Bio: Shuai Huang is an academic researcher from Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics. The author has contributed to research in topics: Mass spectrometry & Derivatization. The author has an hindex of 2, co-authored 6 publications receiving 11 citations.
TL;DR: In this paper, a nontargeted metabolomics approach based on ultra high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS) was used to find the differential composition between Zhongning goji berries (ZNG) and non-ZNG.
Abstract: Daodi medicinal material (DMM), which is traditional Chinese herbal medicine that has been used for long periods and have gained credibility in clinical practice, is part of the Chinese culture. However, Zhongning Goji berries (ZNG), a DMM, are illegally adulterated in the market by adding non Zhongning goji berries (NZNG). Consequently, the development of biomarker(s) is necessary for proper identification of ZNG and NZNG. In this study, a nontargeted metabolomics approach based on ultra high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS) was used to find the differential composition between ZNG and NZNG. Using a combination of single-factor and multivariate statistical analyses, seven compounds with significant differences were discovered and identified, one of which was an unreported compound (a glycoside of pyrrolidine alkaloid). These compounds could be used as single biomarkers for receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. In particular, the binary logistic regression result showed that two sets of combinative biomarkers to distinguish ZNG from NZNG with good sensitivity and specificity. Moreover, there was a significant positive correlation between the two combinative biomarkers and the glycoside of pyrrolidine alkaloid. The results of this study provide new ideas on the developments of ZNG identification, authenticity control and against adulteration in the Chinese circulation market.
TL;DR: In this paper, the effects of α-substitution of pyrylium salts on their reactivity were investigated, and the 2,4,5-triphenylpyryrium salt was developed for efficient chemical labeling.
Abstract: Pyrylium salts are considered efficient chemical tags for amino groups. However, the apparent steric selectivity of pyrylium salts limits their application in the field of chemical labeling, especially during the labeling of sterically hindered compounds like amino acids, peptides, and proteins. Herein, we have investigated the effects of the α-substitution of pyrylium salts on their reactivity. We have also investigated the mechanism of nucleophilic reactions with pyrylium salts and further proposed that the reactivity of pyrylium salts mainly depends on the position and type of their substituents. A series of pyrylium salts were synthesized, and a highly active α-monosubstituted pyrylium salt, 2,4,5-triphenylpyrylium, was developed for efficient chemical labeling. All of the 15 amino acids studied were efficiently labeled under optimized reaction conditions. The 2,4,5-triphenylpyrylium salt was highly efficient in comparison to the previously reported 2,4,6-triphenylpyrylium salt developed for lysine-specific modifications. Furthermore, we successfully used 2,4,5-triphenylpyrylium salt for the hydrophobic labeling of peptides and protein hydrolysates. The most striking observation was that the ionization efficiency of short-chain multilabeled peptides in mixed samples, after derivatization, increased by up to 60 times. The increase in ionization efficiency gradually decreased with increasing peptide chain length. During the "soft" collision-induced dissociation (CID) process, the peptide was tagged at the N-terminus with 2,4,5-triphenylpyrylium, producing abundant a-type ions and b-type ions (Δ = 28), which eases the peptide resequencing process and assists in cracking the peptide codes. Moreover, 2,4,5-triphenylpyrylium has been utilized for the proteomic analysis of HeLa cell digests. In addition, 215 additional proteins were identified in the labeled products and the coverage of most proteins was improved.
TL;DR: Using concentration-dependent characteristics and collision-induced dissociation (CID), it is confirmed that [nM-2H]2− ions are non-covalently bound multimers whose aggregation has marked distinction between monodesMosidic and bidesmosidic ginsenosides, accounting for the differentiated formation of [ nM- 2H] 2− between them.
Abstract: When characterizing components from ginseng, we found a vast number of multicharged anions presented in the liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) chromatograms. The source of these anions is unclear yet, while ginsenosides, the major components of ginseng, are the main suspected type of molecules because of their sugar moiety. Our investigation using 14 pure ginsenosides affirmed that the multicharged anions were formed by ginsenosides rather than other types of ingredients in ginseng. Various anions could be observed for each ginsenoside. These anions contain ions ([M-2H]2-, [M+Adduct]2-), as well as those formed by polymerization of at least two ginsenosides, such as [nM-2H]2-, [nM-H+Adduct]2-, and [nM-3H]3-. The presence of so different types of ions from a ginsenoside explains the reason for the large number of anions in the LC-MS analysis of ginseng. We further found that formation of [nM-2H]2- ions was influenced by the number of sugar chains: ginsenosides containing two sugar chains produced all [nM-2H]2- ion types, whereas ginsenosides containing one sugar chain did not produce [2M-2H]2-. Thus, [2M-2H]2- and [3M-2H]2- can be utilized to rapidly identify monodesmosidic and/or bidesmosidic ginsenosides as joint diagnostic anions. The position of the glycosyl radical might be the key factor affecting the formation of multicharged multimer ions from monodesmosidic ginsenosides. Consequently, three groups of ginsenoside isomers were differentiated by characteristic [nM-2H]2- anions. Using concentration-dependent characteristics and collision-induced dissociation (CID), we confirmed that [nM-2H]2- ions are non-covalently bound multimers whose aggregation has marked distinction between monodesmosidic and bidesmosidic ginsenosides, accounting for the differentiated formation of [nM-2H]2- between them. Graphical Abstract.
TL;DR: This study aims to examine whether a posttranslational modification of alpha‐synuclein (α‐syn) dopaminylation is presented in human blood plasma and whether it is a risk factor of Parkinson's disease.
Abstract: Purpose Alpha-synuclein (α-syn) dopaminylation can lead to the death of dopaminergic neurons in the brain and is a risk factor of Parkinson's disease (PD). This study aims to examine whether such a posttranslational modification (PTM) is presented in human blood plasma. Experimental design In vitro reaction simulation between α-syn and dopamine (DA) is conducted to study the biochemical mechanism. Then α-syn from human blood plasma samples is detected by using immunoprecipitation-mass spectrometry (IP-MS). Lastly the levels of endogenous α-syn and α-syn dopaminylation in 88 blood plasma samples from patients with PD, major depressive disorder (MDD), and healthy control (HC) are compared. Results DA modifies α-syn with the addition of dopamine-quinone (DAQ) into lysine sites of α-syn in vitro and the addition of DAQ and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde (DOPAL) in plasma samples. The unmodified α-syn between the PD and HC groups showed similar levels. The levels of two peptides, one with lysine 34 (34 K) DAQ modification and the other with lysine 23 (23 K) ubiquitination, are significantly higher in PD and MDD compared with HC. Conclusions and clinical relevance Thus, α-syn dopaminylation is measurable and might be used to indicatethe presence and progression of neurological disorders.
TL;DR: The results show that this tris(triphenylphosphine)gold oxonium tetrafluoroborate ([Ph3PAu]3O+BF4- matrix can exhibit a 10-fold faster response time compared to previously reported pyrylium matrices.
Abstract: Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS) has attracted much attention for the detection of small molecules such as neurotransmitters due to its softness, high sensitivity, extensive compatibility and diverse mass analyzers. However, it has been really a difficult challenge to develop a highly specific organic compound as a matrix for the rapid, sensitive and selective detection of neurotransmitters. Herein, we report tris(triphenylphosphine)gold oxonium tetrafluoroborate ([Ph3PAu]3O+BF4-) for the first time as an efficient matrix for the rapid and simultaneous MALDI-MS detection of neurotransmitters. [Ph3PAu]3O+BF4- facilitates the in situ derivatization of gold nanoclusters (Au NCLs) during the interaction with neurotransmitters, which increases their ionization energy by absorbing more ultra-violet (UV) radiation during MALDI-TOF-MS detection. The results show that this [Ph3PAu]3O+BF4- matrix can exhibit a 10-fold faster response time compared to previously reported pyrylium matrices. In addition, [Ph3PAu]3O+BF4- can also provide the simultaneous derivatization of various neurotransmitters, including dopamine (DA), noradrenaline (NAd), serotonin (5-HT), γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), histamine (H) and tyramine (TY), in mice brain tissue extracts, which can be detected in the MALDI-TOF-MS spectra.
TL;DR: In this article , a review of the advances in the phytochemistry, quality control, metabolism, and biosynthesis pathway of ginseng over the past decade (2011-2020), with 410 citations, is presented.
Abstract: Covering: 2011 to the end of 2020Panax species (Araliaceae), particularly P. ginseng, P. quinquefolius, and P. notoginseng, have a long history of medicinal use because of their remarkable tonifying effects, and currently serve as crucial sources for various healthcare products, functional foods, and cosmetics, aside from their vast clinical preparations. The huge market demand on a global scale prompts the continuous prosperity in ginseng research concerning the discovery of new compounds, precise quality control, ADME (absorption/disposition/metabolism/excretion), and biosynthesis pathways. Benefitting from the ongoing rapid development of analytical technologies, e.g. multi-dimensional chromatography (MDC), personalized mass spectrometry (MS) scan strategies, and multi-omics, highly recognized progress has been made in driving ginseng analysis towards "systematicness, integrity, personalization, and intelligentization". Herein, we review the advances in the phytochemistry, quality control, metabolism, and biosynthesis pathway of ginseng over the past decade (2011-2020), with 410 citations. Emphasis is placed on the introduction of new compounds isolated (saponins and polysaccharides), and the emerging novel analytical technologies and analytical strategies that favor ginseng's authentic use and global consumption. Perspectives on the challenges and future trends in ginseng analysis are also presented.
TL;DR: A comprehensive review of MALDI-MSI with an emphasis on its advances of the instrumentation, methods, application, and future directions in single cell and biological tissues is provided.
Abstract: Compared with conventional optical microscopy techniques, mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) or imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) is a powerful, label-free analytical technique, which can sensitively and simultaneously detect, quantify, and map hundreds of biomolecules, such as peptides, proteins, lipid, and other organic compounds in cells and tissues. So far, although several soft ionization techniques, such as desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) have been used for imaging biomolecules, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) is still the most widespread MSI scanning method. Here, we aim to provide a comprehensive review of MALDI-MSI with an emphasis on its advances of the instrumentation, methods, application, and future directions in single cell and biological tissues.
TL;DR: An overview of the development and application of analytical chemistry methods, such as isotope ratio analysis, liquid and gas chromatography, spectroscopy, as well as DNA-based methods and electronic sensors, for the authentication of berries and berry-based food products is provided in this paper.
Abstract: Berries represent one of the most important and high-valued group of modern-day health-beneficial "superfoods" whose dietary consumption has been recognized to be beneficial for human health for a long time. In addition to being delicious, berries are rich in nutrients, vitamins, and several bioactive compounds, including carotenoids, flavonoids, phenolic acids, and hydrolysable tannins. However, due to their high value, berries and berry-based products are often subject to fraudulent adulteration, commonly for economical gain, but also unintentionally due to misidentification of species. Deliberate adulteration often comprises the substitution of high-value berries with lower value counterparts and mislabeling of product contents. As adulteration is deceptive toward customers and presents a risk for public health, food authentication through different methods is applied as a countermeasure. Although many authentication methods have been developed in terms of fast, sensitive, reliable, and low-cost analysis and have been applied in the authentication of a myriad of food products and species, their application on berries and berry-based products is still limited. The present review provides an overview of the development and application of analytical chemistry methods, such as isotope ratio analysis, liquid and gas chromatography, spectroscopy, as well as DNA-based methods and electronic sensors, for the authentication of berries and berry-based food products. We provide an overview of the earlier use and recent advances of these methods, as well as discuss the advances and drawbacks related to their application.
TL;DR: Wang et al. as discussed by the authors used UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap HRMS to identify and quantify the chemical constituents, clarify the blood-absorbed components and excretion pathways, predict major bioactive constituents and discover potential therapeutic targets.
Abstract: Ethnopharmacological relevance Qingxin Lianzi Yin Decoction (QXLZY), a Chinese classical formula, has been widely used in the treatment of various chronic kidney diseases over 1,000 years. However, the current studies on QXLZY were mostly focused on its clinical efficacy, lacking systematic material basis research on constituents. Aim of the study This work aims to elucidate and quantify the chemical constituents, clarify the blood-absorbed components and excretion pathways, predict major bioactive constituents and discover potential therapeutic targets. Materials and methods UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap HRMS was employed to clarify the chemical constituents and metabolites of QXLZY. The extraction of diagnostic ion and neutral loss fragment was aimed for searching specific type of constituents. The plasma, urine, bile and feces samples of rats after oral administration of QXLZY were systematically studied. UHPLC-QQQ-MS/MS was employed to simultaneously detect different types of constitutes. Based on the analysis of ingredients in vivo, the bioactive constituents and potential therapeutic targets in the treatment of diabetic nephropathy (DN) was investigated by using network pharmacological analysis. Results Totally, 220 compounds were identified or tentatively characterized by UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap HRMS. Among them, 59 compounds were confirmed by reference standards. Meanwhile, 21 representative components were simultaneously determined within 15 min by UHPLC-QQQ-MS/MS. 123 components (74 prototypes as well as 49 metabolites) were identified or tentatively characterized. By using network pharmacological analysis, baicalein, liquiritigenin, succinic acid, formononetin, wogonin might be the major effective constituents in QXLZY during the treatment of DN. Conclusions Flavonoids, saponins and organic acids were the major chemical ingredients of QXLZY. Flavonoids were the main components absorbed into blood, followed by organic acids. Phase II conjugation reaction was the major metabolic type. The pathways that QXLZY in the treatment of DN were probably related to glucose and lipid metabolism, oxidative stress and inflammation.
TL;DR: The approach of using a hybrid Ir/SiNW matrix enables detection of clenbuterol quantitatively in complicated biological samples and in vivo experiments, promising a useful tool for food security and anti-doping drug monitoring in sports.
Abstract: There is increasing demand for anti-doping drug monitoring in sports and food safety checks by developing sensitive and fast analytical methods. Here we report the development of hybrid Ir/SiNW as a new MALDI matrix for the detection of small molecules. This matrix is characterized by sufficient UV absorption, low-noise background, and high efficiency in ionization of small molecules. Sensitive detection of clenbuterol (LOD: 0.18 pmol) and a variety of other small molecules has been achieved using the Ir/SiNW matrix with a reproducible performance. Compared to the individual components separately, the matrix of hybrid Ir/SiNW synthesized via in situ growth can promote the MS signal intensity by up to 10 fold under identical experimental conditions. We provide a unique mechanism for the high performance of the hybrid Ir/SiNW matrix with the characteristic properties of hydrogen atom transfer and enhanced protonation at the interface of the hybrid nanostructures. Our approach of using a hybrid Ir/SiNW matrix enables detection of clenbuterol quantitatively in complicated biological samples and in vivo experiments, promising a useful tool for food security and anti-doping drug monitoring in sports.