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Author

Simone Clarke

Bio: Simone Clarke is an academic researcher. The author has contributed to research in topics: The Holocaust. The author has an hindex of 1, co-authored 1 publications receiving 22 citations.
Topics: The Holocaust

Papers
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01 Jan 2017
TL;DR: The authors analyzed the impact of Gay's experience of emigration from Nazi Germany to the United States on his idea of western culture, focusing especially on the period from the 1930s to the 1970s, when many intellectuals in the US grappled with the "lessons" of the Second World War for the West.
Abstract: This is the first research on the life and work of the Jewish German-American historian Peter Gay (1923-2015). The dissertation analyzes the impact of Gay’s experience of emigration from Nazi Germany to the United States on his idea of western culture. It focuses especially on the period from the 1930s tot he 1970s, when many intellectuals in the United States grappled with the “lessons” of the Second World War for the West. This dissertation claims that Gay’s idea of western culture should be understood as an attempt to re-connect European and American intellectual traditions, in a time when the rise of ideologies often estranged the transatlantic partners. American intellectuals’ often conflicting interpretations of the rise of National Socialism frequently led to either theories of American exceptionalism, or an extreme pessimism about western culture. In this polarized atmosphere, in which thorough knowledge about German history was often lacking, Gay took the role as a transatlantic mediator. He distinguished himself from other German-American emigre intellectuals such as Theodor Adorno or Hannah Arendt, because his emigration as a child had made him an insider of both German and American culture. Therefore, his historical work, in which he perceived the Enlightenment as the birth of western culture, should not be exclusively approached as the result of his Cold War politics, the trauma of his experiences in the Third Reich, or as a continuation of Weimar’s intellectual traditions. Instead, his idea of western culture reflects his aim to fuell a “European-American” symbiosis that endowed the liberal center with acute relevance in the postwar period.

48 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper provided a historical overview of the position of the Holocaust within the National Curriculum since 1991, through close analysis of the five iterations of the curriculum, it traces changes and continuities in how teaching and learning about the Holocaust has been stipulated by successive governments.
Abstract: This article provides a historical overview of the position of the Holocaust within the National Curriculum since 1991. Through close analysis of the five iterations of the curriculum, it traces changes and continuities in how teaching and learning about the Holocaust has been stipulated by successive governments. By contextualizing these with reference to shifts in England’s Holocaust culture, it is shown that the National Curriculum has acted as a fulcrum for the evolution of Holocaust consciousness. However, it is also argued that many of the faults and failures, challenges and shortcomings within the National Curriculum are symbiotic and closely entwined with wider issues in Britain’s Holocaust culture.

32 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article explored how the memory of the Second World War has been re-located since the demise of the communist regimes in Eastern Europe between 1989 and 1991, and argued that the period since the end of the Cold War has produced a thorough reappraisal of the significance of the years 1939 to 1945 not just in terms of the academic history profession, but also wider processes of remembrance operating at the level of the nationstate commemorations, the European Union, the heritage industry, education and personal memories.
Abstract: On 17 June 1940, during the period of the Nazi-Soviet Pact, Latvia was invaded by the Red Army and annexed as part of the Soviet Union. Then, just one year later, the country was invaded by Nazi Germany and subjected to a four-year occupation before being invaded by the USSR. Thereafter the country remained part of the Soviet Union until the break up of the latter in August 1991. Taking Latvia as a starting point, this article will explore how the memory of the Second World War has been re-located since the demise of the communist regimes in Eastern Europe between 1989 and 1991. In doing so, it will be argued that the period since the end of the Cold War has produced a thorough reappraisal of the significance of the years 1939 to 1945 not just in terms of the academic history profession, but also wider processes of remembrance operating at the level of the nation-state commemorations, the European Union, the heritage industry, education and personal memories.

26 citations

Dissertation
01 Oct 2017
TL;DR: In this paper, an analysis of the initial responses of the British government to the Holocaust focusing on refugee policy is presented, where the authors re-examine the role of anti-Semitism as an influencing factor on government decision-making and argue that current history underplays that influence.
Abstract: This thesis is an analysis of the initial responses of the British government to the Holocaust focusing on refugee policy. In particular, it seeks to re-examine the role of anti-Semitism as an influencing factor on government decision-making and argues that current historiography underplays that influence. It will argue that the government’s fear of anti-Semitism itself betrayed some anti-Jewish assumptions. These fears were used as a means to counter demands for rescue, as the government wanted to ensure that its immigration policies were unchanged and continued to be exclusionary. The thesis also examines how the leaders of the Anglo-Jewish community responded to, and engaged with, these policies.. This study is based on extensive archival research and makes a detailed analysis of both government and private papers including correspondence from Eleanor Rathbone, William Temple, The Board of Deputies of British Jews and Rabbi Schonfeld. Other resources have included newspapers – The Times, The Jewish Chronicle and the Guardian – contemporary accounts in books and magazines, parliamentary speeches as well as material fron the Parliamentary Committee on Refugees. The thesis is arranged into a series of case studies that exemplify the complexity of responses to Nazi anti-Jewish policy but also draw attention to significant continuities in exclusionary thinking. The first chapter considers the Evian Conference and argues that the government only ever intended that the conference should end with no change to its immigration policies. Chapters Two and Three consider the government response to schemes for the rescue of children in France in 1942 and Bulgaria in 1943 and argue that such rescue schemes were little more than a charitable facade. The thesis ends by looking critically at the Bermuda Conference and its aftermath in 1943 and ultimately concludes that the government remit at Bermuda was similar to the Evian Conference: public expression of noble sentiments with no intention of easing the immigration laws or providing assistance to Jewish refugees trapped in Nazi Europe, the approach which defined British government attitudes throughout.

26 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jan 2000
TL;DR: This paper made a plea for more wide-ranging, contextualised and ultimately more nuanced research on this emotive but important aspect of Holocaust bystander studies, and pointed out the ideological and cultural underpinnings of the divided literature.
Abstract: After an initial silence which lasted until the 1960s, subsequent historiography on the subject of the liberal democracies/western Allies and the Holocaust has tended to be deeply polarised between apologetic and accusatory camps. This article teases out the ideological and cultural underpinnings of the divided literature and makes a plea for more wide-ranging, contextualised and ultimately more nuanced research on this emotive but important aspect of Holocaust bystander studies.

19 citations