Other affiliations: Applied Materials, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay
Bio: Shashank Gupta is an academic researcher from Stanford University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Germanium & Photonics. The author has an hindex of 17, co-authored 52 publications receiving 1213 citations. Previous affiliations of Shashank Gupta include Applied Materials & Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: In this article, different physics-based negative bias temperature instability (NBTI) models as proposed in the literature are reviewed, and the predictive capability of these models is benchmarked against experimental data.
Abstract: Different physics-based negative bias temperature instability (NBTI) models as proposed in the literature are reviewed, and the predictive capability of these models is benchmarked against experimental data. Models that focus exclusively on hole trapping in gate-insulator-process-related preexisting traps are found to be inconsistent with direct experimental evidence of interface trap generation. Models that focus exclusively on interface trap generation are incapable of predicting ultrafast measurement data. Models that assume strong correlation between interface trap generation and hole trapping in switching hole traps cannot simultaneously predict long-time dc stress, recovery, and ac stress and cannot estimate gate insulator process impact. Uncorrelated contributions from generation and recovery of interface traps, together with hole trapping and detrapping in preexisting and newly generated bulk insulator traps, are invoked to comprehensively predict dc stress and recovery, ac duty cycle and frequency, and gate insulator process impact of NBTI. The reaction-diffusion model can accurately predict generation and recovery of interface traps for different devices and experimental conditions. Hole trapping/detrapping is modeled using a two-level energy well model.
TL;DR: In this paper, the effect of reduction of ultrathin TiO2 by Ti and its effect on Fermi level depinning and contact resistivity reduction to Si is experimentally studied.
Abstract: Experimental evidence of reduction of ultrathin TiO2 by Ti is presented and its effect on Fermi level depinning and contact resistivity reduction to Si is experimentally studied. A low effective barrier height of 0.15 V was measured with a Ti/10 A TiO2−x/n-Si MIS device, indicating 55% reduction compared to a metal/n-Si control contact. Ultra-low contact resistivity of 9.1 × 10−9 Ω-cm2 was obtained using Ti/10 A TiO2−x/n+ Si, which is a dramatic 13X reduction from conventional unannealed contacts on heavily doped Si. Transport through the MIS device incorporating the effect of barrier height reduction and insulator conductivity as a function of insulator thickness is comprehensively analyzed and correlated with change in contact resistivity. Low effective barrier height, high substrate doping, and high conductivity interfacial layer are identified as key requirements to obtain low contact resistivity using MIS contacts.
••15 Jan 2016
TL;DR: In this paper, a waveguide electro-absorption modulator with electro-optic bandwidth substantially beyond 50 GHz is reported, which is implemented in a fully integrated Si photonics platform on 200mm silicon-on-insulator wafers with 220nm top Si thickness.
Abstract: We report a Germanium waveguide electro-absorption modulator with electro-optic bandwidth substantially beyond 50 GHz. The device is implemented in a fully integrated Si photonics platform on 200 mm silicon-on-insulator wafers with 220 nm top Si thickness. Wide open eye diagrams are demonstrated at 1610 nm operation wavelength for nonreturn-to-zero on-off keying (NRZ-OOK) modulation at data rates as high as 56 Gb/s. Dynamic extinction ratios up to 3.3 dB are obtained by applying drive voltages of 2 V peak-to-peak, along with an optical insertion loss below 5.5 dB. The device has a low junction capacitance of just 12.8 fF, resulting in 12.8 fJ/bit of dynamic and ∼1.2 mW of static power consumption in typical operating conditions. Wafer-scale performance data are presented and confirm the manufacturability of the device. The demonstrated modulator shows great potential for realizing high-density and low-power silicon photonic transceivers targeting short-reach optical interconnects at serial data rates of 56 Gb/s and beyond.
TL;DR: A low-threshold, compact group IV laser is demonstrated that employs a germanium nanowire under a 1.6% uniaxial tensile strain as the gain medium, allowing the observation of multimode lasing with an optical pumping threshold density of ~3.0 kW cm−2.
Abstract: The integration of efficient, miniaturized group IV lasers into CMOS architecture holds the key to the realization of fully functional photonic-integrated circuits. Despite several years of progress, however, all group IV lasers reported to date exhibit impractically high thresholds owing to their unfavourable bandstructures. Highly strained germanium with its fundamentally altered bandstructure has emerged as a potential low-threshold gain medium, but there has yet to be a successful demonstration of lasing from this seemingly promising material system. Here we demonstrate a low-threshold, compact group IV laser that employs a germanium nanowire under a 1.6% uniaxial tensile strain as the gain medium. The amplified material gain in strained germanium can sufficiently overcome optical losses at 83 K, thus allowing the observation of multimode lasing with an optical pumping threshold density of ~3.0 kW cm−2. Our demonstration opens new possibilities for group IV lasers for photonic-integrated circuits. Integrating group IV lasing devices into technologically relevant CMOS architectures has proven challenging. Here, the authors demonstrate low-threshold lasing, which is important for potential electronic and photonic circuits, using strained germanium nanowires as the gain material.
TL;DR: In this article, a physics-based approach for Fermi-level pinning in metal-semiconductor contacts has been extended to metal-interfacial layer (IL)-semiconductors (MIS) contacts.
Abstract: Metal-induced-gap-states model for Fermi-level pinning in metal-semiconductor contacts has been extended to metal-interfacial layer (IL)-semiconductor (MIS) contacts using a physics-based approach. Contact resistivity simulations evaluating various ILs on n-Ge indicate the possibility of forming low resistance contacts using TiO2, ZnO, and Sn-doped In2O3 (ITO) layers. Doping of the IL is proposed as an additional knob for lowering MIS contact resistance. This is demonstrated through simulations and experimentally verified with circular-transfer length method and diode measurements on Ti/n+-ZnO/n-Ge and Ti/ITO/n-Ge MIS contacts.
TL;DR: In this paper, a sedimentological core and petrographic characterisation of samples from eleven boreholes from the Lower Carboniferous of Bowland Basin (Northwest England) is presented.
Abstract: Deposits of clastic carbonate-dominated (calciclastic) sedimentary slope systems in the rock record have been identified mostly as linearly-consistent carbonate apron deposits, even though most ancient clastic carbonate slope deposits fit the submarine fan systems better. Calciclastic submarine fans are consequently rarely described and are poorly understood. Subsequently, very little is known especially in mud-dominated calciclastic submarine fan systems. Presented in this study are a sedimentological core and petrographic characterisation of samples from eleven boreholes from the Lower Carboniferous of Bowland Basin (Northwest England) that reveals a >250 m thick calciturbidite complex deposited in a calciclastic submarine fan setting. Seven facies are recognised from core and thin section characterisation and are grouped into three carbonate turbidite sequences. They include: 1) Calciturbidites, comprising mostly of highto low-density, wavy-laminated bioclast-rich facies; 2) low-density densite mudstones which are characterised by planar laminated and unlaminated muddominated facies; and 3) Calcidebrites which are muddy or hyper-concentrated debrisflow deposits occurring as poorly-sorted, chaotic, mud-supported floatstones. These
TL;DR: This work shows that the spectral distribution and time-dependent decay of light emitted from excitons confined in the quantum dots are controlled by the host photonic crystal, providing a basis for all-solid-state dynamic control of optical quantum systems.
Abstract: Control of spontaneously emitted light lies at the heart of quantum optics. It is essential for diverse applications ranging from miniature lasers and light-emitting diodes, to single-photon sources for quantum information, and to solar energy harvesting. To explore such new quantum optics applications, a suitably tailored dielectric environment is required in which the vacuum fluctuations that control spontaneous emission can be manipulated. Photonic crystals provide such an environment: they strongly modify the vacuum fluctuations, causing the decay of emitted light to be accelerated or slowed down, to reveal unusual statistics, or to be completely inhibited in the ideal case of a photonic bandgap. Here we study spontaneous emission from semiconductor quantum dots embedded in inverse opal photonic crystals. We show that the spectral distribution and time-dependent decay of light emitted from excitons confined in the quantum dots are controlled by the host photonic crystal. Modified emission is observed over large frequency bandwidths of 10%, orders of magnitude larger than reported for resonant optical microcavities. Both inhibited and enhanced decay rates are observed depending on the optical emission frequency, and they are controlled by the crystals’ lattice parameter. Our experimental results provide a basis for all-solid-state dynamic control of optical quantum systems.
TL;DR: The phenomenon of Fermi level pinning at the metal/2D contact interface, the Schottky versus Ohmic nature of the contacts and various contact engineering approaches including interlayer contacts, phase engineered contacts, and basal versus edge plane contacts are elucidated.
Abstract: Over the past decade, the field of two-dimensional (2D) layered materials has surged, promising a new platform for studying diverse physical phenomena that are scientifically intriguing and technologically relevant. Contacts are the communication links between these 2D materials and the three-dimensional world for probing and harnessing their exquisite electronic properties. However, fundamental challenges related to contacts often limit the ultimate performance and potential of 2D materials and devices. This article provides a comprehensive overview of the basic understanding and importance of contacts to 2D materials and various strategies for engineering and improving them. In particular, we elucidate the phenomenon of Fermi level pinning at the metal/2D contact interface, the Schottky versus Ohmic nature of the contacts and various contact engineering approaches including interlayer contacts, phase engineered contacts, and basal versus edge plane contacts, among others. Finally, we also discuss some of the relatively under-addressed and unresolved issues, such as contact scaling, and conclude with a future outlook.
••20 Nov 2018
TL;DR: This review paper analyzes optical technologies that will enable next-generation data center optical interconnects to address the challenges of terabit/s links and networks at the laser, modulator, photodiode, and switch levels.
Abstract: Modern data centers increasingly rely on interconnects for delivering critical communications connectivity among numerous servers, memory, and computation resources. Data center interconnects turned to optical communications almost a decade ago, and the recent acceleration in data center requirements is expected to further drive photonic interconnect technologies deeper into the systems architecture. This review paper analyzes optical technologies that will enable next-generation data center optical interconnects. Recent progress addressing the challenges of terabit/s links and networks at the laser, modulator, photodiode, and switch levels is reported and summarized.