Sharathchandra U. Pankanti
Bio: Sharathchandra U. Pankanti is an academic researcher from IBM. The author has contributed to research in topics: Biometrics & Object detection. The author has an hindex of 38, co-authored 182 publications receiving 11049 citations. Previous affiliations of Sharathchandra U. Pankanti include Michigan State University & GlobalFoundries.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: A filter-based fingerprint matching algorithm which uses a bank of Gabor filters to capture both local and global details in a fingerprint as a compact fixed length FingerCode and is able to achieve a verification accuracy which is only marginally inferior to the best results of minutiae-based algorithms published in the open literature.
Abstract: Biometrics-based verification, especially fingerprint-based identification, is receiving a lot of attention. There are two major shortcomings of the traditional approaches to fingerprint representation. For a considerable fraction of population, the representations based on explicit detection of complete ridge structures in the fingerprint are difficult to extract automatically. The widely used minutiae-based representation does not utilize a significant component of the rich discriminatory information available in the fingerprints. Local ridge structures cannot be completely characterized by minutiae. Further, minutiae-based matching has difficulty in quickly matching two fingerprint images containing a different number of unregistered minutiae points. The proposed filter-based algorithm uses a bank of Gabor filters to capture both local and global details in a fingerprint as a compact fixed length FingerCode. The fingerprint matching is based on the Euclidean distance between the two corresponding FingerCodes and hence is extremely fast. We are able to achieve a verification accuracy which is only marginally inferior to the best results of minutiae-based algorithms published in the open literature. Our system performs better than a state-of-the-art minutiae-based system when the performance requirement of the application system does not demand a very low false acceptance rate. Finally, we show that the matching performance can be improved by combining the decisions of the matchers based on complementary (minutiae-based and filter-based) fingerprint information.
TL;DR: An overview of biometrics is provided and some of the salient research issues that need to be addressed for making biometric technology an effective tool for providing information security are discussed.
Abstract: Establishing identity is becoming critical in our vastly interconnected society. Questions such as "Is she really who she claims to be?," "Is this person authorized to use this facility?," or "Is he in the watchlist posted by the government?" are routinely being posed in a variety of scenarios ranging from issuing a driver's license to gaining entry into a country. The need for reliable user authentication techniques has increased in the wake of heightened concerns about security and rapid advancements in networking, communication, and mobility. Biometrics, described as the science of recognizing an individual based on his or her physical or behavioral traits, is beginning to gain acceptance as a legitimate method for determining an individual's identity. Biometric systems have now been deployed in various commercial, civilian, and forensic applications as a means of establishing identity. In this paper, we provide an overview of biometrics and discuss some of the salient research issues that need to be addressed for making biometric technology an effective tool for providing information security. The primary contribution of this overview includes: 1) examining applications where biometric scan solve issues pertaining to information security; 2) enumerating the fundamental challenges encountered by biometric systems in real-world applications; and 3) discussing solutions to address the problems of scalability and security in large-scale authentication systems.
••01 Sep 1997
TL;DR: The design and implementation of a prototype automatic identity-authentication system that uses fingerprints to authenticate the identity of an individual is described and an improved minutiae-extraction algorithm is developed that is faster and more accurate than the earlier algorithm.
Abstract: Fingerprint verification is an important biometric technique for personal identification. We describe the design and implementation of a prototype automatic identity-authentication system that uses fingerprints to authenticate the identity of an individual. We have developed an improved minutiae-extraction algorithm that is faster and more accurate than our earlier algorithm (1995). An alignment-based minutiae-matching algorithm has been proposed. This algorithm is capable of finding the correspondences between input minutiae and the stored template without resorting to exhaustive search and has the ability to compensate adaptively for the nonlinear deformations and inexact transformations between an input and a template. To establish an objective assessment of our system, both the Michigan State University and the National Institute of Standards and Technology NIST 9 fingerprint data bases have been used to estimate the performance numbers. The experimental results reveal that our system can achieve a good performance on these data bases. We also have demonstrated that our system satisfies the response-time requirement. A complete authentication procedure, on average, takes about 1.4 seconds on a Sun ULTRA I workstation (it is expected to run as fast or faster on a 200 HMz Pentium).
••01 Mar 2003
TL;DR: In some applications, biometrics can replace or supplement the existing technology and in others, it is the only viable approach.
Abstract: Biometrics offers greater security and convenience than traditional methods of personal recognition. In some applications, biometrics can replace or supplement the existing technology. In others, it is the only viable approach. But how secure is biometrics? And what are the privacy implications?.
••18 May 2004
TL;DR: This work presents various methods that monolithically bind a cryptographic key with the biometric template of a user stored in the database in such a way that the key cannot be revealed without a successful biometric authentication.
Abstract: In traditional cryptosystems, user authentication is based on possession of secret keys; the method falls apart if the keys are not kept secret (i.e., shared with non-legitimate users). Further, keys can be forgotten, lost, or stolen and, thus, cannot provide non-repudiation. Current authentication systems based on physiological and behavioral characteristics of persons (known as biometrics), such as fingerprints, inherently provide solutions to many of these problems and may replace the authentication component of traditional cryptosystems. We present various methods that monolithically bind a cryptographic key with the biometric template of a user stored in the database in such a way that the key cannot be revealed without a successful biometric authentication. We assess the performance of one of these biometric key binding/generation algorithms using the fingerprint biometric. We illustrate the challenges involved in biometric key generation primarily due to drastic acquisition variations in the representation of a biometric identifier and the imperfect nature of biometric feature extraction and matching algorithms. We elaborate on the suitability of these algorithms for digital rights management systems.
TL;DR: A brief overview of the field of biometrics is given and some of its advantages, disadvantages, strengths, limitations, and related privacy concerns are summarized.
Abstract: A wide variety of systems requires reliable personal recognition schemes to either confirm or determine the identity of an individual requesting their services. The purpose of such schemes is to ensure that the rendered services are accessed only by a legitimate user and no one else. Examples of such applications include secure access to buildings, computer systems, laptops, cellular phones, and ATMs. In the absence of robust personal recognition schemes, these systems are vulnerable to the wiles of an impostor. Biometric recognition, or, simply, biometrics, refers to the automatic recognition of individuals based on their physiological and/or behavioral characteristics. By using biometrics, it is possible to confirm or establish an individual's identity based on "who she is", rather than by "what she possesses" (e.g., an ID card) or "what she remembers" (e.g., a password). We give a brief overview of the field of biometrics and summarize some of its advantages, disadvantages, strengths, limitations, and related privacy concerns.
TL;DR: Study of the performance of different normalization techniques and fusion rules in the context of a multimodal biometric system based on the face, fingerprint and hand-geometry traits of a user found that the application of min-max, z-score, and tanh normalization schemes followed by a simple sum of scores fusion method results in better recognition performance compared to other methods.
Abstract: Multimodal biometric systems consolidate the evidence presented by multiple biometric sources and typically provide better recognition performance compared to systems based on a single biometric modality. Although information fusion in a multimodal system can be performed at various levels, integration at the matching score level is the most common approach due to the ease in accessing and combining the scores generated by different matchers. Since the matching scores output by the various modalities are heterogeneous, score normalization is needed to transform these scores into a common domain, prior to combining them. In this paper, we have studied the performance of different normalization techniques and fusion rules in the context of a multimodal biometric system based on the face, fingerprint and hand-geometry traits of a user. Experiments conducted on a database of 100 users indicate that the application of min-max, z-score, and tanh normalization schemes followed by a simple sum of scores fusion method results in better recognition performance compared to other methods. However, experiments also reveal that the min-max and z-score normalization techniques are sensitive to outliers in the data, highlighting the need for a robust and efficient normalization procedure like the tanh normalization. It was also observed that multimodal systems utilizing user-specific weights perform better compared to systems that assign the same set of weights to the multiple biometric traits of all users.
TL;DR: A new model for automatic COVID-19 detection using raw chest X-ray images is presented and can be employed to assist radiologists in validating their initial screening, and can also be employed via cloud to immediately screen patients.
Abstract: The novel coronavirus 2019 (COVID-2019), which first appeared in Wuhan city of China in December 2019, spread rapidly around the world and became a pandemic. It has caused a devastating effect on both daily lives, public health, and the global economy. It is critical to detect the positive cases as early as possible so as to prevent the further spread of this epidemic and to quickly treat affected patients. The need for auxiliary diagnostic tools has increased as there are no accurate automated toolkits available. Recent findings obtained using radiology imaging techniques suggest that such images contain salient information about the COVID-19 virus. Application of advanced artificial intelligence (AI) techniques coupled with radiological imaging can be helpful for the accurate detection of this disease, and can also be assistive to overcome the problem of a lack of specialized physicians in remote villages. In this study, a new model for automatic COVID-19 detection using raw chest X-ray images is presented. The proposed model is developed to provide accurate diagnostics for binary classification (COVID vs. No-Findings) and multi-class classification (COVID vs. No-Findings vs. Pneumonia). Our model produced a classification accuracy of 98.08% for binary classes and 87.02% for multi-class cases. The DarkNet model was used in our study as a classifier for the you only look once (YOLO) real time object detection system. We implemented 17 convolutional layers and introduced different filtering on each layer. Our model (available at (https://github.com/muhammedtalo/COVID-19)) can be employed to assist radiologists in validating their initial screening, and can also be employed via cloud to immediately screen patients.
01 Jan 2001
TL;DR: In almost 600 pages of riveting detail, Ross Anderson warns us not to be seduced by the latest defensive technologies, never to underestimate human ingenuity, and always use common sense in defending valuables.
Abstract: Gigantically comprehensive and carefully researched, Security Engineering makes it clear just how difficult it is to protect information systems from corruption, eavesdropping, unauthorized use, and general malice. Better, Ross Anderson offers a lot of thoughts on how information can be made more secure (though probably not absolutely secure, at least not forever) with the help of both technologies and management strategies. His work makes fascinating reading and will no doubt inspire considerable doubt--fear is probably a better choice of words--in anyone with information to gather, protect, or make decisions about. Be aware: This is absolutely not a book solely about computers, with yet another explanation of Alice and Bob and how they exchange public keys in order to exchange messages in secret. Anderson explores, for example, the ingenious ways in which European truck drivers defeat their vehicles' speed-logging equipment. In another section, he shows how the end of the cold war brought on a decline in defenses against radio-frequency monitoring (radio frequencies can be used to determine, at a distance, what's going on in systems--bank teller machines, say), and how similar technology can be used to reverse-engineer the calculations that go on inside smart cards. In almost 600 pages of riveting detail, Anderson warns us not to be seduced by the latest defensive technologies, never to underestimate human ingenuity, and always use common sense in defending valuables. A terrific read for security professionals and general readers alike. --David Wall Topics covered: How some people go about protecting valuable things (particularly, but not exclusively, information) and how other people go about getting it anyway. Mostly, this takes the form of essays (about, for example, how the U.S. Air Force keeps its nukes out of the wrong hands) and stories (one of which tells of an art thief who defeated the latest technology by hiding in a closet). Sections deal with technologies, policies, psychology, and legal matters.
TL;DR: The inherent strengths of biometrics-based authentication are outlined, the weak links in systems employing biometric authentication are identified, and new solutions for eliminating these weak links are presented.
Abstract: Because biometrics-based authentication offers several advantages over other authentication methods, there has been a significant surge in the use of biometrics for user authentication in recent years. It is important that such biometrics-based authentication systems be designed to withstand attacks when employed in security-critical applications, especially in unattended remote applications such as e-commerce. In this paper we outline the inherent strengths of biometrics-based authentication, identify the weak links in systems employing biometrics-based authentication, and present new solutions for eliminating some of these weak links. Although, for illustration purposes, fingerprint authentication is used throughout, our analysis extends to other biometrics-based methods.