Other affiliations: Deakin University
Bio: Sharmala Thuraisingam is an academic researcher from University of Melbourne. The author has contributed to research in topics: Randomized controlled trial & Medicine. The author has an hindex of 9, co-authored 24 publications receiving 266 citations. Previous affiliations of Sharmala Thuraisingam include Deakin University.
TL;DR: This work is presented at the I1 World Congress for Integrative Medicine & Health 2017 a global forum for exploring the future of comprehensive patient care in Washington, DC.
Abstract: I1 World Congress for Integrative Medicine & Health 2017 A global forum for exploring the future of comprehensive patient care Benno Brinkhaus, Torkel Falkenberg, Aviad Haramati, and Stefan N. Willich Institute for Social Medicine, Epidemiology and Health Economics, Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany; Department of Neurobiology Care Sciences and Society, Division of Nursing, Research Group Integrative Care, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; I C – The Integrative Care Science Center, Järna, Sweden; Department of Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology, Georgetown University, Medical Center, Washington, DC, USA; Department of Medicine, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC, USA BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2017, 17(Suppl 1):I1
TL;DR: Increased total and discordant multimorbidity counts were associated with lower HbA1c and increased mortality in both datasets, and both concordant/discordant conditions were significantly associated with mortality.
Abstract: Background There is emerging interest in multimorbidity in type 2 diabetes (T2D), which can be either concordant (T2D related) or discordant (unrelated), as a way of understanding the burden of disease in T2D. Current diabetes guidelines acknowledge the complex nature of multimorbidity, the management of which should be based on the patient's individual clinical needs and comorbidities. However, although associations between multimorbidity, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), and mortality in people with T2D have been studied to some extent, significant gaps remain, particularly regarding different patterns of multimorbidity, including concordant and discordant conditions. This study explores associations between multimorbidity (total condition counts/concordant/discordant/different combinations of conditions), baseline HbA1c, and all-cause mortality in T2D. Methods and findings We studied two longitudinal cohorts of people with T2D using the UK Biobank (n = 20,569) and the Taiwan National Diabetes Care Management Program (NDCMP) (n = 59,657). The number of conditions in addition to T2D was used to quantify total multimorbidity, concordant, and discordant counts, and the effects of different combinations of conditions were also studied. Outcomes of interest were baseline HbA1c and all-cause mortality. For the UK Biobank and Taiwan NDCMP, mean (SD) ages were 60.2 (6.8) years and 60.8 (11.3) years; 7,579 (36.8%) and 31,339 (52.5%) were female; body mass index (BMI) medians (IQR) were 30.8 (27.7, 34.8) kg/m2 and 25.6 (23.5, 28.7) kg/m2; and 2,197 (10.8%) and 9,423 (15.8) were current smokers, respectively. Increasing total and discordant multimorbidity counts were associated with lower HbA1c and increased mortality in both datasets. In Taiwan NDCMP, for those with four or more additional conditions compared with T2D only, the mean difference (95% CI) in HbA1c was -0.82% (-0.88, -0.76) p 5 times the mortality (5.83 [4.28-7.93] p Conclusions Multimorbidity patterns associated with the highest mortality differed between UK Biobank (a population predominantly comprising people of European descent) and the Taiwan NDCMP, a predominantly ethnic Chinese population. Future research should explore the mechanisms underpinning the observed relationship between increasing multimorbidity count and reduced HbA1c alongside increased mortality in people with T2D and further examine the implications of different patterns of multimorbidity across different ethnic groups. Better understanding of these issues, especially effects of condition type, will enable more effective personalisation of care.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors explored the associations between different types of adult sexual violence, perpetrator identity, and women's mental health in the Australian primary care setting and found significant associations between rape/sexual assault and poor mental health, and between coercion and/or reproductive control and higher PTSD and anxiety scores, compared to women with no SV experiences.
Abstract: Research supports the association between adult sexual violence (SV) and poor mental health. However, most studies focus on rape and physical sexual assault. Little is known about how more subtle forms of SV affect women’s well-being. Furthermore, evidence for the impact of the perpetrator’s identity is mixed. There is also little data from clinical populations to help health practitioners identify SV. This paper addresses these gaps by exploring the associations between different types of adult SV, perpetrator identity, and women’s mental health in the Australian primary care setting. We conducted a descriptive, cross-sectional study in general practice clinics. Adult women completed an anonymous survey while waiting for the doctor. Measures included PHQ-9 (depression), GAD-7 (anxiety) and PCL-C (post-traumatic stress disorder). SV was measured using items from the National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey and categorised into three groups (rape/sexual assault; coercive behaviours and/or reproductive control; and unwanted sexual contact). We found significant associations between rape/sexual assault and poor mental health, and between coercion and/or reproductive control and higher PTSD and anxiety scores, compared to women with no SV experiences. SV perpetrated by an intimate partner was associated with significantly higher mean PTSD scores than SV perpetrated by a stranger, and significantly higher depression scores than SV perpetrated by another known person. Findings suggest that associations between SV and mental health are mediated by type of SV and perpetrator identity. Health practitioners should enquire about different types of SV beyond stranger rape as a cause of poor mental health, and about perpetrator identity to inform them about the likelihood of ongoing symptoms.
TL;DR: The effects of professional-mode flash glucose monitoring, done at 3-month intervals, in adults with type 2 diabetes in general practice, are examined to examine the effects of the between-group difference in mean HbA1c at 12 months.
Abstract: Summary Background Continuous glucose monitoring, either real-time (personal) or retrospective (professional mode), can identify day-to-day glucose profiles to guide management decisions for people with type 2 diabetes. We aimed to examine the effects of professional-mode flash glucose monitoring, done at 3-month intervals, in adults with type 2 diabetes in general practice. Methods We did a pragmatic, two-arm, open label, 12-month, individually randomised controlled trial (GP-OSMOTIC) in 25 general practices in Victoria, Australia. Eligible participants were adults aged 18–80 years, with type 2 diabetes diagnosed for at least 1 year and HbA1c at least 5·5 mmol/mol (0·5%) above their target in the past month despite being prescribed at least two non-insulin glucose-lowering drugs, insulin, or both (with therapy stable for at least 4 months). We randomly assigned participants (1:1) to either use of a professional-mode flash glucose monitoring system or usual clinical care (control). All participants wore the flash glucose monitoring sensor at baseline, and electronic randomisation (using permuted block sizes of four and six, and stratified by clinic) was done after the sensor was attached. Masking of participants and treating clinicians to group allocation was not possible, but the study statistician was masked to allocation when analysing the data. At baseline, and 3, 6, 9, and 12 months, participants in the flash glucose monitoring group wore the professional-mode flash glucose monitoring sensor for 5–14 days before their general practice visit. The sensor recorded interstitial glucose concentrations every 15 min, but the glucose data were not available to the participant until their general practice visit, where the sensor output would be uploaded to a computer by the health professional and discussed. Control group participants wore the sensor at baseline and at 12 months for data analysis only, and had usual care visits every 3 months. The primary outcome was the between-group difference in mean HbA1c at 12 months. Secondary outcomes were the between-group differences in: mean percentage time in target glucose range (4–10 mmol/L), based on ambulatory glucose profile data at 12 months; mean diabetes-specific distress (assessed with the Problem Areas In Diabetes [PAID] scale) at 12 months; and mean HbA1c at 6 months. Analysis was done by intention to treat. This trial is registered at the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, ACTRN12616001372471. Findings Between Oct 4, 2016, and Nov 17, 2017, we randomly assigned 299 adults: 149 to flash glucose monitoring and 150 to usual care. At 6 months, HbA1c was lower in the flash glucose monitoring group than in the usual care group (difference −0·5%, 95% CI −0·8% to −0·3%; p=0·0001). However, at 12 months (primary outcome), there was no significant between-group difference in estimated mean HbA1c (8·2% [95% CI 8·0 to 8·4] for flash glucose monitoring vs 8·5% [8·3 to 8·7] for usual care; between-group difference −0·3%, 95% CI −0·5 to 0·01; [66 mmol/mol, 95% CI 64 to 68 vs 69 mmol/mol, 67 to 72; between-group difference −3·0, 95% CI −5·0 to 0·1]; p=0·059). Mean percentage time spent in target glucose range at 12 months was 7·9% (95% CI 2·3 to 13·5) higher in the flash glucose monitoring group than in the usual care group (p=0·0060). Diabetes-specific distress PAID scores were unchanged at 12 months (between-group difference −0·7, 95% CI −3·3 to 1·9; p=0·61). No episodes of severe hypoglycaemia or treatment-related deaths were reported. One participant died during the study from causes unrelated to the intervention (following complications post-myocardial infarction with multiple comorbidities). Interpretation Professional-mode flash glucose monitoring in adults with type 2 diabetes in general practice did not improve the primary outcome of HbA1c at 12 months or diabetes-specific distress compared with usual care, but did improve time in target glucose range at 12 months and HbA1c at 6 months. Our findings suggest that professional-mode flash glucose monitoring can be implemented in a pragmatic primary care environment. Although there was no change in HbA1c at 12 months, the improved time in target range might reflect the potential of the technology to support personalised clinical care by providing insights into glycaemic profiles for some people with type 2 diabetes. Funding National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia, Sanofi Australia, and Abbott Diabetes Care.
TL;DR: Evidence is provided of the association between diabetes stigma and depressive/anxiety symptoms and diabetes distress and for the moderating effects of self-esteem and social support among adults with type 1 and type 2 diabetes.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE To examine the association of diabetes stigma with psychological, behavioral, and HbA1c outcomes and to investigate moderation effects of self-esteem, self-efficacy, and/or social support. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The national Second Diabetes MILES–Australia (MILES-2) survey included adults with type 1 diabetes (n = 959, 41% of whom were male, with mean ± SD age 44 ± 15 years), insulin-treated type 2 diabetes (n = 487, 60% male, age 61 ± 9 years), and non-insulin-treated type 2 diabetes (n = 642, 55% male, age 61 ± 10 years). (Un)adjusted linear regression analyses tested the association between diabetes stigma (Diabetes Stigma Assessment Scale [DSAS]) and psychological outcomes (depressive symptoms [eight-item version of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-8)], anxiety symptoms [Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item (GAD-7) questionnaire], and diabetes-specific distress [20-item Problem Areas In Diabetes (PAID) scale]), behavioral outcomes (healthy diet and physical activity [Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities (SDSCA)]), and self-reported HbA1c. Interaction effects tested whether associations varied by self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale [RSES]), self-efficacy (Confidence in Diabetes Self-Care [CIDS] scale), or diabetes-specific social support (Diabetes Support Scale [DSS]). RESULTS Significant positive associations were observed between DSAS and PHQ-8, GAD-7, and PAID across diabetes type/treatment groups (all P CONCLUSIONS This study provides evidence of the association between diabetes stigma and depressive/anxiety symptoms and diabetes distress and for the moderating effects of self-esteem and social support among adults with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Further research is needed to examine associations with objectively measured behavioral and clinical outcomes.
01 Jan 2014
TL;DR: These standards of care are intended to provide clinicians, patients, researchers, payors, and other interested individuals with the components of diabetes care, treatment goals, and tools to evaluate the quality of care.
Abstract: XI. STRATEGIES FOR IMPROVING DIABETES CARE D iabetes is a chronic illness that requires continuing medical care and patient self-management education to prevent acute complications and to reduce the risk of long-term complications. Diabetes care is complex and requires that many issues, beyond glycemic control, be addressed. A large body of evidence exists that supports a range of interventions to improve diabetes outcomes. These standards of care are intended to provide clinicians, patients, researchers, payors, and other interested individuals with the components of diabetes care, treatment goals, and tools to evaluate the quality of care. While individual preferences, comorbidities, and other patient factors may require modification of goals, targets that are desirable for most patients with diabetes are provided. These standards are not intended to preclude more extensive evaluation and management of the patient by other specialists as needed. For more detailed information, refer to Bode (Ed.): Medical Management of Type 1 Diabetes (1), Burant (Ed): Medical Management of Type 2 Diabetes (2), and Klingensmith (Ed): Intensive Diabetes Management (3). The recommendations included are diagnostic and therapeutic actions that are known or believed to favorably affect health outcomes of patients with diabetes. A grading system (Table 1), developed by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and modeled after existing methods, was utilized to clarify and codify the evidence that forms the basis for the recommendations. The level of evidence that supports each recommendation is listed after each recommendation using the letters A, B, C, or E.
TL;DR: A panel to update the prior position statements on the management of type 2 diabetes in adults includes additional focus on lifestyle management and diabetes self-management education and support and efforts targeting weight loss.
Abstract: The American Diabetes Association and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes have briefly updated their 2018 recommendations on management of hyperglycemia, based on important research findings from large cardiovascular outcomes trials published in 2019. Important changes include: 1) the decision to treat high-risk individuals with a glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist or sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor to reduce major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), hospitalization for heart failure (hHF), cardiovascular death, or chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression should be considered independently of baseline HbA1c or individualized HbA1c target; 2) GLP-1 receptor agonists can also be considered in patients with type 2 diabetes without established cardiovascular disease (CVD) but with the presence of specific indicators of high risk; and 3) SGLT2 inhibitors are recommended in patients with type 2 diabetes and heart failure, particularly those with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, to reduce hHF, MACE, and CVD death, as well as in patients with type 2 diabetes with CKD (estimated glomerular filtration rate 30 to ≤60 mL min-1 [1.73 m]-2 or urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio >30 mg/g, particularly >300 mg/g) to prevent the progression of CKD, hHF, MACE, and cardiovascular death.
01 Jan 2010
01 Jan 1980