Bio: Sneha Deshmukh is an academic researcher. The author has contributed to research in topics: Freundlich equation & Langmuir. The author has an hindex of 1, co-authored 2 publications receiving 6 citations.
TL;DR: In this article, a domestic dryer assisted with reflector was designed and developed for drying of safed musli (Chlorophypum boribilianum) in open sun drying.
Abstract: Introduction Preservation of fruits, vegetables, and food are essential for keeping them for a long time without further deterioration in the quality of the product. Drying is a simple process of moisture removal from a product in order to reach the desired moisture content and is an International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences ISSN: 2319-7706 Volume 6 Number 2 (2017) pp. 170-184 Journal homepage: http://www.ijcmas.com Preservation of fruits, vegetables, and food are essential for keeping them for a long time without further deterioration in the quality of the product. Solar drying has been used since time immemorial to dry plants, seeds, fruits, meat, fish, wood, and other agricultural, forest products. The aim of the dryer is mainly for the welfare of the marginalized and poor farmers those who can’t afford hi-tech facilities and equipment’s to preserve their agricultural products. Drying of Safed Musli (Chlorophypum boribilianum) in open sun drying require more time and affected its quality. In order to maintain quality and to increase sufficient temperature in the drying chamber during winter, morning and evening hours, a solar dryer assisted with reflector was designed. The main principle of this domestic solar dryer is based on greenhouse effect where the solar heat is trapped inside the drying chamber and thus increases the temperature in addition to reflected direct radiations. A domestic dryer assisted with reflector was designed and developed for drying of safed musli in batch. The dryer was fabricated as per design specification and its performance was evaluated in the Department of Unconventional Energy Sources and Electrical Engineering, Dr. PDKV, Akola. The paper deals with design, material and experimental techniques used for studying the performance evaluation of a domestic solar dryer assisted with reflector for drying of safed musli. At no load test without reflector the maximum temperature of 51.24°C was achieved in the afternoon and average temperature in the solar dryer was found to be 41.02°C at corresponding ambient temperature of 21.7°C, solar radiation 430.86 W/m 2 , relative humidity 23.26%, in the morning of December 2014. The maximum temperature recorded in December 2014 was 58.46 at 13.30 h. The average temperature of domestic dryer was found to be 44.22°C at ambient temperature of 31.3°C, relative humidity 31.7%, solar radiation 553.80 W/m 2 during the month of March 2015.The average moisture content of Safed Musli samples placed in T1, T2 and T3 trays reduced from 651.5 to 4.5, 654.7 to 7.7 and 656 to 14.5 % (db) in 8 h, respectively in domestic solar dyer integrated with reflector. The average moisture content of Safed Muslisample reduced from 613 to 7.8 % (db) in 12 h. Average drying rate was found to be 0.5526, 0.54103 and 0.53455 gm/100gm bdm min, respectively. The average drying efficiency of Safed Musli samples dried in domestic solar dryer with reflector was found to be 22.92 % respectively. K e y w o r d s Domestic dryer, Safed musali, Moisture ratio, Drying rate, Moisture content. Accepted: 12 January 2017 Available Online: 10 February 2017 Article Info Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci (2017) 6(2): 170-184 171 energy intensive operation. Enormous amount of energy from the sun falls on the earth’s surface. All the energy stored in the earth’s reserve of coal, oil, and natural gas is matched by the energy from just twenty (20) days of sunshine. The energy in sunlight at noon in a cloudless day that falls on earth’s surface is about 1000 kw/m 2 (Gutti et al., 2012). During drying, it is necessary to remove free moisture from the surface and also from the interior of the material. When hot air is blown over the product, heat is transferred to its surface and the latent heat of vaporization causes water to evaporate. Water vapour diffuses through a boundary film of air. This creates a region of lower vapour pressure at the surface of the grain and a water vapour gradient is established from the most interior part of the grain to the dry air. The gradient provides the driving force for removal of water from the food. The main principle of this domestic solar dryer is based on greenhouse effect where the solar heat is trapped inside the drying chamber and thus increases the temperature. Drying of agricultural materials such as grains is a non-linear process with long time delay and considerable complexity. Therefore, it is very difficult to establish a precise mathematical model for grain drying control (Cao and Wang, 2002). Although some mathematical models of drying process itself have been established, their structures are often too complex to be used for control model and hence effective control is very difficult to be realized (Marchant, 1985; Courtois et al., 1985). Cyclone type thin-layer dryer for drying agricultural materials developed by Apikar (2002) was introduced in the literature for drying study of some vegetables and fruits including potato, red pepper, apple, strawberry, and pumpkin. Materials and Methods The material and experimental techniques used for studying the performance of a domestic solar dryer assisted with reflector for drying of Safed Musli was discussed. The present research was initiated with the design and development of a domestic solar dryer assisted with reflector (Figure 1). Design and fabrication of domestic solar dryer assisted with reflector The domestic solar dryer assisted with reflector was designed for drying Safed Musli. The stepwise procedure for design and development of domestic solar dryer assisted with reflector has been discussed as follows. Domestic solar dryer assisted with reflector consisted of following components: 1. A trapezoidal shaped drying chamber 2. A Reflector 3. A Chimney Design considerations of domestic solar dryer assisted with reflector The initial design and assumptions made for domestic solar dryer are given in table 1. The design calculations for development of domestic solar dryer The stepwise design calculations of domestic solar dryer for drying of Safed Musli are given as below. 1. Total quantity of water in the product, Mtw
TL;DR: In this article, a comprehensive study of solar drying of various products is presented, in which the product is spread on ground in open, is the simplest and cheapest method of drying, but there are considerable losses associated with it.
Abstract: Due to high cost of fossil fuels and uncertainty regarding future cost and availability, use of sun drying of various agriculture products, vegetables, fruits, fish, milk products, food products, etc. is being practiced largely since ancient times for preservation of agriculture products. Despite many disadvantages of natural drying, almost 80% of farmers are using open sun drying method for drying their crops. Open sun drying, in which the product is spread on ground in open, is the simplest and cheapest method of drying. But there are considerable losses associated with it. So, the advanced method of drying i.e., solar drying can also be used for drying the products and improve the quality. In this paper, comprehensive study of solar drying of various products is presented.
TL;DR: In this paper , the authors describe the development and testing of activated carbon made from orange peels, which is effective at removing methyl red (MR) from aqueous solutions, and thus provides a solution to this problem.
Abstract: The existence of pollutants in the water is a very significant environmental problem that needs to be addressed. This work describes the development and testing of activated carbon made from orange peels, which is effective at removing methyl red (MR) from aqueous solutions, and thus provides a solution to this problem. Adsorbents made in the lab can be characterized by their bulk density, particle size, surface area, and proximate analysis. The surface area of the prepared adsorbent was 512.2 m2g−1. Standard procedures such as XRD, SEM, and FTIR analysis are also used to characterize prepared orange peel-activated carbon. Adsorbent dosage (0.25 to 1.25 g/L), MR concentration (100 to 400 mg/L), temperature (40 to 60 °C), contact time (10 to 60 minutes), and pH (3 to 11) were all examined in this experiment. At an amount of adsorbent of 1 g/L adsorbent, MR concentration of 100 mg/L, and a pH of 11, maximum adsorption has been observed. In order to analyze the results, adsorption models such as the Langmuir and Freundlich were applied. At 60 °C, the adsorption isotherm was found to fit the Langmuir model with 111.11 mg/g. The linear regression correlation coefficient, the R2 value is 0.999. Analytical results showed that MR could be effectively removed by using AC made from waste orange peels as an adsorbent.
TL;DR: The Ontology Extraction system will model and extract knowledge in Marathi language and aims to retrieve appropriate answers to the farmers query and Rule-Based and Conditional Random Fields based models for Ontology extraction is explored.
Abstract: : The shared specification of conceptual vocabulary used for formulating knowledge-level theories about a domain of discourse is known as Ontology. Data set is created by manually collecting information about different diseases related to crops, it's pesticides and weedicides. Ontology modelling is used for knowledge representation of various domains. Ontology extraction is a process in which important concepts related to a domain are extracted and relationships between them is formed. Ontology modelling is used for knowledge representation of various domains. Majority of Indian population relies on farming but the technologies are sparsely used for the aid and benefit of farmers. India is an agricultural based economic country. Ontology based modelling for agricultural knowledge can change this scenario. The farmers can understand it easily in their native languages like Marathi, Hindi or any other Indian languages. The Ontology Extraction system will model and extract knowledge in Marathi language. A review of various existing agriculture ontology along with some of Natural Language Processing (NLP) models is overviewed. The concept of NLP is useful for input processing and for human-computer interaction. Ontology model for agriculture domain system aims to retrieve appropriate answers to the farmers query and Rule-Based and Conditional Random Fields based models for Ontology extraction is explored. The extraction methods and pre-processing phases of proposed system is discussed.
TL;DR: In this article, a solar dryer, integrated with the heat energy storage system, uses nitrate salt as a heat storage medium which was designed and tested by drying 1000 grams of red pepper at 19.6 to 62.4°C.
Abstract: Solar energy has become a viable alternative energy because it is a clean type of energy that converts solar radiation into heat energy for various applications such as heating water, power generation, cooking, and food drying. The solar dryer, integrated with the heat energy storage system, uses nitrate salt as a heat storage medium which was designed and tested by drying 1000 grams of red pepper at 19.6 to 62.4°C. The average ambient temperature ranged from 19.3 to 37.4°C, and the maximum temperature of the heat storage media ranged from 87.8 to 125°C. The solar drying process was compared to open sun drying system loaded with 1000 grams of red pepper. The findings showed that the solar dryer maintained color and flavor and lowered the original moisture content from 86% to 10% for 24 hours compared to 36 hours of drying in open air. In this study, nitrate salt is shown to be the perfect heat storage medium for drying food products; it preserved heat for about 4 hours when there is no active sunlight.
••01 Jun 2019
TL;DR: In this article , the authors used activated carbon from agricultural waste to adsorb and remove chlorpyrifos from aqueous solutions, as well as to study the physicochemical characteristics of the prepared activated carbon.
Abstract: Chlorpyrifos is an organophosphate insecticide linked to neurological dysfunctions, endocrine disturbance, cardiovascular illness, genotoxicity, histopathological abnormalities, immunotoxicity, and oxidative stress. Therefore, the aim of this study was to prepare activated carbon from agricultural waste to adsorb and remove chlorpyrifos from aqueous solutions, as well as to study the physicochemical characteristics of the prepared activated carbon.Activated carbon was prepared from agricultural waste (banana peels, orange peels, pomegranate peels and date stones). The activated carbon prepared showed an exterior surface that was irregular and full of cavities with Brunauer-Emmett-Teller(BET) surface areas of 94.26, 111.75, 183.89, and 289.86 m2/g for activated carbon prepared from orange peels, date stone, pomegranate peels, and banana peels respectively. The Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) image revealed that the activated carbon's exterior surface was irregular and full of various shapes and sizes of cavities.The Energy Dispersive X-Ray (EDX) indicated the existence of carbon, oxygen, silicon and potassium in banana peels-derived activated carbon, whereas carbon, oxygen, silicon and potassium, in addition to aluminium, were detected in the pomegranate peels-derived activated carbon. The Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis of prepared activated carbon revealed several functional groups, including carboxylic acid, carbon dioxide, and aromatic compounds. Results also showed that the activated carbon significantly removed chlorpyrifos from water, recording 97.6%, 90.6%, 71.48%, and 52.00 % for activated carbon prepared from pomegranate peels, banana peels, date stones and orange peels, respectively. The study concluded that agricultural waste-derived activated carbon could be employed as an alternative pesticide adsorbent.
01 Jan 1990
TL;DR: A solar tunnel dryer is a tunnel-like framed structure covered with ultraviolet (U.V) stabilized polythene sheet, where agriculture and industrial products could be dried under drying chamber.
Abstract: A solar tunnel dryer is a tunnel like framed structure covered with ultraviolet (U.V.) stabilized polythene sheet, where agriculture and industrial products could be dried under drying chamber. The black painted coating is used as an insulating material used to reduce heat loss from dryer. The heat is transferred from absorber to air in collector and heated air from collector passes over to product and absorbs moisture from the product.