Shraddha N. V. Sharma
Bio: Shraddha N. V. Sharma is an academic researcher. The author has contributed to research in topics: Agriculture & Climate change. The author has an hindex of 1, co-authored 1 publications receiving 1 citations.
TL;DR: Kumar et al. as mentioned in this paper presented a review article on the various methodologies for SWM in India, their collection and transportation and a comparison of solid waste management with other nations.
Abstract: India is facing an alarming situation in solid waste management. According to Vikas (Vikas, in International Journal of Advanced Educational Research 5:241–248, 2017), due to economic growth, the lifestyle of the Indian people is changing drastically and there is a steep rise inurbanization and industrialization, which in turn is increasing the amount of solid waste. Depending on the type of sources, solid waste can be divided into Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), Agricultural Wastes, Industrial Wastes, Biomedical Wastes and Hazardous Wastes. Nowadays, more and more Indian population is shifting towards urban areas and it is expected that by 2050, nearly half of the population will be residing in cities. There is drastic development in social, environmental and economic areas but the system governing Solid Waste Management (SWM) has not changed significantly according to the need (Kumar S., Smith S. R., Fowler G., Velis C., Kumar S. J., Rena, Kumar R. and Cheeseman C. (2017), Challenges and Opportunities associated with waste management in India, Royal Society Open Science,4, 160,764.). Current facilities regarding SWM are not sufficient in dealing with proper collection and dumping, which is causing serious health problems to the Indian citizens. In this review article, a discussion has been presented on the various methodologies for SWM in India, their collection and transportation and a comparison of solid waste management with other nations. In this article, the future of SWM has also been discussed which will be helpful in making more efficient strategies for judicial use of solid wastes. There is a large gap between various policies and their implementation. This gap can be minimized and more adequate methods can be applied for the disposal of solid waste to make India healthy and prosperous.
29 Jan 2021
11 Apr 2023
TL;DR: In this article , a Zigbee-based wireless S CADA system (ZBWS) is proposed for cost reduction in the industrial environment, which is ideal for industries where it is too expensive to install wired SCADA in remote locations.
Abstract: The advancement of the remote monitoring industry has become more level-playing in recent years. This means that companies can now monitor their equipment remotely, without having to be present onsite. With the introduction of wireless S CADA systems, these systems became more affordable and efficient. SCADA systems have advanced significantly in the field of process control in recent years. SCADA is a supervisory control that is very important in the automation industry. Today, SCADA is required to control the process from any distance. Additionally, the potential for additional features such as security, process parameter control, and visualization paves the way for SCADA to become a powerful tool for industrial applications. Using SCADA, the entire process area can be monitored remotely. Automatic process manipulation, warning system, and automatic report generation are huge advantages of SCADA. Wireless SCADA is ideal for industries where it is too expensive to install wired SCADA systems in remote locations. Fortunately, wireless SCADA systems offer all the benefits of wired systems without the expense and hassle of wiring everything. In this study, an innovative prototype of a Zigbee-based wireless S CADA system (ZBWS) is proposed for cost reduction.
01 Oct 2008
TL;DR: This article examined the issue of women's safety on transit through a survey of U.S. transit operators and found that most respondents believe women have distinct safety and security needs, but most do not think agencies should put specific programs into place to address these needs.
Abstract: Past research has shown that transit passengers’ fears and concerns about safety influence their travel decisions. While the relationship between women’s fear of crime and public space has been the focus of considerable research, transit environments—which are especially threatening to female passengers—have received much less attention. This study examines the issue of women’s safety on transit through a survey of U.S. transit operators. The findings show that most respondents believe women have distinct safety and security needs, but most do not think agencies should put specific programs into place to address these needs. In addition, only a handful of agencies currently have programs that target the safety and security needs of women. This survey suggests that there is a significant mismatch between the safety and security needs and desires of female passengers and the types and locations of strategies that transit agencies use.
TL;DR: In this paper , a review of Nepal's WASH status from 2000 to 2020 with regard to the challenges Nepal had in delivering reliable WASH services to the people, as well as opportunities for a sustainable way forward, and provides insights that can be applied to other developing countries.
Abstract: Access to water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) has been a challenge to south Asia’s rapidly growing and climate change-sensitive region. Nepal, a water-abundant country, faces obstacles to fulfilling the highly prioritized WASH Sustainable Development Goal 6 (SDG 6). This review offers details about Nepal’s WASH status from 2000 to 2020 with regard to the challenges Nepal had in delivering reliable WASH services to the people, as well as opportunities for a sustainable way forward, and provides insights that can be applied to other developing countries. From analysis of national-level assessments, estimates point toward healthy progress in extending WASH access to the population. However, large inequalities persist at the subnational level between urban and rural residents, between poor and rich residents, and between genders. Many local constraints such as a lack of long-term infrastructural capacity to provide and maintain WASH services, financial issues, and institutional and policy incompatibilities are some of the key factors that technical considerations and private sector involvement could address. We also propose roles for Nepal’s central, provincial, and local governments for identification and adaptation to the undeniable risks of climate change. Furthermore, there is a need to capitalize on the potential opportunities for developing a much-needed robust and climate-resilient WASH sector in Nepal, safeguarding the rights of future generations to safe and clean water.
TL;DR: In this article , the authors evaluated the contribution of vermicomposting technology towards the circular bioeconomy, along with evaluating its capability to bioremediate the organic wastes generated from domestic, industrial, and agricultural premises.
Abstract: AbstractTo meet the current need for sustainable development, vermicomposting (VC), a natural, eco-friendly, and cost-effective technology, can be a wise selection for the bioconversion of organic wastes into value-added by-products. However, no one has tried to establish the VC technology as an economically sustainable technology by exploring its linkage to circular bioeconomy. Even, no researcher has made any effort to explore the usability of the earthworms (EWs) as a protein supplement while assessing the economic perspectives of VC technology. Very few studies are available on the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission potential of VC technology. Still, the contribution of VC technology towards the non-carbon waste management policy is not yet explored. In the current review, a genuine effort has been made to inspect the contribution of VC technology towards the circular bioeconomy, along with evaluating its capability to bioremediate the organic wastes generated from domestic, industrial, and agricultural premises. The potential of the EWs as a protein source has also been explored to strengthen the contribution of VC technology towards the circular bioeconomy. Moreover, the linkage of the VC technology to the non-carbon waste management policy has been comprehensively demonstrated by highlighting its carbon sequestration and GHG emission potentials during the treatment of organic wastes. It has been observed that the cost of food production was reduced by 60--70% by replacing chemical fertilizers with vermicompost. The implication of the vermicompost significantly lessened the harvesting period of the crops, thereby helping the farmers attain higher profits by cultivating more crops in a single calendar year on the same plot. Furthermore, the vermicompost could hold the soil moisture for a long time, lessening the water demand up to 30-40%, which, in turn, reduced the frequency of irrigation. Also, the replacement of the chemical fertilizers with vermicompost resulted in a 23% increment in the grapes' yield, engendering an extra profit of up to 110000 rupees/ha. In Nepal, vermicompost has been produced at a cost of 15.68 rupees/kg, whereas it has been sold to the local market at a rate of 25 rupees/kg as organic manure, ensuring a net profit of 9.32 rupees/kg of vermicompost. EWs embraced 63% crude protein, 5-21% carbohydrates, 6-11% fat, 1476 kJ/100 g of metabolizable energy, and a wide range of minerals and vitamins. EWs also contained 4.11, 2.04, 4.43, 2.83, 1.47, and 6.26 g/kg (on protein basis) of leucine, isoleucine, tryptophan, arginine, histidine, and phenylalanine, respectively, enhancing the acceptability of the EW meal (EWM) as the protein supplement. The inclusion of 3 and 5% EWM in the diet of broiler pullets resulted in a 12.6 and 22.5% increase in their feed conversion ratio (FCR), respectively after one month. Similarly, when a 100% fish meal was substituted by 50% EWM and 50% fish meal, the FCR and growth rate of Parachanna obscura were increased substantially. The VC of maize crop residues mixed with pig manure, cow dung, and biochar, in the presence of Eisenia fetida EWs, yielded only 0.003-0.081, 0-0.17, and 130.40-189.10 g CO2-eq.kg-1 emissions of CO2, CH4, and N2O, respectively. Similarly, the VC of tomato stems and cow dung ensured 2.28 and 5.76 g CO2-eq.kg-1 CO2 emissions of CH4 and N2O, respectively. Additionally, the application of vermicompost at a rate of 5 t/ha improved the soil organic carbon proportion and aggravated carbon sequestration. The land application of vermicompost improved micro-aggregation and cut down the tillage, reducing GHG emissions and triggering carbon sequestration. The significant findings of the current review suggest that VC technology potentially contributes to the concept of circular bioeconomy, substantially negotiates potential GHG emissions, and complies with the non-carbon waste management policy, reinforcing its acceptability as an economically sound and environmentally benevolent organic waste bioremediation alternative.