Other affiliations: Karunya University
Bio: Shine Augustine is an academic researcher from Delhi Technological University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Colloidal gold & Surface plasmon resonance. The author has an hindex of 11, co-authored 18 publications receiving 501 citations. Previous affiliations of Shine Augustine include Karunya University.
TL;DR: The overview of the different materials (glass, silicon, polymer, paper, and techniques for the fabrication of MF based POC devices along with their wide range of biosensor applications is presented.
Abstract: Point-of-care (POC) diagnostic devices have been predicted to provide a boon in health care especially in the diagnosis and detection of diseases. POC devices have been found to have many advantages like a rapid and precise response, portability, low cost, and non-requirement of specialized equipment. The major objective of a POC diagnostic research is to develop a chip-based, self-containing miniaturized device that can be used to examine different analytes in complex samples. Further, the integration of microfluidics (MF) with advanced biosensor technologies is likely to result in improved POC diagnostics. This paper presents the overview of the different materials (glass, silicon, polymer, paper) and techniques for the fabrication of MF based POC devices along with their wide range of biosensor applications. Besides this, the authors have presented in brief the challenges that MF is currently facing along with possible solutions that may result in the availability of the accessible, reliable, and cost-efficient technology. The development of these devices requires the combination of developed MF components into POC devices that are user-friendly, sensitive, stable, accurate, low cost, and minimally invasive. These MF based POC devices have tremendous potential in providing improved healthcare including easy monitoring, early detection of disease, and increased personalization.
TL;DR: This review deals with four different types of carbon allotrope including carbon nanotubes, graphene, fullerenes and nanodiamonds and summarizes the results of recent studies that are likely to have implications in cancer theranostics.
Abstract: One of the major challenges in our contemporary society is to facilitate healthy life for all human beings. In this context, cancer has become one of the most deadly diseases around the world, and despite many advances in theranostics techniques the treatment of cancer still remains an important problem. With recent advances made in the field of nano-biotechnology, carbon-based nanostructured materials have drawn special attention because of their unique physicochemical properties, giving rise to great potential for the diagnosis and therapy of cancer. This review deals with four different types of carbon allotrope including carbon nanotubes, graphene, fullerenes and nanodiamonds and summarizes the results of recent studies that are likely to have implications in cancer theranostics. We discuss the applications of these carbon allotropes for cancer imaging and drug delivery, hyperthermia, photodynamic therapy and acoustic wave assisted theranostics. We focus on the results of different studies conducted on functionalized/conjugated carbon nanotubes, graphene, fullerenes and nanodiamond based nanostructured materials reported in the literature in the current decade. The emphasis has been placed on the synthesis strategies, structural design, properties and possible mechanisms that are perhaps responsible for their improved theranostic characteristics. Finally, we discuss the critical issues that may accelerate the development of carbon-based nanostructured materials for application in cancer theranostics.
TL;DR: The proposed immunoelectrode was validated with conventional ELISA for the detection of CEA in serum samples of cancer patients and resulted in improved electrochemical performance and signal stability.
Abstract: We report results of the studies relating to the fabrication of a label-free, flexible, light weight and disposable conducting paper based immunosensing platform comprising of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) and nanostructured iron oxide (nFe(2)O(3)@PEDOT:PSS) nanocomposite for detection of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), a cancer biomarker. The effect of various solvents such as sorbitol, ethanol, propanol, n-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) on the electrical conductivity of Whatman filter paper (WP) modified with nFe(2)O(3)@PEDOT:PSS/WP was investigated. The electrical conductivity of the PEDOT:PSS/WP electrode was found to be enhanced by two orders of magnitude (from 6.8 x 10(-4) to 1.92 x 10(-2) Scm(-1)) after its treatment with DMSO. Further, nFe(2)O(3) doped PEDOT:PSS/WP electrode exhibited the electrical conductivity as 2.4 x 10(-2) Scm(-1). Besides this, the incorporation of iron oxide nanoparticles (nFe(2)O(3)) into PEDOT:PSS/ WP resulted in improved electrochemical performance and signal stability. This nFe(2)O(3)@ PEDOT:PSS/WP based platform was used for immobilization of the anti-carcinoembronic antigen (anti-CEA) protein for quantitative estimation of cancer biomarker (CEA). The results of electrochemical response studies revealed that this conducting paper based immunoelectrode had a sensitivity of 10.2 mu Ang(-1) mLcm(-2) in the physiological range (4-25 ngmL(-1)) and shelf life of 34 days. Further, the proposed immunoelectrode was validated with conventional ELISA for the detection of CEA in serum samples of cancer patients. (C) 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
TL;DR: In this article, a non-invasive, label free immunosensor based on nanostructured hafnium oxide (hafinia) deposited onto indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass for oral cancer biomarker detection in human saliva is presented.
Abstract: We report results of the studies relating to the development of a non-invasive, label free immunosensor based on nanostructured hafnium oxide (hafinia) deposited onto indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass for oral cancer biomarker (CYFRA-21-1) detection in human saliva. The nanostructured hafnia (nHfO2) has been synthesized via one step low temperature hydrothermal process and modified with 3-aminopropyltriethoxy silane (APTES) for covalent immobilization of monoclonal antibodies (anti-CYFRA-21-1). Bovine serum albumin (BSA) was used to block non-specific sites at the anti-CYFRA-21-1/APTES/nHfO2/ITO electrode surface. The structural, morphological and spectroscopic characterization of the synthesized nanomaterials and fabricated electrodes has been carried out using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) studies, respectively. The results of response studies conducted on BSA/anti-CYFRA-21-1/APTES/nHfO2/ITO immunoelectrode reveal that this biosensor has high sensitivity (9.28 μA mL ng−1 cm−2), wide linear detection range (2–18 ng mL−1) and fast response time (15 min). This immunosensor has been validated with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in saliva samples of oral cancer patients.
••19 Sep 2019
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors report results of studies relating to development of an ultrasensitive, rapid, and label-free biosensor based on molybdenum trioxide (MoO3) anchored onto the reduced graphene oxide (RGO) for bre...
Abstract: We report results of studies relating to development of an ultrasensitive, rapid, and label-free biosensor based on molybdenum trioxide (MoO3) anchored onto the reduced graphene oxide (RGO) for bre...
TL;DR: It is believed that PTT and PAI having noteworthy features would become promising next-generation non-invasive cancer theranostic techniques and improve the ability to combat cancers.
Abstract: The nonradiative conversion of light energy into heat (photothermal therapy, PTT) or sound energy (photoacoustic imaging, PAI) has been intensively investigated for the treatment and diagnosis of cancer, respectively. By taking advantage of nanocarriers, both imaging and therapeutic functions together with enhanced tumour accumulation have been thoroughly studied to improve the pre-clinical efficiency of PAI and PTT. In this review, we first summarize the development of inorganic and organic nano photothermal transduction agents (PTAs) and strategies for improving the PTT outcomes, including applying appropriate laser dosage, guiding the treatment via imaging techniques, developing PTAs with absorption in the second NIR window, increasing photothermal conversion efficiency (PCE), and also increasing the accumulation of PTAs in tumours. Second, we introduce the advantages of combining PTT with other therapies in cancer treatment. Third, the emerging applications of PAI in cancer-related research are exemplified. Finally, the perspectives and challenges of PTT and PAI for combating cancer, especially regarding their clinical translation, are discussed. We believe that PTT and PAI having noteworthy features would become promising next-generation non-invasive cancer theranostic techniques and improve our ability to combat cancers.
••22 Apr 2012
TL;DR: In this article, the electromagnetic spectrum in Figure 1 illustrates the many different types of electromagnetic radiation, including gamma rays (γ-rays), X-rays, ultraviolet (UV) radiation, visible light, infrared (IR), microwaves, and radio waves.
Abstract: Spectroscopy is the study of matter interacting with electromagnetic radiation (e.g., light). The electromagnetic spectrum in Figure 1 illustrates the many different types of electromagnetic radiation, including gamma rays (γ-rays), X-rays, ultraviolet (UV) radiation, visible light, infrared (IR) radiation, microwaves, and radio waves. The frequency (ν) and wavelength (λ) ranges associated with each form of radiant energy are also indicated in Figure 1.
TL;DR: A biosensor is an integrated receptor-transducer device, which can convert a biological response into an electrical signal as mentioned in this paper, which can transform biological signals into electrochemical, electrical, optical, gravimetric, or acoustic signals.
Abstract: A biosensor is an integrated receptor-transducer device, which can convert a biological response into an electrical signal The design and development of biosensors have taken a center stage for researchers or scientists in the recent decade owing to the wide range of biosensor applications, such as health care and disease diagnosis, environmental monitoring, water and food quality monitoring, and drug delivery The main challenges involved in the biosensor progress are (i) the efficient capturing of biorecognition signals and the transformation of these signals into electrochemical, electrical, optical, gravimetric, or acoustic signals (transduction process), (ii) enhancing transducer performance ie, increasing sensitivity, shorter response time, reproducibility, and low detection limits even to detect individual molecules, and (iii) miniaturization of the biosensing devices using micro-and nano-fabrication technologies Those challenges can be met through the integration of sensing technology with nanomaterials, which range from zero- to three-dimensional, possessing a high surface-to-volume ratio, good conductivities, shock-bearing abilities, and color tunability Nanomaterials (NMs) employed in the fabrication and nanobiosensors include nanoparticles (NPs) (high stability and high carrier capacity), nanowires (NWs) and nanorods (NRs) (capable of high detection sensitivity), carbon nanotubes (CNTs) (large surface area, high electrical and thermal conductivity), and quantum dots (QDs) (color tunability) Furthermore, these nanomaterials can themselves act as transduction elements This review summarizes the evolution of biosensors, the types of biosensors based on their receptors, transducers, and modern approaches employed in biosensors using nanomaterials such as NPs (eg, noble metal NPs and metal oxide NPs), NWs, NRs, CNTs, QDs, and dendrimers and their recent advancement in biosensing technology with the expansion of nanotechnology
TL;DR: The concepts of OOAC are introduced and its application to the construction of physiological models, drug development, and toxicology from the perspective of different organs are reviewed.
Abstract: The organ-on-a-chip (OOAC) is in the list of top 10 emerging technologies and refers to a physiological organ biomimetic system built on a microfluidic chip. Through a combination of cell biology, engineering, and biomaterial technology, the microenvironment of the chip simulates that of the organ in terms of tissue interfaces and mechanical stimulation. This reflects the structural and functional characteristics of human tissue and can predict response to an array of stimuli including drug responses and environmental effects. OOAC has broad applications in precision medicine and biological defense strategies. Here, we introduce the concepts of OOAC and review its application to the construction of physiological models, drug development, and toxicology from the perspective of different organs. We further discuss existing challenges and provide future perspectives for its application.