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Author

Simon Wendt

Other affiliations: Heidelberg University
Bio: Simon Wendt is an academic researcher from Goethe University Frankfurt. The author has contributed to research in topics: Black Power & Racism. The author has an hindex of 7, co-authored 19 publications receiving 169 citations. Previous affiliations of Simon Wendt include Heidelberg University.

Papers
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Book
01 Jan 2007
TL;DR: Wendt as discussed by the authors explores the role of armed self-defense in tandem with nonviolent protests in the African American freedom struggle of the 1950s and 1960s, concluding that during the Black Power years, armed resistance became largely symbolic and ultimately counterproductive to the black struggle - no longer coexisting with peaceful protest in the spirit and the shotgun philosophy that had served the southern movement so effectively.
Abstract: "The Spirit and the Shotgun" explores the role of armed self-defense in tandem with nonviolent protests in the African American freedom struggle of the 1950s and 1960s. Confronted with violent attacks by the Ku Klux Klan and other racist terrorists, southern blacks adopted Martin Luther King's philosophy of nonviolent resistance as a tactic, Wendt argues, but at the same time armed themselves out of necessity and pride. Sophisticated self-defense units patrolled black neighborhoods, guarded the homes of movement leaders, rescued activists from harm, and occasionally traded shots with their white attackers. These patrols enhanced and sustained local movements in the face of white aggression. They also provoked vigorous debate within traditionally nonviolent civil rights organizations such as SNCC, CORE, and the NAACP. This study reevaluates black militants such as Malcolm X and the Black Panther Party and also appraises largely unknown protective agencies in Tuscaloosa, Cleveland, and other locales. Not confined to one state, one organization, or the best-known activists, this is the first balanced history of armed self-defense that begins with the southern civil rights movement and ends with the Black Power era. Drawing on extensive research from a wide variety of sources to build his case, Wendt argues that during the Black Power years, armed resistance became largely symbolic and ultimately counterproductive to the black struggle - no longer coexisting with peaceful protest in "the spirit and the shotgun" philosophy that had served the southern movement so effectively.

43 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article explored how peaceful protest and armed resistance reflected and shaped certain gender identities in the southern US civil rights movement and the Black Power movement, and revealed much about the significance of violence for marginalised masculinities within the African American freedom struggle of the 1950s and 1960s.
Abstract: This article explores how peaceful protest and armed resistance reflected and shaped certain gender identities in the southern US civil rights movement and the Black Power movement, and reveals much about the significance of violence for ‘marginalised masculinities’ within the African American freedom struggle of the 1950s and 1960s. In the Deep South, civil rights organisers found that their non-violent strategy's connotations of effeminate submissiveness hampered attempts to win over black men to the movement's cause. Conversely, those African Americans who decided to use armed force to protect the movement against racist attacks were proud of their ability to defend themselves and their communities. A comparison of armed resistance efforts in southern civil rights campaigns with those of post-1965 Black Power groups such as the Black Panther Party shows both commonalities and differences with regard to the inter-relationship between self-defence and gender. In the southern movement, the affirmation of manhood remained a by-product of the physical imperative to protect black lives against racism. Among Black Power militants and their black nationalist precursors, self-defence, while initially intended to stop police brutality and other racist oppression, ultimately became mainly a symbol of militant black manhood. The Black Power movement's affirmative message countered stereotypes of black male powerlessness and instilled a positive black identity into many activists, but the gendered discourse it produced also tended to perpetuate black women's subordination.

27 citations

Book ChapterDOI
01 Jan 2015
TL;DR: This paper explored women's active role in Algerian anticolonialism and found that men used women as passive symbols to affirm their masculine national identity while denying them an active role to participate in the process of nation-building.
Abstract: At the turn of the twenty-first century, feminist scholar Cynthia Enloe made the oft-quoted observation that nationalist ideologies tend to stem “from masculinized memory, masculinized humiliation and masculinized hope.”1 Focusing on male nationalists in colonial Algeria, Enloe sought to convey how Algerian anticolonial nationalists used women as passive symbols to affirm their masculine national identity while denying them an active role in the country’s process of nation-building. Her perceptive analysis is part of an ongoing effort to better understand the intricate interrelationship between gender and the nation. Scholars from various disciplines have studied this interrelationship for more than three decades. Feminist scholars in particular have demonstrated how male nationalists incorporated women as symbolic, cultural, and biological reproducers of the nation into their “imagined communities.” Yet most studies on the subject tend to focus solely on the tensions between women’s inclusion in nationalist discourse and their exclusion from political decision making. Others have explored women’s active role in nationalist movements. Masculinities have received surprisingly little attention in these publications.2

20 citations

Book
01 Jan 2011
TL;DR: Webb et al. as discussed by the authors discuss the history of lynching from an international perspective and present a detailed account of the early modern British Isles and the origins of American lynching.
Abstract: Lynching from an International Perspective M.Berg & S.Wendt Extralegal Violence and Law in the Early Modern British Isles and the Origins of American Lynching M.Pfeifer Lynching 'Exceptionalism': The NAACP, Woodrow Wilson, and Keeping Lynching American C.Waldrep Mexican Perspectives on Mob Violence in the United States W.Carrigan & C.Webb Lynching and Legitimacy: Toward a Global Description of Mob Murder R.Thurston Lynching: The Southern African Case C.Saunders Frontier Justice: Lynching and Racial Violence in the United States and Australia G.Smithers Ethnic Conflict, the Armenian Question, and Mob Violence in the late Ottoman Empire E.Aykut Popular justice, Class Conflict, and the Lynching Spirit in France J.Michel Not Quite Lynching: Informal Justice in Northern Ireland R.Monaghan Lynching in Peru in the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries H.Onken Lynching in Another America: Race, Class, and Gender in Brazil, 1980-2003 T.Clark Vigilantism in Africa: Benin and Beyond T.Gratz Lynching, Poverty, Witchcraft, and the State in Mozambique C.Schuetze & C.Jacobs

15 citations


Cited by
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors argued that the factors responsible for the BNP's recent rise are not dissimilar to those elsewhere in Europe and that it is surely time to abandon the myth that Britain is some special case.
Abstract: that ‘it is surely time to abandon the myth that Britain is some special case’. The BNP’s gains, like the NF’s before them, may be short-lived and may be reversed. But the factors responsible for the BNP’s recent rise are not dissimilar to those elsewhere in Europe. Having transformed its image and tactics, the BNP seeks to become, at least superficially, like the populist Right on the continent, adept at manipulating the ‘politics of resentment’. Where this will take it, in a context in which New Labour has attempted to outflank the Conservatives with its toughness on crime, immigration and asylum and discipline smalltime racists like the BNP, through the use of existing legislation against incitement to racial hatred and projected legislation against incitement to religious hatred, remains, at the time of writing, still to be seen.

167 citations

Book
04 Sep 2018
TL;DR: The American West and the World as mentioned in this paper provides a synthetic introduction to the transnational history of the American West, discussing exploration, expansion, migration, violence, intimacies, and ideas.
Abstract: The American West and the World provides a synthetic introduction to the transnational history of the American West. Drawing from the insights of recent scholarship, Janne Lahti recenters the history of the U.S. West in the global contexts of empires and settler colonialism, discussing exploration, expansion, migration, violence, intimacies, and ideas. Lahti examines established subfields of Western scholarship, such as borderlands studies and transnational histories of empire, as well as relatively unexplored connections between the West and geographically nonadjacent spaces. Lucid and incisive, The American West and the World firmly situates the historical West in its proper global context.

112 citations

Book
17 Nov 2010
TL;DR: In this article, the authors discuss World War I and the rise of Hitler, World War II and Civil Rights, and "We Will Never Go Back to the Old Way Again": African American GIs and the Occupation of Germany Setting the Stage for Brown: Desegregating the Army in Germany Bringing Civil Rights to East and West: Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. in Cold War Berlin Revolutionary Alliances: The Rise of Black Power Heroes of the Other America: East German Solidarity with the African American Freedom Struggle A Call for Justice: The Racial Crisis in the Military
Abstract: Closing Ranks: World War I and the Rise of Hitler Fighting on Two Fronts: World War II and Civil Rights 'We Will Never Go Back to the Old Way Again': African American GIs and the Occupation of Germany Setting the Stage for Brown: Desegregating the Army in Germany Bringing Civil Rights to East and West: Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. in Cold War Berlin Revolutionary Alliances: The Rise of Black Power Heroes of the Other America: East German Solidarity with the African American Freedom Struggle A Call for Justice: The Racial Crisis in the Military and the GI Movement

95 citations