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Somak Bhattacharyya

Bio: Somak Bhattacharyya is an academic researcher from Indian Institute of Technology (BHU) Varanasi. The author has contributed to research in topics: Metamaterial absorber & Metamaterial. The author has an hindex of 24, co-authored 129 publications receiving 2265 citations. Previous affiliations of Somak Bhattacharyya include Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur & Tata Institute of Fundamental Research.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a triple-band polarization-independent metamaterial absorber using square-shaped closed ring resonators over wide angle of incidence was proposed for airborne and surveillance radar signal absorption applications.
Abstract: In this paper, we propose a triple band polarization-independent metamaterial absorber using square-shaped closed ring resonators over wide angle of incidence. The unit cell consisting of various square loops is designed by using the parametric analysis so that it exhibits a triple band absorption response with two bands lying in C-band and one in X-band for airborne and surveillance radar signal absorption applications. Furthermore, in X-band, the absorber exhibits a broadband response with full width at half maxima bandwidth of 940 MHz (9.43%). The structure exhibits bandwidth enhanced properties for any angle of polarization under normal incidence. It also shows high absorption for wide angle of incidence up to 60°. The proposed structure is fabricated and experimental results show proper matching with the simulated responses.

221 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
Shuang-Nan Zhang, Marco Feroci1, Andrea Santangelo2, Yongwei Dong  +181 moreInstitutions (41)
TL;DR: eXTP as discussed by the authors is a science mission designed to study the state of matter under extreme conditions of density, gravity and magnetism, which carries a unique and unprecedented suite of state-of-the-art scientific instruments enabling for the first time ever the simultaneous spectral-timing-polarimetry studies of cosmic sources in the energy range from 0.5-30 keV.
Abstract: eXTP is a science mission designed to study the state of matter under extreme conditions of density, gravity and magnetism. Primary goals are the determination of the equation of state of matter at supra-nuclear density, the measurement of QED effects in highly magnetized star, and the study of accretion in the strong-field regime of gravity. Primary targets include isolated and binary neutron stars, strong magnetic field systems like magnetars, and stellar-mass and supermassive black holes. The mission carries a unique and unprecedented suite of state-of-the-art scientific instruments enabling for the first time ever the simultaneous spectral-timing-polarimetry studies of cosmic sources in the energy range from 0.5-30 keV (and beyond). Key elements of the payload are: the Spectroscopic Focusing Array (SFA) - a set of 11 X-ray optics for a total effective area of similar to 0.9 m(2) and 0.6 m(2) at 2 keV and 6 keV respectively, equipped with Silicon Drift Detectors offering < 180 eV spectral resolution; the Large Area Detector (LAD) - a deployable set of 640 Silicon Drift Detectors, for a total effective area of similar to 3.4 m(2), between 6 and 10 keV, and spectral resolution better than 250 eV; the Polarimetry Focusing Array (PFA) - a set of 2 X-ray telescope, for a total effective area of 250 cm(2) at 2 keV, equipped with imaging gas pixel photoelectric polarimeters; the Wide Field Monitor (WFM) - a set of 3 coded mask wide field units, equipped with position-sensitive Silicon Drift Detectors, each covering a 90 degrees x 90 degrees field of view. The eXTP international consortium includes major institutions of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and Universities in China, as well as major institutions in several European countries and the United States. The predecessor of eXTP, the XTP mission concept, has been selected and funded as one of the so-called background missions in the Strategic Priority Space Science Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences since 2011. The strong European participation has significantly enhanced the scientific capabilities of eXTP. The planned launch date of the mission is earlier than 2025.

184 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a triple band polarization-independent metamaterial absorber using electric field-driven LC resonators is proposed over wide angle of incidence, which exhibits triple band absorption property for any angle of polarization under normal incidence.
Abstract: In this paper, a triple band polarization-independent metamaterial absorber using electric field-driven LC resonators is proposed over wide angle of incidence. The unit cell is designed by parametric optimization in such a way that triple band absorption occurs in C-band. The proposed structure exhibits triple band absorption property for any angle of polarization under normal incidence. It also shows high absorption for wide angle of incidence upto 60° for both TE and TM polarizations. The proposed structure is also fabricated and experimental results provide good agreement with the simulated responses. The constitutive electromagnetic parameters viz. effective permittivity and effective permeability are extracted from the simulated response, which support the absorption phenomena at all these three frequencies. The reflection from the structure is numerically computed and verified with simulated response, and it shows good agreement between them.

175 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present a comprehensive analysis of the spectra of 10 neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries, all of which display broad asymmetric Fe K emission lines.
Abstract: A number of neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries have recently been discovered to show broad, asymmetric Fe K emission lines in their X-ray spectra. These lines are generally thought to be the most prominent part of a reflection spectrum, originating in the inner part of the accretion disk where strong relativistic effects can broaden emission lines. We present a comprehensive, systematic analysis of Suzaku and XMM-Newton spectra of 10 neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries, all of which display broad Fe K emission lines. Of the 10 sources, 4 are Z sources, 4 are atolls and 2 are accreting millisecond X-ray pulsars (also atolls). The Fe K lines are well fit by a relativistic line model for a Schwarzschild metric, and imply a narrow range of inner disk radii (6 - 15 GM/c^2) in most cases. This implies that the accretion disk extends close to the neutron star surface over a range of luminosities. Continuum modeling shows that for the majority of observations, a blackbody component (plausibly associated with the boundary layer) dominates the X-ray emission from 8 - 20 keV. Thus it appears likely that this spectral component produces the majority of the ionizing flux that illuminates the accretion disk. Therefore, we also fit the spectra with a blurred reflection model, wherein a blackbody component illuminates the disk. This model fits well in most cases, supporting the idea that the boundary layer is illuminating a geometrically thin disk.

160 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a broadband polarisation-independent circuit analogue absorber comprising multi-layer resistive frequency selective surfaces (FSS) is presented, which shows good matching with the full-wave analysis.
Abstract: A broadband polarisation-independent circuit analogue absorber comprising multi-layer resistive frequency selective surfaces (FSS) has been presented in this study. The proposed structure consists of a periodic arrangement of square loops loaded with lumped resistors and these square loops are printed on dielectric substrates separated by an air spacer. The simulated result shows the reflectivity below -10 dB in the frequency range from 4.96 to 18.22 GHz (fractional bandwidth of 114.40%) under normal incidence, covering C, X, and Ku bands. An equivalent circuit analysis has been introduced to characterise the proposed absorber, which shows good matching with the full-wave analysis. The effects of the individual FSS layers and the air spacer have been studied and several parametric variations have been carried out to examine the sensitivity of the design parameters on the absorption bandwidth. Finally, the designed absorber has been fabricated and measured in anechoic chamber, which shows good agreement between the experimental results and the simulated responses, under different angles of incidence as well as for various polarisation angles.

157 citations


Cited by
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[...]

08 Dec 2001-BMJ
TL;DR: There is, I think, something ethereal about i —the square root of minus one, which seems an odd beast at that time—an intruder hovering on the edge of reality.
Abstract: There is, I think, something ethereal about i —the square root of minus one. I remember first hearing about it at school. It seemed an odd beast at that time—an intruder hovering on the edge of reality. Usually familiarity dulls this sense of the bizarre, but in the case of i it was the reverse: over the years the sense of its surreal nature intensified. It seemed that it was impossible to write mathematics that described the real world in …

33,785 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Kazunori Akiyama, Antxon Alberdi1, Walter Alef2, Keiichi Asada3  +403 moreInstitutions (82)
TL;DR: In this article, the Event Horizon Telescope was used to reconstruct event-horizon-scale images of the supermassive black hole candidate in the center of the giant elliptical galaxy M87.
Abstract: When surrounded by a transparent emission region, black holes are expected to reveal a dark shadow caused by gravitational light bending and photon capture at the event horizon. To image and study this phenomenon, we have assembled the Event Horizon Telescope, a global very long baseline interferometry array observing at a wavelength of 1.3 mm. This allows us to reconstruct event-horizon-scale images of the supermassive black hole candidate in the center of the giant elliptical galaxy M87. We have resolved the central compact radio source as an asymmetric bright emission ring with a diameter of 42 +/- 3 mu as, which is circular and encompasses a central depression in brightness with a flux ratio greater than or similar to 10: 1. The emission ring is recovered using different calibration and imaging schemes, with its diameter and width remaining stable over four different observations carried out in different days. Overall, the observed image is consistent with expectations for the shadow of a Kerr black hole as predicted by general relativity. The asymmetry in brightness in the ring can be explained in terms of relativistic beaming of the emission from a plasma rotating close to the speed of light around a black hole. We compare our images to an extensive library of ray-traced general-relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations of black holes and derive a central mass of M = (6.5 +/- 0.7) x 10(9) M-circle dot. Our radio-wave observations thus provide powerful evidence for the presence of supermassive black holes in centers of galaxies and as the central engines of active galactic nuclei. They also present a new tool to explore gravity in its most extreme limit and on a mass scale that was so far not accessible.

2,589 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
23 Aug 1992
TL;DR: Mes premiers remtrciements trout aux auteurs des 206 communications th6matiquts et notes de projet, sans qui ces actes n'auraient 6videmment pas vu le jour.
Abstract: Mes premiers remtrciements trout aux auteurs des 206 communications th6matiquts et notes de projet, sans qui ces actes n'auraient 6videmment pas vu le jour. / Is oat contribu6 h la qualit6 scientifique et ,5 I'hmuog6t~6it6 pr6sentationntlle de leurs articles en refondant les versions iuitiales soumises an comit6 de programme, ea acceptant de suivre les r~gles de pr6sentation indiqu6es, et en nous envoyant parrots plusieurs versions am61ior6es surun point ou sur l'autrc.

824 citations