Bio: Simonetta Astigiano is an academic researcher from National Cancer Research Institute. The author has contributed to research in topics: Cellular differentiation & Cancer. The author has an hindex of 23, co-authored 51 publications receiving 1647 citations. Previous affiliations of Simonetta Astigiano include Roche Institute of Molecular Biology & Hoffmann-La Roche.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: Chronic inflammation can induce a metastasis prone phenotype in prostate cancer cells by maintaining a positive proinflammatory and prometastatic feedback loop between NFκB and CXCL1/-2, and curcumin disrupts this feedback loop by the inhibition ofNFκB signaling leading to reduced metastasis formation in vivo.
Abstract: In America and Western Europe, prostate cancer is the second leading cause of death in men. Emerging evidence suggests that chronic inflammation is a major risk factor for the development and metastatic progression of prostate cancer. We previously reported that the chemopreventive polyphenol curcumin inhibits the expression of the proinflammatory cytokines CXCL1 and -2 leading to diminished formation of breast cancer metastases. In this study, we analyze the effects of curcumin on prostate carcinoma growth, apoptosis and metastasis. We show that curcumin inhibits translocation of NFκB to the nucleus through the inhibition of the IκB-kinase (IKKβ, leading to stabilization of the inhibitor of NFκB, IκBα, in PC-3 prostate carcinoma cells. Inhibition of NFκB activity reduces expression of CXCL1 and -2 and abolishes the autocrine/paracrine loop that links the two chemokines to NFκB. The combination of curcumin with the synthetic IKKβ inhibitor, SC-541, shows no additive or synergistic effects indicating that the two compounds share the target. Treatment of the cells with curcumin and siRNA-based knockdown of CXCL1 and -2 induce apoptosis, inhibit proliferation and downregulate several important metastasis-promoting factors like COX2, SPARC and EFEMP. In an orthotopic mouse model of hematogenous metastasis, treatment with curcumin inhibits statistically significantly formation of lung metastases. In conclusion, chronic inflammation can induce a metastasis prone phenotype in prostate cancer cells by maintaining a positive proinflammatory and prometastatic feedback loop between NFκB and CXCL1/-2. Curcumin disrupts this feedback loop by the inhibition of NFκB signaling leading to reduced metastasis formation in vivo.
TL;DR: A significant relationship was found between the amount of IDO-positive infiltrate and overall survival in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), suggesting that the degree ofIDO- positive infiltrate could be a prognostic marker in NSCLC.
Abstract: Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), a catabolizing enzyme of tryptophan, is supposed to play a role in tumor immune escape. Its expression in solid tumors has not yet been well elucidated: IDO can be expressed by the tumor cells themselves, or by ill-defined infiltrating cells, possibly depending on tumor type. We have investigated IDO expression in 25 cases of non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Using histochemistry and immunohistochemistry, we found that IDO was expressed not by tumor cells, but by normal cells infiltrating the peritumoral stroma. These cells were neither macrophages nor dendritic cells, and were identified as eosinophil granulocytes. The amount of IDO-positive eosinophils varied in different cases, ranging from a few cells to more than 50 per field at x200 magnification. IDO protein in NSCLC was enzymatically active. Therefore, at least in NSCLC cases displaying a large amount of these cells in the inflammatory infiltrate, IDO-positive eosinophils could exert an effective immunosuppressive action. On analyzing the 17 patients with adequate follow-up, a significant relationship was found between the amount of IDO-positive infiltrate and overall survival. This finding suggests that the degree of IDO-positive infiltrate could be a prognostic marker in NSCLC.
TL;DR: The effects of Curcumin on miRNA expression and its correlation to the anti‐tumorigenic properties of this natural occurring polyphenol are analyzed.
Abstract: Chronic inflammation is a major risk factor for the development and metastatic progression of cancer. We have previously reported that the chemopreventive polyphenol Curcumin inhibits the expression of the proinflammatory cytokines CXCL1 and -2 leading to diminished formation of breast and prostate cancer metastases. In the present study, we have analyzed the effects of Curcumin on miRNA expression and its correlation to the anti-tumorigenic properties of this natural occurring polyphenol. Using microarray miRNA expression analyses, we show here that Curcumin modulates the expression of a series of miRNAs, including miR181b, in metastatic breast cancer cells. Interestingly, we found that miR181b down-modulates CXCL1 and -2 through a direct binding to their 3′-UTR. Overexpression or inhibition of miR181b in metastatic breast cancer cells has a significant impact on CXCL1 and -2 and is required for the effect of Curcumin on these two cytokines. miR181b also mediates the effects of Curcumin on inhibition of proliferation and invasion as well as induction of apoptosis. Importantly, over-expression of miR181b in metastatic breast cancer cells inhibits metastasis formation in vivo in immunodeficient mice. Finally, we demonstrated that Curcumin up-regulates miR181b and down-regulates CXCL1 and -2 in cells isolated from several primary human breast cancers. Taken together, these data show that Curcumin provides a simple bridge to bring metastamir modulation into the clinic, placing it in a primary and tertiary preventive, as well as a therapeutic, setting.
TL;DR: It is reported that ARG1, released from gelatinase granules by PMNs, is inactive at physiological pH unless activated by factor(s) stored in azurophil granules, and the findings suggest that PMNs induce ARg1‐dependent immune suppression through concomitant exocytosis of gelatinase and azuroPhil granules.
Abstract: ARG1, expressed by human PMNs, inhibits T cell proliferation by depleting extracellular L-arginine. Here, we report that ARG1, released from gelatinase granules by PMNs, is inactive at physiological pH unless activated by factor(s) stored in azurophil granules. Whereas ARG1 exocytosis was induced by TNF- or ionomycin, only the latter mediated the release of both granules, resulting in extracellular ARG enzyme activity at physiological pH. Furthermore, after fractionation of the different classes of granules, only the mixture of gelatinase and azurophil granules resulted in ARG1 activity at physiological pH. The use of protease inhibitors indicated the involvement of a PMSF- and leupeptin-susceptible serine protease in ARG1 processing and activation. Finally, the supernatant of viable PMNs undergoing frustrated phagocytosis, which mediates gelatinase and azurophil granule release, inhibited T cell proliferation through ARG-dependent mechanisms. In vivo, high ARG1 concentrations and increased ARG enzyme activity, sufficient to inhibit T cell proliferation, were observed in synovial fluids from RA. These findings suggest that PMNs, recruited at sites of immune complex deposition, induce ARG1-dependent immune suppression through concomitant exocytosis of gelatinase and azurophil granules. J. Leukoc. Biol. 89: 721–727; 2011.
TL;DR: Experimental data indicate that MSC can undergo or induce a tumorigenic process in determined circumstances, and that the immunoregulatory function of MSC contributed to tumor development.
Abstract: Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are precursors of bone, cartilage and fat tissue. MSC can also regulate the immune response. For these properties, they are tested in clinical trials for tissue repair in combination with bioscaffolds or injected as cell suspension for immunosuppressant therapy. Experimental data, however, indicate that MSC can undergo or induce a tumorigenic process in determined circumstances. We used a modified model of ectopic bone formation in mice by subcutaneously implanting porous ceramic seeded with murine MSC. In this new model, host-derived sarcomas developed when we implanted MSC/bioscaffold constructs into syngeneic and immunodeficient recipients, but not in allogeneic hosts or when MSCs were injected as cell suspensions. The bioscaffold provided a tridimensional support for MSC to aggregate, thus producing the stimulus for triggering the process eventually leading to the transformation of surrounding cells and creating a surrogate tumor stroma. The chemical and physical characteristics of the bioscaffold did not affect tumor formation; sarcomas developed either when a stiff porous ceramic was used or when the scaffold was a smooth collagen sponge. The immunoregulatory function of MSC contributed to tumor development. Implanted MSC expanded clones of CD4+CD25+ T regulatory lymphocytes that suppressed host's antitumor immune response.
TL;DR: Comparing different types of collective migration at the molecular and cellular level reveals a common mechanistic theme between developmental and cancer research.
Abstract: The collective migration of cells as a cohesive group is a hallmark of the tissue remodelling events that underlie embryonic morphogenesis, wound repair and cancer invasion. In such migration, cells move as sheets, strands, clusters or ducts rather than individually, and use similar actin- and myosin-mediated protrusions and guidance by extrinsic chemotactic and mechanical cues as used by single migratory cells. However, cadherin-based junctions between cells additionally maintain 'supracellular' properties, such as collective polarization, force generation, decision making and, eventually, complex tissue organization. Comparing different types of collective migration at the molecular and cellular level reveals a common mechanistic theme between developmental and cancer research.
TL;DR: Research data show that more resistant stem cells than common cancer cells exist in cancer patients, and to identify unrecognized differences between cancer stem cells and cancer cells might be able to develop effective classification, diagnose and treat for cancer.
Abstract: Stem cells are defined as cells able to both extensively self-renew and differentiate into progenitors. Research data show that more resistant stem cells than common cancer cells exist in cancer patients.To identify unrecognized differences between cancer stem cells and cancer cells might be able to develope effective classification,diagnose and treat ment for cancer.
TL;DR: This work reviews the history of murine and human ES cell Lines, including practical and ethical aspects of ES cell isolation from pre‐implantation embryos, maintenance of undifferentiated ES cell lines in the cell culture environment, and differentiation of ES cells in vitro and in vivo into mature somatic cell types.
Abstract: Embryonic stem cells have huge potential in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine as they hold the capacity to produce every type of cell and tissue in the body. In theory, the treatment of human disease could be revolutionized by the ability to generate any cell, tissue, or even organ, 'on demand' in the laboratory. This work reviews the history of murine and human ES cell lines, including practical and ethical aspects of ES cell isolation from pre-implantation embryos, maintenance of undifferentiated ES cell lines in the cell culture environment, and differentiation of ES cells in vitro and in vivo into mature somatic cell types. Finally, we discuss advances towards the clinical application of ES cell technology, and some of the obstacles which must be overcome before large scale clinical trials can be considered.
TL;DR: Current knowledge regarding aberrations is summarized, their functional importance is discussed, their mechanisms by which aberration may form during cancer progression are suggested and examples of clinical advances that have come from studies of chromosome aberrings are provided.
Abstract: Chromosome aberrations in human solid tumors are hallmarks of gene deregulation and genome instability. This review summarizes current knowledge regarding aberrations, discusses their functional importance, suggests mechanisms by which aberrations may form during cancer progression and provides examples of clinical advances that have come from studies of chromosome aberrations.
TL;DR: Evidence that environmental pollutants at levels currently encountered in New York City adversely affect fetal development is provided.
Abstract: Inner-city, minority populations are high-risk groups for adverse birth outcomes and also are more likely to be exposed to environmental contaminants, including environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and pesticides. In a sample of 263 nonsmoking African-American and Dominican women, we evaluated the effects on birth outcomes of prenatal exposure to airborne PAHs monitored during pregnancy by personal air sampling, along with ETS estimated by plasma cotinine, and an organophosphate pesticide (OP) estimated by plasma chlorpyrifos (CPF). Plasma CPF was used as a covariate because it was the most often detected in plasma and was highly correlated with other pesticides frequently detected in plasma. Among African Americans, high prenatal exposure to PAHs was associated with lower birth weight (p = 0.003) and smaller head circumference (p = 0.01) after adjusting for potential confounders. CPF was associated with decreased birth weight and birth length overall (p = 0.01 and p = 0.003, respectively) and with lower birth weight among African Americans (p = 0.04) and reduced birth length in Dominicans (p < 0.001), and was therefore included as a covariate in the model with PAH. After controlling for CPF, relationships between PAHs and birth outcomes were essentially unchanged. In this analysis, PAHs and CPF appear to be significant independent determinants of birth outcomes. Further analyses of pesticides will be carried out. Possible explanations of the failure to find a significant effect of PAHs in the Hispanic subsample are discussed. This study provides evidence that environmental pollutants at levels currently encountered in New York City adversely affect fetal development.