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Simon Senghor

Bio: Simon Senghor is an academic researcher. The author has contributed to research in topics: Schistosoma haematobium & Schistosomiasis. The author has an hindex of 8, co-authored 14 publications receiving 289 citations.

Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is shown that a species of river prawn indigenous to the west coast of Africa, Macrobrachium vollenhovenii, could offer a low-cost, sustainable form of snail control that, when used in synergy with existing drug distribution campaigns, could reduce or locally eliminate the parasite.
Abstract: Eliminating human parasitic disease often requires interrupting complex transmission pathways. Even when drugs to treat people are available, disease control can be difficult if the parasite can persist in nonhuman hosts. Here, we show that restoration of a natural predator of a parasite’s intermediate hosts may enhance drug-based schistosomiasis control. Our study site was the Senegal River Basin, where villagers suffered a massive outbreak and persistent epidemic after the 1986 completion of the Diama Dam. The dam blocked the annual migration of native river prawns (Macrobrachium vollenhoveni) that are voracious predators of the snail intermediate hosts for schistosomiasis. We tested schistosomiasis control by reintroduced river prawns in a before-after-control-impact field experiment that tracked parasitism in snails and people at two matched villages after prawns were stocked at one village’s river access point. The abundance of infected snails was 80% lower at that village, presumably because prawn predation reduced the abundance and average life span of latently infected snails. As expected from a reduction in infected snails, human schistosomiasis prevalence was 18 ± 5% lower and egg burden was 50 ± 8% lower at the prawn-stocking village compared with the control village. In a mathematical model of the system, stocking prawns, coupled with infrequent mass drug treatment, eliminates schistosomiasis from high-transmission sites. We conclude that restoring river prawns could be a novel contribution to controlling, or eliminating, schistosomiasis.

147 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: While Bilhvax was immunogenic and well tolerated by infected children, a sufficient efficacy was not reached and the lack of effect may be the result of several factors, including interference by individual PZQ treatments administered each time a child was found infected, or the chosen vaccine-injection regimen favoring blocking IgG4 rather than protective IgG3 antibodies.
Abstract: Background Urinary schistosomiasis, the result of infection by Schistosoma haematobium (Sh), remains a major global health concern. A schistosome vaccine could represent a breakthrough in schistosomiasis control strategies, which are presently based on treatment with praziquantel (PZQ). We report the safety and efficacy of the vaccine candidate recombinant 28-kDa glutathione S-transferase of Sh (rSh28GST) designated as Bilhvax, in a phase 3 trial conducted in Senegal. Methods and findings After clearance of their ongoing schistosomiasis infection with two doses of PZQ, 250 children aged 6–9 years were randomized to receive three subcutaneous injections of either rSh28GST/Alhydrogel (Bilhvax group) or Alhydrogel alone (control group) at week 0 (W0), W4, and W8 and then a booster at W52 (one year after the first injection). PZQ treatment was given at W44, according to previous phase 2 results. The primary endpoint of the analysis was efficacy, evaluated as a delay of recurrence of urinary schistosomiasis, defined by a microhematuria associated with at least one living Sh egg in urine from baseline to W152. During the 152-week follow-up period, there was no difference between study arms in the incidence of serious adverse events. The median follow-up time for subjects without recurrence was 22.9 months for the Bilhvax group and 18.8 months for the control group (log-rank p = 0.27). At W152, 108 children had experienced at least one recurrence in the Bilhvax group versus 112 in the control group. Specific immunoglobulin (Ig)G1, IgG2, and IgG4, but not IgG3 or IgA titers, were increased in the vaccine group. Conclusions While Bilhvax was immunogenic and well tolerated by infected children, a sufficient efficacy was not reached. The lack of effect may be the result of several factors, including interference by individual PZQ treatments administered each time a child was found infected, or the chosen vaccine-injection regimen favoring blocking IgG4 rather than protective IgG3 antibodies. These observations contrasting with results obtained in experimental models will help in the design of future trials. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT 00870649

64 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
12 Sep 2020
TL;DR: The first multicenter and largest epidemiological survey ever conducted on Blastocystis sp.
Abstract: Blastocystis sp. is an enteric protozoan that frequently colonizes humans and many animals. Despite impacting on human health, data on the prevalence and subtype (ST) distribution of Blastocystis sp. remain sparse in Africa. Accordingly, we performed the first multicenter and largest epidemiological survey ever conducted on Blastocystis sp. for this continent. A total of 731 stool samples collected from healthy school children living in 10 villages of the northwestern region of Senegal were tested for the presence of Blastocystis sp. by real-time polymerase chain reaction followed by subtyping of positive samples. Considerable variation in prevalence between villages (51.7 to 100%) was evident with the overall prevalence being 80.4%. Mixed infections were identified in 23% of positive individuals. Among 453 school children with a single infection, ST2 was predominant, followed by ST1, ST3, ST7, ST10, and ST14; this is the first report of ST10 and ST14 in humans. Genetic polymorphisms were evident at the intra-ST level with the identification of numerous ST1 to ST3 genotypes. ST1 showed the greatest intra-ST diversity followed by ST2 and ST3. The prevalence and distribution of STs and genotypes varied among target villages, pointing to several potential infection sources, including human-to-human, zoonotic, and waterborne transmission.

56 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This work found easy-to-measure environmental proxies that were more effective than snail variables at predicting human infections, including area of snail habitat within the site and total site area, and size of the water contact area, which indicates that satellite- or drone-based precision mapping could efficiently identify high-transmission areas.
Abstract: Recently, the World Health Organization recognized that efforts to interrupt schistosomiasis transmission through mass drug administration have been ineffective in some regions; one of their new recommended strategies for global schistosomiasis control emphasizes targeting the freshwater snails that transmit schistosome parasites. We sought to identify robust indicators that would enable precision targeting of these snails. At the site of the world’s largest recorded schistosomiasis epidemic—the Lower Senegal River Basin in Senegal—intensive sampling revealed positive relationships between intermediate host snails (abundance, density, and prevalence) and human urogenital schistosomiasis reinfection (prevalence and intensity in schoolchildren after drug administration). However, we also found that snail distributions were so patchy in space and time that obtaining useful data required effort that exceeds what is feasible in standard monitoring and control campaigns. Instead, we identified several environmental proxies that were more effective than snail variables for predicting human infection: the area covered by suitable snail habitat (i.e., floating, nonemergent vegetation), the percent cover by suitable snail habitat, and size of the water contact area. Unlike snail surveys, which require hundreds of person-hours per site to conduct, habitat coverage and site area can be quickly estimated with drone or satellite imagery. This, in turn, makes possible large-scale, high-resolution estimation of human urogenital schistosomiasis risk to support targeting of both mass drug administration and snail control efforts.

53 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The gSG6-P1 salivary peptide seems to be a reliable tool to discriminate the micro-geographical heterogeneity of human exposure to Anopheles bites in areas of very low and seasonal malaria transmission.
Abstract: Over the past decade, a sharp decline of malaria burden has been observed in several countries. Consequently, the conventional entomological methods have become insufficiently sensitive and probably under-estimate micro-geographical heterogeneity of exposure and subsequent risk of malaria transmission. In this study, we investigated whether the human antibody (Ab) response to Anopheles salivary gSG6-P1 peptide, known as a biomarker of Anopheles exposure, could be a sensitive and reliable tool for discriminating human exposure to Anopheles bites in area of low and seasonal malaria transmission. A multi-disciplinary survey was performed in Northern Senegal where An. gambiae s.l. is the main malaria vector. Human IgG Ab response to gSG6-P1 salivary peptide was compared according to the season and villages in children from five villages in the middle Senegal River valley, known as a low malaria transmission area. IgG levels to gSG6-P1 varied considerably according to the villages, discriminating the heterogeneity of Anopheles exposure between villages. Significant increase of IgG levels to gSG6-P1 was observed during the peak of exposure to Anopheles bites, and decreased immediately after the end of the exposure season. In addition, differences in the season-dependent specific IgG levels between villages were observed after the implementation of Long-Lasting Insecticidal Nets by The National Malaria Control Program in this area. The gSG6-P1 salivary peptide seems to be a reliable tool to discriminate the micro-geographical heterogeneity of human exposure to Anopheles bites in areas of very low and seasonal malaria transmission. A biomarker such as this could also be used to monitor and evaluate the possible heterogeneous effectiveness of operational vector control programs in low-exposure areas.

35 citations


Cited by
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Preface to the Princeton Landmarks in Biology Edition vii Preface xi Symbols used xiii 1.
Abstract: Preface to the Princeton Landmarks in Biology Edition vii Preface xi Symbols Used xiii 1. The Importance of Islands 3 2. Area and Number of Speicies 8 3. Further Explanations of the Area-Diversity Pattern 19 4. The Strategy of Colonization 68 5. Invasibility and the Variable Niche 94 6. Stepping Stones and Biotic Exchange 123 7. Evolutionary Changes Following Colonization 145 8. Prospect 181 Glossary 185 References 193 Index 201

14,171 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Apr 2014-Ecology
TL;DR: Overall, it is hypothesized that conditions for the dilution effect are unlikely to be met for most important diseases of humans, and biodiversity probably has little net effect on most human infectious diseases but, when it has an effect, observation and basic logic suggest that biodiversity will be more likely to increase than to decrease infectious disease risk.
Abstract: Control of human infectious disease has been promoted as a valuable ecosystem service arising from the conservation of biodiversity. There are two commonly discussed mechanisms by which biodiversity loss could increase rates of infectious disease in a landscape. First, loss of competitors or predators could facilitate an increase in the abundance of competent reservoir hosts. Second, biodiversity loss could disproportionately affect non-competent, or less competent reservoir hosts, which would otherwise interfere with pathogen transmission to human populations by, for example, wasting the bites of infected vectors. A negative association between biodiversity and disease risk, sometimes called the "dilution effect hypothesis," has been supported for a few disease agents, suggests an exciting win-win outcome for the environment and society, and has become a pervasive topic in the disease ecology literature. Case studies have been assembled to argue that the dilution effect is general across disease agents. Less touted are examples in which elevated biodiversity does not affect or increases infectious disease risk for pathogens of public health concern. In order to assess the likely generality of the dilution effect, we review the association between biodiversity and public health across a broad variety of human disease agents. Overall, we hypothesize that conditions for the dilution effect are unlikely to be met for most important diseases of humans. Biodiversity probably has little net effect on most human infectious diseases but, when it does have an effect, observation and basic logic suggest that biodiversity will be more likely to increase than to decrease infectious disease risk.

198 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Despite evidence that snail control leads to long-term disease reduction and elimination, most current schistosomiasis control efforts emphasize MDA using praziquantel over snail control, which seems the best strategy for elimination.
Abstract: Background Despite control efforts, human schistosomiasis remains prevalent throughout Africa, Asia, and South America. The global schistosomiasis burden has changed little since the new anthelmintic drug, praziquantel, promised widespread control. Methodology We evaluated large-scale schistosomiasis control attempts over the past century and across the globe by identifying factors that predict control program success: snail control (e.g., molluscicides or biological control), mass drug administrations (MDA) with praziquantel, or a combined strategy using both. For data, we compiled historical information on control tactics and their quantitative outcomes for all 83 countries and territories in which: (i) schistosomiasis was allegedly endemic during the 20th century, and (ii) schistosomiasis remains endemic, or (iii) schistosomiasis has been "eliminated," or is "no longer endemic," or transmission has been interrupted. Principal Findings Widespread snail control reduced prevalence by 92 ± 5% (N = 19) vs. 37 ± 7% (N = 29) for programs using little or no snail control. In addition, ecological, economic, and political factors contributed to schistosomiasis elimination. For instance, snail control was most common and widespread in wealthier countries and when control began earlier in the 20th century. Conclusions/Significance Snail control has been the most effective way to reduce schistosomiasis prevalence. Despite evidence that snail control leads to long-term disease reduction and elimination, most current schistosomiasis control efforts emphasize MDA using praziquantel over snail control. Combining drug-based control programs with affordable snail control seems the best strategy for eliminating schistosomiasis.

155 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This work presents a social ecological framework for supporting adaptive management decisions involving APs in response to social and environmental change, and identifies outstanding questions to guide future research on the ecological functions and ecosystem services ofAPs in a changing world.
Abstract: Arguments for the need to conserve aquatic predator (AP) populations often focus on the ecological and socioeconomic roles they play. Here, we summarize the diverse ecosystem functions and services connected to APs, including regulating food webs, cycling nutrients, engineering habitats, transmitting diseases/parasites, mediating ecological invasions, affecting climate, supporting fisheries, generating tourism, and providing bioinspiration. In some cases, human-driven declines and increases in AP populations have altered these ecosystem functions and services. We present a social ecological framework for supporting adaptive management decisions involving APs in response to social and environmental change. We also identify outstanding questions to guide future research on the ecological functions and ecosystem services of APs in a changing world.

124 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This review will discuss biomarkers and outline microfluidic platforms developed for biomarker analysis and provide the precise and complex platform required to bridge the gap between biomarker research and the biomarker-based analytical device market.
Abstract: Biomarkers have been described as characteristics, most often molecular, that provide information about biological states, whether normal, pathological, or therapeutically modified. They hold great potential to assist diagnosis and prognosis, monitor disease, and assess therapeutic effectiveness. While a few biomarkers are routinely utilised clinically, these only reflect a very small percentage of all biomarkers discovered. Numerous factors contribute to the slow uptake of these new biomarkers, with challenges faced throughout the biomarker development pipeline. Microfluidics offers two important opportunities to the field of biomarkers: firstly, it can address some of these developmental obstacles, and secondly, it can provide the precise and complex platform required to bridge the gap between biomarker research and the biomarker-based analytical device market. Indeed, adoption of microfluidics has provided a new avenue for advancement, promoting clinical utilisation of both biomarkers and their analytical platforms. This review will discuss biomarkers and outline microfluidic platforms developed for biomarker analysis.

121 citations