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Sharon Ash

Bio: Sharon Ash is an academic researcher from University of Pennsylvania. The author has contributed to research in topics: Primary progressive aphasia & Aphasia. The author has an hindex of 21, co-authored 51 publications receiving 2848 citations.


Papers
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Book
01 Jan 2006
TL;DR: The Atlas of North American English re-defines the regional dialects of American English on the basis of sound changes active in the 1990s and draws new boundaries reflecting those changes.
Abstract: The Atlas of North American English provides the first overall view of the pronunciation and vowel systems of the dialects of the US and Canada The Atlas re-defines the regional dialects of American English on the basis of sound changes active in the 1990s and draws new boundaries reflecting those changes It is based on a telephone survey of 762 local speakers, representing all the urbanized areas of North America It has been developed by Bill Labov, one of the leading sociolinguists of the world, together with his colleagues Sharon Ash and Charles Boberg The Atlas consists of a printed volume accompanied by an interactive CD-ROM The print and multimedia content is alsoavailable online Combined Edition: Book and Multimedia CD-ROM The printed volume contains 23 chapters that re-define the geographic boundaries of North American dialects and trace the influence of gender, age, education, and city size on the progress of sound change; findings that show a dramatic and increasing divergence of English in North America; 139 four color maps that illustrate the regional distribution of phonological and phonetic variables across the North American continent; 120 four color vowel charts of individual speakers The interactive multimedia CD-ROM supplements the printed articles and maps by providing a data base with measurements of more than 100,000 vowels and mean values for 439 speakers; the Plotnik program for mapping each of the individual vowel systems; extended sound samples of all North American dialects; interactive applications to enhance classroom presentations Online only Version: Print and Multimedia Content The online only version offers simultaneous access to the print and multimedia content to all users in the university/library network; presents a wider selection of interactive data, maps, and audio samples that will be recurrently updated; provides students with concurrent access to research material for classroom assignments Key Features: a multimedia reference tool, overthrows previously heldhypothesesin North American dialectology, sound samples on CD-ROM easily accessible through clearly designedinteractive maps System Requirements for CD-ROM and Online only version: Windows PC: Pentium PC, Windows 9x, NT, or XP, at least 16MB RAM, CD-ROM Drive, 16 Bit Soundcard, SVGA (600 x 800 resolution) Apple MAC: OS 6 or higher, 16 Bit Soundcard, at least 16MB RAM Supported Browsers: Internet Explorer, 55 or 6 (Mac OS: Internet Explorer 51)/Netscape 7x or higher/Mozilla 10 or higher/Mozilla Firefox 10 or higher PlugIns: Macromedia Flash Player 6/Acrobat Reader

696 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Impaired day-to-day communication in nonaphasic frontotemporal dementia patients with a disorder of social comportment and executive functioning is due in part to a striking deficit in discourse organization associated with right frontOTemporal disease.
Abstract: Objective: To assess discourse in patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Methods: The authors asked patients with progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA), patients with semantic dementia (SemD), and nonaphasic patients with a disorder of social comportment and executive functioning (SOC/EXEC) to narrate the story of a wordless children9s picture book. Results: The authors found significant discourse impairments in all three groups of patients. Moreover, there were qualitatively important differences between the groups. Patients with PNFA had the sparsest output, producing narratives with the fewest words per minute. Patients with SemD had difficulty retrieving words needed to tell their narratives. Though not aphasic, patients with SOC/EXEC had profound difficulty organizing their narratives, and they could not effectively express the point of the story. This deficit correlated with poor performance on a measure of executive resources requiring an organized mental search. In addition, a correlation of narrative organization with cortical atrophy in patients with SOC/EXEC was significant in right frontal and anterior temporal brain regions. Conclusions: Impaired day-to-day communication in nonaphasic frontotemporal dementia patients with a disorder of social comportment and executive functioning is due in part to a striking deficit in discourse organization associated with right frontotemporal disease. Difficulty with discourse in progressive aphasia is due largely to the language impairments of these patients.

188 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is concluded that there is sufficiently consistent and converging evidence from clinical and imaging studies to support the claim that PNFA and SD are distinct subgroups of PPA, but there does not appear to be sufficient evidence at this point to support further discrimination within these progressive aphasic subgroups.
Abstract: This review summarizes clinical and imaging features associated with primary progressive aphasia (PPA). We investigate the hypothesis that these patients can be divided into subgroups of progressive non-fluent aphasia (PNFA) and semantic dementia (SD), based on their linguistic profiles and related imaging studies, and examine whether each of these major subgroups can be further subdivided. We focus on several critical features within each progressive aphasic subgroup. In PNFA, we examine agrammatism, phonologic disorder, and impaired verb processing to determine whether this syndrome is related to a modality-specific impairment in word formation and articulation, or a conceptual deficit that interferes with grammatical processing. In SD, we examine impaired semantic memory, limited remote memory, and anomia to assess whether this syndrome is due to a modality-neutral interruption of semantic memory, or the degradation of various material-specific representations of object features and words. We conclude that there is sufficiently consistent and converging evidence from clinical and imaging studies to support the claim that PNFA and SD are distinct subgroups of PPA. However, there does not appear to be sufficient evidence at this point to support further discrimination within these progressive aphasic subgroups. Testing hypotheses about finer-grained syndromes such as progressive dysarthria or progressive anomia has important consequences for improving our understanding of language organization and the neural basis for language.

174 citations


Cited by
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article provides a classification of primary progressive aphasia (PPA) and its 3 main variants to improve the uniformity of case reporting and the reliability of research results.
Abstract: This article provides a classification of primary progressive aphasia (PPA) and its 3 main variants to improve the uniformity of case reporting and the reliability of research results. Criteria for the 3 variants of PPA—nonfluent/agrammatic, semantic, and logopenic—were developed by an international group of PPA investigators who convened on 3 occasions to operationalize earlier published clinical descriptions for PPA subtypes. Patients are first diagnosed with PPA and are then divided into clinical variants based on specific speech and language features characteristic of each subtype. Classification can then be further specified as “imaging-supported” if the expected pattern of atrophy is found and “with definite pathology” if pathologic or genetic data are available. The working recommendations are presented in lists of features, and suggested assessment tasks are also provided. These recommendations have been widely agreed upon by a large group of experts and should be used to ensure consistency of PPA classification in future studies. Future collaborations will collect prospective data to identify relationships between each of these syndromes and specific biomarkers for a more detailed understanding of clinicopathologic correlations.

3,635 citations

21 Jun 2010

1,966 citations

Journal Article
TL;DR: The International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society (MDS) Clinical Diagnostic Criteria for Parkinson9s disease as discussed by the authors have been proposed for clinical diagnosis, which are intended for use in clinical research, but may also be used to guide clinical diagnosis.
Abstract: Objective To present the International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society (MDS) Clinical Diagnostic Criteria for Parkinson9s disease. Background Although several diagnostic criteria for Parkinson9s disease have been proposed, none have been officially adopted by an official Parkinson society. Moreover, the commonest-used criteria, the UK brain bank, were created more than 25 years ago. In recognition of the lack of standard criteria, the MDS initiated a task force to design new diagnostic criteria for clinical Parkinson9s disease. Methods/Results The MDS-PD Criteria are intended for use in clinical research, but may also be used to guide clinical diagnosis. The benchmark is expert clinical diagnosis; the criteria aim to systematize the diagnostic process, to make it reproducible across centers and applicable by clinicians with less expertise. Although motor abnormalities remain central, there is increasing recognition of non-motor manifestations; these are incorporated into both the current criteria and particularly into separate criteria for prodromal PD. Similar to previous criteria, the MDS-PD Criteria retain motor parkinsonism as the core disease feature, defined as bradykinesia plus rest tremor and/or rigidity. Explicit instructions for defining these cardinal features are included. After documentation of parkinsonism, determination of PD as the cause of parkinsonism relies upon three categories of diagnostic features; absolute exclusion criteria (which rule out PD), red flags (which must be counterbalanced by additional supportive criteria to allow diagnosis of PD), and supportive criteria (positive features that increase confidence of PD diagnosis). Two levels of certainty are delineated: Clinically-established PD (maximizing specificity at the expense of reduced sensitivity), and Probable PD (which balances sensitivity and specificity). Conclusion The MDS criteria retain elements proven valuable in previous criteria and omit aspects that are no longer justified, thereby encapsulating diagnosis according to current knowledge. As understanding of PD expands, criteria will need continuous revision to accommodate these advances. Disclosure: Dr. Postuma has received personal compensation for activities with Roche Diagnostics Corporation and Biotie Therapies. Dr. Berg has received research support from Michael J. Fox Foundation, the Bundesministerium fur Bildung und Forschung (BMBF), the German Parkinson Association and Novartis GmbH.

1,655 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: McAlpine, Lumsden, and Acheson's reappraisal is an essential reference for the practising neurologist and the new edition makes important modification of and changes in emphasis from the edition of 1965.
Abstract: tical perspective. For instance, there are only three passing references to kuru in a book of 650 pages. This edition reflects the renewed interest in the immunological theories of multiple sclerosis. More than half the text is devoted to Professor Lumsden's analysis of the pathoIogy and, in particular, the chemical pathology of the immune response. There is a great deal of original work devoted to the chemistry and behaviour of the immunoglobulins. Much of this appears in specialist journals and one must be grateful for the critical summary provided here. Professor Lumsden unequivocally sees the key to the problem of multiple sclerosis in the study of its immunochemistry, relegating infection by a virus or a slow virus to a quite subsidiary role. The clinical studies drawing on wide practical experience help to get one's prejudices about the illness onto a more reasoned footing. The section on treatment is still sadly limited. Dr. McAlpine found little to add to the regime which he described in 1955. McAlpine, Lumsden, and Acheson's reappraisal is an essential reference for the practising neurologist and the new edition makes important modification of and changes in emphasis from the edition of 1965.

1,264 citations