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Shiva Shankar

Bio: Shiva Shankar is an academic researcher. The author has contributed to research in topics: Materials science & Composite number. The author has an hindex of 1, co-authored 1 publications receiving 113 citations.

Papers
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01 Jan 2006
TL;DR: In this paper, a single leaf with variable thickness and width for constant cross sectional area of unidirectional glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) with similar mechanical and geometrical properties to the multileaf spring, was designed, fabricated (hand-lay up technique) and tested.
Abstract: The automobile industry has shown increased interest in the replacement of steel spring with fiberglass composite leaf spring due to high strength to weight ratio. Therefore; the aim of this paper is to present a low cost fabrication of complete mono composite leaf spring and mono composite leaf spring with bonded end joints. Also, general study on the analysis and design. A single leaf with variable thickness and width for constant cross sectional area of unidirectional glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) with similar mechanical and geometrical properties to the multileaf spring, was designed, fabricated (hand-lay up technique) and tested. Computer algorithm using C-language has been used for the design of constant cross-section leaf spring. The results showed that an spring width decreases hyperbolically and thickness increases linearly from the spring eyes towards the axle seat. The finite element results using ANSYS software showing stresses and deflections were verified with analytical and experimental results. The design constraints were stresses (Tsai-Wu failure criterion) and displacement. Compared to the steel spring, the composite spring has stresses that are much lower, the natural frequency is higher and the spring weight is nearly 85 % lower with bonded end joint and with complete eye unit.

119 citations

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TL;DR: In this article , the authors summarize the recent developments in the field of additive manufacturing of natural fiber reinforced composites and draw some conclusions and have suggested future directions to the research, which is the norm of the future.

6 citations

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TL;DR: In this article , the tribological behavior of the laser sintered and unsintered Inconel 718 components due to comparative motion between the samples and media have been investigated.
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TL;DR: In this article , the optimum concentration of AL2O3 in water for solar application based on stability checking using the zeta potential method was investigated, and simulated result showed that heat transfer coefficient increases as concentration increase, and for a given geometry, Nusselt number rises as Reynolds number rises, which is used for the solar application.
Abstract: Nano-fluid is a suspension of nano particles in the base fluids like water to enhance heat transfer. Nano-fluids is a class of fluids used for the cooling and heating process. This paper reports an investigation of the optimum concentration of AL2O3 in water for solar application based on stability checking using the zeta potential method. In this study, computational fluid dynamics analysis was performed using the Ansyss Fluent software for the different concentrations. Results are analyzed, and simulated result shows that heat transfer coefficient increases as concentration increase, and for a given geometry, Nusselt number rises as Reynolds number rises, which is used for the solar application.

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Journal Article
TL;DR: In this article, a single E-glass/Epoxy leaf spring is designed and simulated following the design rules of the composite materials considering static loading only, and it is shown that the resulting design and simulation stresses are much below the strength properties of the material, satisfying the maximum stress failure criterion.
Abstract: Reducing weight while increasing or maintaining strength of products is getting to be highly important research issue in this modern world. Composite materials are one of the material families which are attracting researchers and being solutions of such issue. In this project reducing weight of vehicles and increasing or maintaining the strength of their spare parts is considered. As leaf spring contributes considerable amount of weight to the vehicle and needs to be strong enough, a single E-glass/Epoxy leaf spring is designed and simulated following the design rules of the composite materials considering static loading only. The constant cross section design of leaf springs is employed to take advantages of ease of design analysis and its manufacturing process. And it is shown that the resulting design and simulation stresses are much below the strength properties of the material, satisfying the maximum stress failure criterion. The designed composite leaf spring has also achieved its acceptable fatigue life. This particular design is made specifically for light weight three wheeler vehicles. Its prototype is also produced using hand lay-up method.

47 citations

01 Jan 2012
TL;DR: The finite element modelling and analysis of a multi leaf spring having nine leaves used by a commercial vehicle and results in bending stress and deflection are the target results are carried out.
Abstract: This work is carried out on a multi leaf spring having nine leaves used by a commercial vehicle. The finite element modelling and analysis of a multi leaf spring has been carried out. It includes two full length leaves in which one is with eyed ends and seven graduated length leaves. The material of the leaf spring is SUP9.The FE model of the leaf spring has been generated in CATIA V5 R17 and imported in ANSYS-11 for finite element analysis, which are most popular CAE tools. The FE analysis of the leaf spring has been performed by discretization of the model in infinite nodes and elements and refining them under defined boundary condition. Bending stress and deflection are the target results. A comparison of both i.e. experimental and FEA results have been done to conclude.

46 citations

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TL;DR: The composite leaf spring has gained considerable attention due to its high specific strength/modulus and corrosion resistance, and its design method and performance investigation are the research hotspots in the application field of composite structures as mentioned in this paper.

37 citations

01 Jan 2012
TL;DR: In this article, a typical leaf spring configuration of a TATA-407 light commercial vehicle is chosen for study and finite element analysis has been carried out to determine the safe stresses and pay loads.
Abstract: Leaf springs are special kind of springs used in automobile suspension systems. The advantage of leaf spring over helical spring is that the ends of the spring may be guided along a definite path as it deflects to act as a structural member in addition to energy absorbing device. The main function of leaf spring is not only to support vertical load but also to isolate road induced vibrations. It is subjected to millions of load cycles leading to fatigue failure. Static analysis determines the safe stress and corresponding pay load of the leaf spring and also to study the behavior of structures under practical conditions. The present work attempts to analyze the safe load of the leaf spring, which will indicate the speed at which a comfortable speed and safe drive is possible. A typical leaf spring configuration of TATA-407 light commercial vehicle is chosen for study. Finite element analysis has been carried out to determine the safe stresses and pay loads.

31 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors presented a theoretical and experimental study on large deflection behavior of initially curved cantilever beams subjected to various types of loadings, which is known to involve geometrical nonlinearity.

27 citations