Sheikh Nazir Ahmad
Bio: Sheikh Nazir Ahmad is an academic researcher. The author has contributed to research in topics: Ferrite (iron) & Cantilever. The author has an hindex of 2, co-authored 2 publications receiving 9 citations.
TL;DR: In this paper, the non-recrystallization temperature (TNR) of niobium-microalloyed steel is determined to plan rolling schedules for obtaining the desired properties of steel.
Abstract: In the present investigation, the non-recrystallization temperature (TNR) of niobium-microalloyed steel is determined to plan rolling schedules for obtaining the desired properties of steel. The value of TNR is based on both alloying elements and deformation parameters. In the literature, TNR equations have been developed and utilized. However, each equation has certain limitations which constrain its applicability. This study was completed using laboratory-grade low-carbon Nb-microalloyed steels designed to meet the API X-70 specification. Nb- microalloyed steel is processed by the melting and casting process, and the composition is found by optical emission spectroscopy (OES). Multiple-hit deformation tests were carried out on a Gleeble® 3500 system in the standard pocket-jaw configuration to determine TNR. Cuboidal specimens (10 (L) × 20 (W) × 20 (T) mm3) were taken for compression test (multiple-hit deformation tests) in gleeble. Microstructure evolutions were carried out by using OM (optical microscopy) and SEM (scanning electron microscopy). The value of TNR determined for 0.1 wt.% niobium bearing microalloyed steel is ~ 951 °C. Nb- microalloyed steel rolled at TNR produce partially recrystallized grain with ferrite nucleation. Hence, to verify the TNR value, a rolling process is applied with the finishing rolling temperature near TNR (~951 °C). The microstructure is also revealed in the pancake shape, which confirms TNR.
TL;DR: In this paper, a higher order finite element model has been developed for the analysis of debonding in a smart cantilever beam, where the debonding has been incorporated at the interfaces between piezo patches and the core.
Abstract: Using basic electro-elastic formulation and variational formulation, a higher order finite element model has been developed for the analysis of debonding in a smart cantilever beam. Full length piezo patch embedded at the top and bottom of the aluminium core has been assumed to be de-bonded. The debonding has been incorporated at the interfaces between piezo patches and the core, at the mid span of the beam for one third length of the beam. The effect of debonding in sensing mode has been analysed by presenting the induced potential, axial displacement, axial/transverse electric field and stresses for fully bonded and de-bonded smart cantilever beam. The variation in electric potential, electric field, axial displacement/strain/stress and shear strain/stress observed in case of debonding demonstrates that the mechanics of debonding is complex coupled electro-mechanical behaviour. In the de-bonded beam, the induced potential at the free piezo surface and at the interfaces shows a sinusoidal variation from root to the tip as compared to the linear variation in bonded beam. This is attributed to the non-linear bending moment variation from root to the tip in case of de-bonded beam. The maximum stress in debonding increases nearly 1.5 times to that of bonded beam sensing at various locations.
TL;DR: In this article, the effect of reinforcements and thermal exposure on the tensile properties of aluminum AA 5083-silicon carbide (SiC) -fly ash composites were studied.
Abstract: The effect of reinforcements and thermal exposure on the tensile properties of aluminium AA 5083–silicon carbide (SiC)–fly ash composites were studied in the present work. The specimens were fabricated with varying wt.% of fly ash and silicon carbide and subjected to T6 thermal cycle conditions to enhance the properties through “precipitation hardening”. The analyses of the microstructure and the elemental distribution were carried out using scanning electron microscopic (SEM) images and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The composite specimens thus subjected to thermal treatment exhibit uniform distribution of the reinforcements, and the energy dispersive spectrum exhibit the presence of Al, Si, Mg, O elements, along with the traces of few other elements. The effects of reinforcements and heat treatment on the tensile properties were investigated through a set of scientifically designed experimental trials. From the investigations, it is observed that the tensile and yield strength increases up to 160 °C, beyond which there is a slight reduction in the tensile and yield strength with an increase in temperature (i.e., 200 °C). Additionally, the % elongation of the composites decreases substantially with the inclusion of the reinforcements and thermal exposure, leading to an increase in stiffness and elastic modulus of the specimens. The improvement in the strength and elastic modulus of the composites is attributed to a number of factors, i.e., the diffusion mechanism, composition of the reinforcements, heat treatment temperatures, and grain refinement. Further, the optimisation studies and ANN modelling validated the experimental outcomes and provided the training models for the test data with the correlation coefficients for interpolating the results for different sets of parameters, thereby facilitating the fabrication of hybrid composite components for various automotive and aerospace applications.
TL;DR: In this article, Al-Fe-Si-Zn-Cu (AA8079) matrix composites with several weight percentages of B4C (0, 5, 10, and 15) were synthesized by powder metallurgy (PM).
Abstract: In this paper, Al-Fe-Si-Zn-Cu (AA8079) matrix composites with several weight percentages of B4C (0, 5, 10, and 15) were synthesized by powder metallurgy (PM). The essential amount of powders was milled to yield different compositions such as AA8079, AA8079-5 wt.%B4C, AA8079-10 wt.%B4C, and AA8079-15 wt.%B4C. The influence of powder metallurgy parameters on properties’ density, hardness, and compressive strength was examined. The green compacts were produced at three various pressures: 300 MPa, 400 MPa, and 500 MPa. The fabricated green compacts were sintered at 375 °C, 475 °C, and 575 °C for the time period of 1, 2 and 3 h, respectively. Furthermore, the sintered samples were subjected to X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, Energy Dispersive Analysis (EDAX), and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) examinations. The SEM examination confirmed the uniform dispersal of B4C reinforcement with AA8079 matrix. Corrosion behavior of the composites samples was explored. From the studies, it is witnessed that the rise in PM process parameters enhances the density, hardness, compressive strength, and corrosion resistance.
TL;DR: In this article, a tribo test machine was used to evaluate the abrasive wear behavior of glass fabric reinforced (GC) epoxy and titanium dioxide (TiO2) filled composites.
Abstract: Two-body abrasive wear behavior of glass fabric reinforced (GC) epoxy and titanium dioxide (TiO2) filled composites have been conducted out by using a tribo test machine. GC and TiO2 filled GC composites were produced by the hand layup technique. The mechanical performances of the fabricated composites were calculated as per ASTM standards. Three different weight percentages were mixed with the polymer to develop the mechanical and abrasive wear features of the composites. Evaluation Based on Distance from Average Solution (EDAS), a multi-criteria decision technique is applied to find the best filler content. Based on the output, 2wt% TiO2 filler gave the best result. Abrasive wear tests were used to compare GC and TiO2 filled GC composites. The abrasion wear mechanisms of the unfilled and TiO2 filled composites have also been studied by scanning electron microscopy. The outcome of the paper suggests the correct proportion of filler required for the resin in order to improve the wear resistance of the filled composites. Taguchi combined with Multi-Criteria Decision Method (MCDM) is used to identify the better performance of the TiO2 filled epoxy composites.
TL;DR: In this article, the physical and mechanical properties of bighorns of Deccani breed sheep native from Karnataka, India were investigated, and the results showed anisotropy and depended highly on the presence of water content.
Abstract: This paper investigates the physical and mechanical properties of bighorns of Deccani breed sheep native from Karnataka, India. The exhaustive work comprises two cases. First, rehydrated (wet) and ambient (dry) conditions, and second, the horn coupons were selected for longitudinal and lateral (transverse) directions. More than seventy-two samples were subjected to a test for physical and mechanical property extraction. Further, twenty-four samples were subjected to physical property testing, which included density and moisture absorption tests. At the same time, mechanical testing included analysis of the stress state dependence with the horn keratin tested under tension, compression, and flexural loading. The mechanical properties include the elastic modulus, yield strength, ultimate strength, failure strain, compressive strength, flexural strength, flexural modulus, and hardness. The results showed anisotropy and depended highly on the presence of water content more than coupon orientation. Wet conditioned specimens had a significant loss in mechanical properties compared with dry specimens. The observed outcomes were shown at par with results for yield strength of 53.5 ± 6.5 MPa (which is better than its peers) and a maximum compressive stress of 557.7 ± 5 MPa (highest among peers). Young’s modulus 6.5 ± 0.5 GPa and a density equivalent to a biopolymer of 1.2 g/cc are expected to be the lightest among its peers; flexural strength 168.75 MPa, with lowest failure strain percentage of 6.5 ± 0.5 and Rockwell hardness value of 60 HRB, seem best in the class of this category. Simulation study identified a suitable application area based on impact and fatigue analysis. Overall, the exhaustive experimental work provided many opportunities to use this new material in various diversified applications in the future.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors focused on increasing the mechanical strength and improving the corrosion resistance of an aluminum alloy hybrid matrix by using a L9 OA statistical analysis to optimize the process parameters of the mechanical and corrosion tests.
Abstract: This work mainly focuses on increasing the mechanical strength and improving the corrosion resistance of an aluminum alloy hybrid matrix. The composites are prepared by the stir casting procedure. For this work, aluminum alloy 8079 is considered as a base material and titanium nitride and zirconium dioxide are utilized as reinforcement particles. Mechanical tests, such as the ultimate tensile strength, wear, salt spray corrosion test and microhardness test, are conducted effectively in the fabricated AA8079/TiN + ZrO2 composites. L9 OA statistical analysis is executed to optimize the process parameters of the mechanical and corrosion tests. ANOVA analysis defines the contribution and influence of each parameter. In the tensile and wear test, parameters are chosen as % of reinforcement (3%, 6% and 9%), stirring speed (500, 550 and 600 rpm) and stirring time (20, 25 and 30 min). Similarly, in the salt spray test and microhardness test, the selected parameters are: percentage of reinforcement (3%, 6% and 9%), pH value (3, 6 and 9), and hang time (24, 48 and 72 h). The percentage of reinforcement highly influenced the wear and microhardness test, while the stirring time parameter extremely influenced the ultimate tensile strength. From the corrosion test, the hang time influences the corrosion rate. The SEM analysis highly reveals the bonding of each reinforcement particle to the base material.