Bio: Shreya Kishore is an academic researcher. The author has contributed to research in topics: Dentistry & Orthodontics. The author has an hindex of 1, co-authored 1 publications receiving 11 citations.
01 Jul 2014
TL;DR: Mean empathy score among Indian Dental Students is lesser than those reported in other studies and should be given importance in dental curriculum to improve dentist-patient relationship, thereby improving the treatment outcomes.
Abstract: Background: Empathy is fundamental to the health care provider-patient relationship The present study was conducted with the aim to assess the level of Empathy among Indian Dental Students and the objectives of the study are to assess any difference in the level of empathy across gender and year of study Materials and Methods: Cross sectional descriptive study, employing convenience sampling method was conducted to assess the level of empathy using a validated, self-administered questionnaire Jefferson Scale of Empathy, Health Care Provider Student version (JSE-HPS) in this study Independent samples t-test and one way ANOVA was used for comparison of empathy scores across gender and year of study Results: A total of 406 dental students and Interns participated in the present study; the mean empathy score among the dental students was 8276 ± 859 Mean empathy score of male students (8399 ± 8711) is greater than female students (8237 ± 854) and there is a significant difference in empathy score among years of study ( P Conclusion: Mean empathy score among Indian Dental Students is lesser than those reported in other studies Empathy should be given importance in dental curriculum to improve dentist-patient relationship, thereby improving the treatment outcomes
TL;DR: The amount of plaque accumulation is significantly reduced when nano-coated orthodontic brackets are used and they reduce the microbial colony count and prevent enamel demineralisation and white spot lesions.
Abstract: Introduction: Oral cavity is a natural habitat of bacteria which proliferates when an orthodontic appliance is placed which leads to enamel demineralisation or white spot lesions. In order to reduce the bacterial proliferation, the surface coating of brackets using nano particles came into existence. Aim: The aim of this systematic review is to assess the different surface modifications using nano coating materials and evaluate the antibacterial properties of these nano coated orthodontic brackets. Materials and Methods: A systematic review was conducted in September 2021, analysing the microbial adhesion and antibacterial properties of orthodontic brackets after application of nano-coating against uncoated brackets was conducted from the available electronic database during January 2000 to June 2021, which included PubMed, Embase, Google Scholar. Because of the less number of in-vivo studies, in-vitro studies were also included. An analysis on the microbial adhesion and antibacterial effects of various orthodontic brackets was done. The results were tabulated after performing risk of bias assessment for each study. Results: Based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 13 studies were included in the study. Risk of bias was medium for majority of the selected studies. As per the previous literature, bacterial adherence of Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Actinomyces viscous and Candida albicans was reported lower in groups of brackets coated with silver nano particles than that in the groups of brackets without the addition of silver nano particles. The corrosion level on the silver or silver platinum (Ag-Pt)-coated specimens was lower than that on the non coated specimens. Conclusion: The stainless-steel orthodontic brackets coated with various nano coating materials like silver, silver-platinum, titanium, Zinc Oxide (ZnO) and Copper Oxide (CuO) exhibited adequate antibacterial effect. This shows that in orthodontic patients, especially the one susceptible to caries, the amount of plaque accumulation is significantly reduced when nano-coated orthodontic brackets are used. They reduce the microbial colony count and prevent enamel demineralisation and white spot lesions. Further clinical trials must be carried out on a large scale to confirm the results.
TL;DR: It is concluded that gold label brand glass ionomer cement showed less surface roughness when compared to D tech brand glass ionsomer cement after brushing simulation with herbal and fluoridated toothpaste.
Abstract: Introduction: Glass ionomer cement is a restorative material used in dentistry as a filling material and luting cement. Nowadays many consumers have started using natural toothpaste in order to avoid synthetic and artificial products. The aim of this study is to compare the surface roughness of two commercially available glass ionomer cements after subjecting them to brushing simulation with herbal and fluoridated toothpaste. Materials and Methods: Glass ionomer cements of two different brands (D- tech and gold label) were moulded into small discs of custom sizes. Their surface roughness before subjecting them to brushing simulation was recorded using Mitutoyo SJ 310 stylus profilometer. Then the glass ionomer cement pellets were mounted on die stones. 4 samples of D-tech and 4 samples of gold label were taken. The mounted samples were placed in a tooth brush simulator (ZM3.8 SD Mechatronik). The samples were subjected to 30000 cycles of brushing with standard and herbal toothpastes. After brushing simulation the GIC samples were again checked for their surface roughness using the stylus profilometer. Results: The values were recorded and analysed in the SPSS software. The obtained results from the one way ANOVA test were depicted in the form of tables and graphs. Surface roughness of D-Tech Colgate group GIC samples was increased after brushing simulation. The p-value is 0.469 < 0.05, hence statistically not significant. Conclusion: From the results obtained we can conclude that gold label brand glass ionomer cement showed less surface roughness when compared to D tech brand glass ionomer cement after brushing simulation with herbal and fluoridated toothpaste.
11 Jun 2022
TL;DR: This paper proposes SpEaC --- a coarse-grained reconfigurable spatial architecture - as an energy-efficient programmable processor for earable applications, which outperforms programmable cores modeled after M4, M7, A53, and HiFi4 DSP by 99.3% and outperforms low power Mali T628 MP6 GPU across all kernels.
Abstract: Earables such as earphones [15, 16, 73], hearing aids , and smart glasses [2, 14] are poised to be a prominent programmable computing platform in the future. In this paper, we ask the question: what kind of programmable hardware would be needed to support earable computing in future? To understand hardware requirements, we propose EarBench, a suite of representative emerging earable applications with diverse sensor-based inputs and computation requirements. Our analysis of EarBench applications shows that, on average, there is a 13.54×-3.97× performance gap between the computational needs of EarBench applications and the performance of the microprocessors that several of today's programmable earable SoCs are based on; more complex microprocessors have unacceptable energy efficiency for Earable applications. Our analysis also shows that EarBench applications are dominated by a small number of digital signal processing (DSP) and machine learning (ML)-based kernels that have significant computational similarity. We propose SpEaC --- a coarse-grained reconfigurable spatial architecture - as an energy-efficient programmable processor for earable applications. SpEaC targets earable applications efficiently using a) a reconfigurable fixed-point multiply-and-add augmented reduction tree-based substrate with support for vectorized complex operations that is optimized for the earable ML and DSP kernel code and b) a tightly coupled control core for executing other code (including non-matrix computation, or non-multiply or add operations in the earable DSP kernel code). Unlike other CGRAs that typically target general-purpose computations, SpEaC substrate is optimized for energy-efficient execution of the earable kernels at the expense of generality. Across all our kernels, SpEaC outperforms programmable cores modeled after M4, M7, A53, and HiFi4 DSP by 99.3×, 32.5×, 14.8×, and 9.8× respectively. At 63 mW in 28 nm, the energy efficiency benefits are 1.55 ×, 9.04×, 68.3 ×, and 32.7 × respectively; energy efficiency benefits are 15.7 × -- 1087 × over a low power Mali T628 MP6 GPU.
TL;DR: The present case series discusses a hybrid type of fixed functional appliance, i.e. Twin Force Bite Corrector appliance, which has a distinct advantage of quick chair-side fabrication and simple design.
Abstract: Class II malocclusion is one of the most commonly occurring conditions, and the component mostly involved is mandibular retrognathism. The treatment modalities include both removable and fixed appliances. The advantage of fixed functional appliances is that it is not dependent on patient compliance. Various fixed functional appliances are available such as rigid, flexible, and hybrid. The present case series discusses a hybrid type of fixed functional appliance, i.e. Twin Force Bite Corrector appliance in three cases: A 15‑year‑old female patient with Class II malocclusion due to mandibular retrognathism, a 14‑year‑old male patient with Class II malocclusion due to mandibular retrognathism, and a 14‑year‑old female patient with Class II malocclusion due to mandibular retrognathism. The effects produced by this appliance are similar to the conventional fixed functional appliances such as Forsus, Herbst, and also it has a distinct advantage of quick chair-side fabrication and simple design.
TL;DR: It is suggested that PCC training constitutes a promising approach to developing dental students' empathic ability, but there is a need to assess the effects of such training over longer periods.
Abstract: Person-centered or patient-centered care (PCC) focuses on the individual’s needs and concerns. Although PCC is widely acknowledged as a core value of modern medicine, there has been a lack of research on how dental curricula could engage future dentists in PCC approaches. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of a PCC course on empathy in dental students. A controlled study was conducted with fourth-year dental students in four dental faculties in France in 2014–15. The test group (n=63) received 20 hours of PCC training including arts-based approaches, narrative dentistry activities, and workshops on communication based on the Calgary-Cambridge guide. There was no change in the curriculum of the control group (n=217). Pretest and posttest measures with the Toronto Empathy Questionnaire (TEQ) and Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy (JSPE) were compared for the two groups. The comparisons showed no significant differences on the TEQ or JSPE (p=0.25 and p=0.08, respectively). However, there was a higher proportion of students with more than an eight-point decrease in TEQ values in the control group (p=0.02). The stabilization of empathic ability in the test group may have counteracted the tendency for natural erosion of empathy among students during their clinical activities. These results suggest that PCC training constitutes a promising approach to developing dental students’ empathic ability, but there is a need to assess the effects of such training over longer periods.
TL;DR: The results indicated that as patient exposure increases, the empathy level decreases among dental students, and education in behavioral sciences may be effective in increasing self-reported empathy, and further training may be necessary to maintain high levels of empathy.
Abstract: Background: Empathy is just as relevant within dentistry, although research is limited in this field and very less is available in the current literature. The demonstration of empathy by dentists has been correlated with decreased dental fear. The authors systematically reviewed the literature to investigate empathy levels among dental students. Methods: A systematic review of the literature was undertaken concerning dental students' empathy, published from November 2016 to June 2018, using manual methods and the PubMed, PMC, PsycINFO, and other databases. Articles not in English and not concerned with dentistry were excluded, and intervention studies intended to enhance empathy, opinion articles, and reviews or reports of nonoriginal research were excluded. Eligible studies were those published from January 1, 2005, to May 31, 2017, in English language. A total of 34 full-text articles were obtained and assessed. Of these 34 papers, only seven publications were considered to have met the inclusion criteria and were directly related to the aim of literature search. Results: Only seven articles that provided data and evidence describing empathy among dental students were included. Four studies reported that the difference in mean empathy level across the year of study was statistically significant (P
TL;DR: This study showed that empathy was higher in women in their first medical year and who were of younger age, and the overall rate of empathy in the basic sciences period was more than that in the clinical period.
Abstract: Background Empathy is one of the essential components of physician-patient relationship that has a significant effect on treatment outcomes. Objective The aim of this study was to assess the empathy score among medical students in Mashhad, Iran. Methods In this cross-sectional study in 2015, 624 medical students at Mashhad University of Medical Science (Iran) completed the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy (JSPE). Data were analyzed by SPSS ver. 16, using independent-samples t-test, Chi-square, MANOVA, Spearman correlation, and Confirmatory factor analysis. Results Of the 38.4% males and 65% females who participated in this study, the mean score of JSPE in the sample was 103.67 (±15.34) which was higher in women than in men. Also, the mean scores for each of the three factors of the scale were calculated. The total empathy score, compassionate care, and taking perspectives among different age groups were significant (p=0.000). Furthermore, students having high interest in their field were more empathic (p=0.008). Empathy of interns in relation to three areas of basic sciences (the first year, the second year and the first half of the third year), physiopathology (the second half of the third year, and the fourth year), and clinical trainings (the fifth year, and the first half of the sixth year), experienced significant reduction (p≤0.001). Conclusions This study showed that empathy was higher in women in their first medical year and who were of younger age. The overall rate of empathy in the basic sciences period was more than that in the clinical period. Therefore, the initial exposure to clinical education, especially patient education and empathy, has a very prominent effect on the ability of medical students.
TL;DR: The study showed that EI and empathy have strong correlation and since higher levels of both have been reported in only half of the students, there is a need to work on EI of students to improve in their empathic behaviour.
Abstract: Background: Biomedical knowledge, though pre-requisite, needs to be supported by other important skills, in order to transform medical education and healthcare delivery. This study was thus planned to analyze the correlation between emotional intelligence (EI) and empathy in medical and dental undergraduate students. Methods: This cross-sectional correlational study was conducted at public and private sector medical and dental institutions of Peshawar, Pakistan from February 2015 to June 2017. Schutte Emotional Intelligence Scale (SEiS) & Davis' Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI) were used to assess emotional intelligence and empathy. The data was analyzed using SPSS-20. The p -value of <0.05 was considered significant when tests of significance were applied. Results: The mean age of the sample (n=2170) was 21.02±1.62 years. High level of EI (118.60±15.78) was reported in 1191 (54.9%) while higher empathy (63.24±14.24) was reported in 1115 (51.4%) students. Female medical students had significantly higher empathic behavior and emotional intelligence than male students ( p <0.05), while no significant difference was found between male and female dental students. Medical students of private sector showed higher level of empathy as compared to public sector ( p <0.05), whereas dental students of private sector showed higher level of emotional intelligence as compared to public sector ( p <0.05). EI and Empathy had significant correlation (r=.370, p =0.000). Conclusion: The study showed that EI and empathy have strong correlation. Since higher levels of both have been reported in only half of the students, therefore, there is a need to work on EI of students to improve in their empathetic behavior. Keywords: Emotional Intelligence; Empathy; Medical Students; Dental Students
TL;DR: In this paper, a cross-sectional, survey-based study was conducted at Islamic International Dental College, Islamabad, Pakistan to determine the effect of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on the levels of empathy toward patients among undergraduate dental students in Pakistan.
Abstract: Objective The purpose of our study is to determine the effect of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on the levels of empathy toward patients among undergraduate dental students in Pakistan. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional, survey-based study was conducted at Islamic International Dental College, Islamabad, Pakistan. After taking an informed consent, a validated and pretested Toronto Empathy Questionnaire (TEQ) was distributed amongst the undergraduate dental students at two points, one before the COVID-19 existed, and the other after August 7th, 2020, when the COVID-19 cases dropped in Pakistan. Responses were indicated on a five point Likert Scale. Statistical Analysis A one-way ANOVA (analysis of variance) was used to compare the TEQ scores between the different years of education at the dental school. Difference within the groups was analyzed using the post-hoc Tukey test. Pre- and post-COVID-19 comparison was done using the Chi-square test (significance level p Results A total of 221 out of 260 students in the pre-COVID-19 group, while 210 out of 260 students in the post-COVID-19 group enrolled in the dentistry program participated in the study. Significant difference in the empathy levels was observed in the pre- and post-COVID-19 groups of the same population, i.e., (p Conclusions This study showed an increase in mean empathy scores among the undergraduate dental students after COVID-19, indicating a significant improvement in their empathy levels during the time of COVID-19. It highlights the impact of the pandemic, whereby death and chaos seem to have brought about an improvement in interpersonal harmony.