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Shanmugam Sumathi

Bio: Shanmugam Sumathi is an academic researcher from VIT University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy & Photocatalysis. The author has an hindex of 13, co-authored 48 publications receiving 502 citations.

Papers published on a yearly basis

Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the synthesis of palladium nanoparticles (PdNPs) using aqueous Saccharomyces cerevisiae extract and its photocatalytic application was discussed.
Abstract: In this article, we have discussed the biosynthesis of palladium nanoparticles (PdNPs) using aqueous Saccharomyces cerevisiae extract and its photocatalytic application. The biosynthesised PdNPs were characterised by UV-Vis spectroscopy (UV-Vis), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX) and Atomic force microscopy (AFM). The formation of PdNPs was confirmed from the disappearance of the peak at 405 nm in the UV-Vis spectrum. Agglomerated and hexagonal shaped PdNPs were noted by SEM. FTIR was performed to identify the biomolecules responsible for the synthesis of PdNPs. Bioactive compounds in the yeast extract acted as secondary metabolites which facilitated the formation of PdNPs. The yeast synthesised PdNPs degraded 98% of direct blue 71 dye photochemically within 60 min under UV light.

63 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, a review of the photocatalytic activity of spinel oxides for the removal of organic pollutants is presented, which comprises the structure, process of synthesis of spinels, properties and reaction mechanism of degradation.

57 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the photocatalytic and antibacterial activity of CoFe2O4, CoFe1.9Bi0.1O4 and Cu0.5Co0.9 Bi0.4 nanoparticles obtained by solution combustion technique using glycine as a fuel.
Abstract: Herein we reported the photocatalytic and antibacterial activity of CoFe2O4, CoFe1.9Bi0.1O4 and Cu0.5Co0.5Fe1.9Bi0.1O4 nanoparticles obtained by solution combustion technique using glycine as a fuel. The obtained nanoparticles were analyzed by various techniques such as powder XRD, FTIR, UV-DRS and SEM-EDAX. The band gap value of CoFe2O4 nanoparticle is decreases gradually from 1.46 to 1.00 eV (CoFe1.9Bi0.1O4) and 0.85 eV (Cu0.5Co0.5Fe1.9Bi0.1O4) due to the doping of copper and bismuth. The photocatalytic activity of synthesized nanoparticles was evaluated for the degradation of congo red dye. 89 and 87% removal efficiency of congo red dye was achieved in 90 min under different light (UV and visible light) illumination utilizing 10 mg of Cu0.5Co0.5Fe1.9Bi0.1O4 catalyst. Antibacterial activity of the compounds was tested against two organisms Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli by well diffusion method. Co-doping of copper and bismuth improved the antibacterial activity against the organisms S. aureus (29 mm) and E. coli (34 mm) when compared to cobalt ferrite.

55 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, cobalt ferrite and bismuth substituted cobalt-ferrite (CoFe 2− x Bi x O 4 x = 0, 0.1) nanoparticles were synthesized by two different methods viz combustion and co-precipitation.

54 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors used an edible mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) and a forest mushroom (Ganoderma lucidum) extract to synthesize silver nanoparticles with an average size of 10-80 nm.
Abstract: Mushroom has been part of the human diet for thousands of years, and in recent times, the amounts consumed have risen greatly, involving a large number of species. Mushrooms used for nutritional and therapeutic purposes. In this study silver nanoparticles were synthesised using an edible mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) and forest mushroom (Ganoderma lucidum) extract. The synthesised nanoparticles were characterised by UV–vis spectroscopy, FTIR, powder XRD and SEM. Silver nanoparticles were synthesised at room temperature and at 60 °C. FTIR results recognised the presence of bioactive functional groups responsible for the reduction of silver nitrate to silver nanoparticles. From the XRD, it was observed that the nanoparticles are silver with an average size of 10–80 nm. The silver nanoparticles are explored for photocatalytic activity and biological activities such as in vitro antioxidant activity, anti-inflammatory activity and antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus organisms. 98% of textile dye (direct blue 71) degradation was noticed under UV light within 150 min for forest mushroom synthesised silver nanoparticles at room temperature.

49 citations


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TL;DR: This review will address biological entities that can be used for the green synthesis of NPs and their prospects for biotechnological applications.
Abstract: The green synthesis of nanoparticles (NPs) using living cells is a promising and novelty tool in bionanotechnology. Chemical and physical methods are used to synthesize NPs; however, biological methods are preferred due to its eco-friendly, clean, safe, cost-effective, easy, and effective sources for high productivity and purity. High pressure or temperature is not required for the green synthesis of NPs, and the use of toxic and hazardous substances and the addition of external reducing, stabilizing, or capping agents are avoided. Intra- or extracellular biosynthesis of NPs can be achieved by numerous biological entities including bacteria, fungi, yeast, algae, actinomycetes, and plant extracts. Recently, numerous methods are used to increase the productivity of nanoparticles with variable size, shape, and stability. The different mechanical, optical, magnetic, and chemical properties of NPs have been related to their shape, size, surface charge, and surface area. Detection and characterization of biosynthesized NPs are conducted using different techniques such as UV-vis spectroscopy, FT-IR, TEM, SEM, AFM, DLS, XRD, zeta potential analyses, etc. NPs synthesized by the green approach can be incorporated into different biotechnological fields as antimicrobial, antitumor, and antioxidant agents; as a control for phytopathogens; and as bioremediative factors, and they are also used in the food and textile industries, in smart agriculture, and in wastewater treatment. This review will address biological entities that can be used for the green synthesis of NPs and their prospects for biotechnological applications.

459 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A review of the progress made in recent years on nanoparticle biosynthesis by microbes is presented in this paper, which mainly focuses on the biosynthesis of the most commonly studied metal and metal salt nanoparticles such as silver, gold, platinum, palladium, copper, cadmium, titanium oxide, zinc oxide, and lead oxide.
Abstract: Metal nanoparticles have received great attention from researchers across the world because of a plethora of applications in agriculture and the biomedical field as antioxidants and antimicrobial compounds. Over the past few years, green nanotechnology has emerged as a significant approach for the synthesis and fabrication of metal nanoparticles. This green route employs various reducing and stabilizing agents from biological resources for the synthesis of nanoparticles. The present article aims to review the progress made in recent years on nanoparticle biosynthesis by microbes. These microbial resources include bacteria, fungi, yeast, algae and viruses. This review mainly focuses on the biosynthesis of the most commonly studied metal and metal salt nanoparticles such as silver, gold, platinum, palladium, copper, cadmium, titanium oxide, zinc oxide and cadmium sulphide. These nanoparticles can be used in pharmaceutical products as antimicrobial and anti-biofilm agents, targeted delivery of anticancer drugs, water electrolysis, waste water treatment, biosensors, biocatalysis, crop protection against pathogens, degradation of dyes etc. This review will discuss in detail various microbial modes of nanoparticles synthesis and the mechanism of their synthesis by various bioreducing agents such as enzymes, peptides, proteins, electron shuttle quinones and exopolysaccharides. A thorough understanding of the molecular mechanism of biosynthesis is the need of the hour to develop a technology for large scale production of bio-mediated nanoparticles. The present review also discusses the advantages of various microbial approaches in nanoparticles synthesis and lacuna involved in such processes. This review also highlights the recent milestones achieved on large scale production and future perspectives of nanoparticles.

383 citations

01 Jan 2005
TL;DR: A series of cerium ion-doped titanium dioxide (Ce 3+ -TiO2) catalysts with special 4 f electron configuration was prepared by a sol-gel process and characterized by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: A series of cerium ion-doped titanium dioxide (Ce 3+ –TiO2) catalysts with special 4 f electron configuration was prepared by a sol–gel process and characterized by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), and also photoluminescence (PL) emission spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activity of Ce 3+ –TiO2 catalysts was evaluated in the 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT) degradation in aqueous suspension under UV or visible light illumination. The experimental results demonstrated that the overall photocatalytic activity of Ce 3+ –TiO2 catalysts in MBT degradation was signigicantly enhanced due to higher adsorption capacity and better separation of electron-hole pairs. The experimental results verified that both the adsorption equilibrium constant (Ka) and the saturated adsorption amount (Gmax) increased with the increase of cerium ion content. The results of XPS analysis showed that the Ti 3+ ,C e 3+ , and Ce 4+ ions reside in the Ce 3+ –TiO2 catalysts. The results of DRS analysis indicated that the Ce 3+ –TiO2 catalysts had significant optical absorption in the visible region between 400 and 500 nm because electrons could be excited from the valence band of TiO2 or ground state of cerium oxides to Ce 4 f level. In the meantime, the dependence of the electron-hole pair separation on cerium ion content was investigated by the PL analysis. It was found that the separation efficiency of electron-hole pairs increased with the increase of cerium ion content at first and then decreased when the cerium ion content exceeded its optimal value. It is proposed that the formation of two sub-energy levels (defect level and Ce 4 f level) in Ce 3+ –TiO2 might be a critical reason to eliminate the recombination of

367 citations

01 Jan 2011
TL;DR: In this article, the effects of various operating parameters on the photocatalytic degradation of phenols and dyes are presented, such as type of photocatalyst and composition, light intensity, initial substrate concentration, amount of catalyst, pH of the reaction medium, ionic components in water, solvent types, oxidizing agents/electron acceptors, mode of catalyst application, and calcinations temperature.
Abstract: The heterogeneous photocatalytic water purification process has gained wide attention due to its effectiveness in degrading and mineralizing the recalcitrant organic compounds as well as the possibility of utilizing the solar UV and visible light spectrum. This paper aims to review and summarize the recently published works in the field of photocatalytic oxidation of toxic organic compounds such as phenols and dyes, predominant in waste water effluent. In this review, the effects of various operating parameters on the photocatalytic degradation of phenols and dyes are presented. Recent findings suggested that different parameters, such as type of photocatalyst and composition, light intensity, initial substrate concentration, amount of catalyst, pH of the reaction medium, ionic components in water, solvent types, oxidizing agents/electron acceptors, mode of catalyst application, and calcinations temperature can play an important role on the photocatlytic degradation of organic compounds in water environment. Extensive research has focused on the enhancement of photocatalysis by modification of TiO2 employing metal, non-metal and ion doping. Recent advances in TiO2 photocatalysis for the degradation of various phenols and dyes are also highlighted in this review.

283 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, different grads of magnetic nano-scaled cobalt ferrites (CoFe2O4) photocatalysts were synthesized by modified Solvothermal (MST) process with and without polysaccharide.
Abstract: Different grads of magnetic nano-scaled cobalt ferrites (CoFe2O4) photocatalysts were synthesized by modified Solvothermal (MST) process with and without polysaccharide. The indigenously synthesized photocatalysts were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), UV–visible (UV–vis) spectroscopy and N2 adsorption–desorption isotherm method. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy study showed the Fe-O stretching vibration 590–619 cm−1, confirming the formation of metal oxide. The crystallite size of the synthesized photocatalysts was found in the range between 20.0 and 30.0 nm. The surface area of obtained magnetic nanoparticles is found to be reasonably high in the range of 63.0–76.0 m2/g. The results shown that only MST-2 is the most active catalyst for photo-Fenton like scheme for fast photodegradation action of methylene blue dye, this is possible due to optical band gap estimated of 2.65 eV. Captivatingly the percentage of degradation efficiency increases up to 80% after 140 min by using MST-2 photocatalyst. Photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) dye under visible light irradiation with cobalt ferrite magnetic nanoparticles followed first order kinetic constant and rate constant of MST-2 is almost 2.0 times greater than MST-1 photocatalyst.

183 citations