outlines the major shortcomings with recommendations for promising research options that can enhance the technology and broaden its range of applications.