Author

# Sheldon Schultz

Other affiliations: University of California, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne

Bio: Sheldon Schultz is an academic researcher from University of California, San Diego. The author has contributed to research in topic(s): Magnetization & Plasmon. The author has an hindex of 43, co-authored 135 publication(s) receiving 26175 citation(s). Previous affiliations of Sheldon Schultz include University of California & École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne.

##### Papers published on a yearly basis

##### Papers

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TL;DR: These experiments directly confirm the predictions of Maxwell's equations that n is given by the negative square root ofɛ·μ for the frequencies where both the permittivity and the permeability are negative.

Abstract: We present experimental scattering data at microwave frequencies on a structured metamaterial that exhibits a frequency band where the effective index of refraction (n) is negative. The material consists of a two-dimensional array of repeated unit cells of copper strips and split ring resonators on interlocking strips of standard circuit board material. By measuring the scattering angle of the transmitted beam through a prism fabricated from this material, we determine the effective n, appropriate to Snell's law. These experiments directly confirm the predictions of Maxwell's equations that n is given by the negative square root of epsilon.mu for the frequencies where both the permittivity (epsilon) and the permeability (mu) are negative. Configurations of geometrical optical designs are now possible that could not be realized by positive index materials.

7,922 citations

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TL;DR: A composite medium, based on a periodic array of interspaced conducting nonmagnetic split ring resonators and continuous wires, that exhibits a frequency region in the microwave regime with simultaneously negative values of effective permeability and permittivity varepsilon(eff)(omega).

Abstract: We demonstrate a composite medium, based on a periodic array of interspaced conducting nonmagnetic split ring resonators and continuous wires, that exhibits a frequency region in the microwave regime with

7,533 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors analyzed the reflection and transmission coefficients calculated from transfer matrix simulations on finite lengths of electromagnetic metamaterials, to determine the effective permittivity and permeability.

Abstract: We analyze the reflection and transmission coefficients calculated from transfer matrix simulations on finite lengths of electromagnetic metamaterials, to determine the effective permittivity ~«! and permeability ~m! .W e perform this analysis on structures composed of periodic arrangements of wires, split ring resonators ~SRRs!, and both wires and SRRs. We find the recovered frequency-dependent« and m are entirely consistent with analytic expressions predicted by effective medium arguments. Of particular relevance are that a wire medium exhibits a frequency region in which the real part of « is negative, and SRRs produce a frequency region in which the real part of m is negative. In the combination structure, at frequencies where both the recovered real parts of « and m are simultaneously negative, the real part of the index of refraction is also found to be unambiguously negative.

2,487 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present experimental data, numerical simulations, and analytical transfer-matrix calculations for a two-dimensional isotropic, left-handed metamaterial (LHM) at X-band microwave frequencies.

Abstract: We present experimental data, numerical simulations, and analytical transfer-matrix calculations for a two-dimensionally isotropic, left-handed metamaterial (LHM) at X-band microwave frequencies. A LHM is one that has a frequency band with simultaneously negative eeff(ω) and μeff(ω), thereby having real values of index of refraction and wave vectors, and exhibiting extended wave propagation over that band. Our physical demonstration of a two-dimensional isotropic LHM will now permit experiments to verify some of the explicit predictions of reversed electromagnetic-wave properties including negative index of refraction as analyzed by Veselago [Usp. Fiz. Nauk 92, 517 (1964), Sov. Phys. Usp. 10, 509 (1968)].

844 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, an experimental darkfield microscope study of the dependence of the plasmon resonance spectrum of individual silver nanoparticles on the local index of refraction is presented. But the results are consistent with experiments performed on ensembles of similar nanoparticles and suggest that individual nanoparticles may be utilized in biosensing applications where currently ensemble are being investigated.

Abstract: We present an experimental optical darkfield microscope study of the dependence of the plasmon resonance spectrum of individual silver nanoparticles on the local index of refraction. We systematically characterize the position of the resonance peaks associated with the same set of individual silver nanoparticles embedded sequentially in index oils with increasing refractive index. This technique effectively allows the local refractive index to be stepped in increments of 0.04. As the local index is increased, the spectrum from each of the nanoparticles generally undergoes a very regular and reproducible red shift; however, we find that the amount of red shift per index increase varies depending on the shape of the nanoparticle and the mode of excitation. In particular, we find that the spectral peak that occurs in triangular nanoparticles exhibits a noticeably larger red shift than that associated with the dipole mode corresponding to spherical nanoparticles. Our results are consistent with experiments performed on ensembles of similar nanoparticles and suggest that individual nanoparticles may be utilized in biosensing applications where currently ensembles are being investigated.

786 citations

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TL;DR: By altering the structure of a metal's surface, the properties of surface plasmons—in particular their interaction with light—can be tailored, which could lead to miniaturized photonic circuits with length scales that are much smaller than those currently achieved.

Abstract: Surface plasmons are waves that propagate along the surface of a conductor. By altering the structure of a metal's surface, the properties of surface plasmons--in particular their interaction with light--can be tailored, which offers the potential for developing new types of photonic device. This could lead to miniaturized photonic circuits with length scales that are much smaller than those currently achieved. Surface plasmons are being explored for their potential in subwavelength optics, data storage, light generation, microscopy and bio-photonics.

9,948 citations

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TL;DR: Spintronics, or spin electronics, involves the study of active control and manipulation of spin degrees of freedom in solid-state systems as discussed by the authors, where the primary focus is on the basic physical principles underlying the generation of carrier spin polarization, spin dynamics, and spin-polarized transport.

Abstract: Spintronics, or spin electronics, involves the study of active control and manipulation of spin degrees of freedom in solid-state systems. This article reviews the current status of this subject, including both recent advances and well-established results. The primary focus is on the basic physical principles underlying the generation of carrier spin polarization, spin dynamics, and spin-polarized transport in semiconductors and metals. Spin transport differs from charge transport in that spin is a nonconserved quantity in solids due to spin-orbit and hyperfine coupling. The authors discuss in detail spin decoherence mechanisms in metals and semiconductors. Various theories of spin injection and spin-polarized transport are applied to hybrid structures relevant to spin-based devices and fundamental studies of materials properties. Experimental work is reviewed with the emphasis on projected applications, in which external electric and magnetic fields and illumination by light will be used to control spin and charge dynamics to create new functionalities not feasible or ineffective with conventional electronics.

8,325 citations

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[...]

TL;DR: These experiments directly confirm the predictions of Maxwell's equations that n is given by the negative square root ofɛ·μ for the frequencies where both the permittivity and the permeability are negative.

Abstract: We present experimental scattering data at microwave frequencies on a structured metamaterial that exhibits a frequency band where the effective index of refraction (n) is negative. The material consists of a two-dimensional array of repeated unit cells of copper strips and split ring resonators on interlocking strips of standard circuit board material. By measuring the scattering angle of the transmitted beam through a prism fabricated from this material, we determine the effective n, appropriate to Snell's law. These experiments directly confirm the predictions of Maxwell's equations that n is given by the negative square root of epsilon.mu for the frequencies where both the permittivity (epsilon) and the permeability (mu) are negative. Configurations of geometrical optical designs are now possible that could not be realized by positive index materials.

7,922 citations

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TL;DR: Recent advances at the intersection of plasmonics and photovoltaics are surveyed and an outlook on the future of solar cells based on these principles is offered.

Abstract: The emerging field of plasmonics has yielded methods for guiding and localizing light at the nanoscale, well below the scale of the wavelength of light in free space. Now plasmonics researchers are turning their attention to photovoltaics, where design approaches based on plasmonics can be used to improve absorption in photovoltaic devices, permitting a considerable reduction in the physical thickness of solar photovoltaic absorber layers, and yielding new options for solar-cell design. In this review, we survey recent advances at the intersection of plasmonics and photovoltaics and offer an outlook on the future of solar cells based on these principles.

7,551 citations

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TL;DR: This work shows how electromagnetic fields can be redirected at will and proposes a design strategy that has relevance to exotic lens design and to the cloaking of objects from electromagnetic fields.

Abstract: Using the freedom of design that metamaterials provide, we show how electromagnetic fields can be redirected at will and propose a design strategy. The conserved fields-electric displacement field D, magnetic induction field B, and Poynting vector B-are all displaced in a consistent manner. A simple illustration is given of the cloaking of a proscribed volume of space to exclude completely all electromagnetic fields. Our work has relevance to exotic lens design and to the cloaking of objects from electromagnetic fields.

7,201 citations