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Sonia Chawla

Bio: Sonia Chawla is an academic researcher from Boston University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Perspective (graphical) & Shyness. The author has an hindex of 3, co-authored 3 publications receiving 158 citations.

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Siblings showed no resemblance in either parent-rated AL or shyness; however, sibling resemblance for actigraph AL and observer-rated shyness was substantial, suggesting that parents do contrast their nontwin siblings when rating these 2 temperament dimensions.
Abstract: Twin studies suggest that parent ratings of temperament exaggerate differences between twins. The present study examined whether such contrast effects also operate for nontwin siblings. The activity level (AL) and shyness of 95 nontwin sibling pairs (ages 3 to 8 years) were assessed via parent ratings and objective measures (actigraph and observer ratings). Siblings showed no resemblance in either parent-rated AL or shyness; however, sibling resemblance for actigraph AL and observer-rated shyness was substantial. Thus, parents do contrast their nontwin siblings when rating these 2 temperament dimensions. Moreover, the importance of sibling differences in temperament to the sibling relationship and differential maternal treatment varied across the different measures of AL and shyness, suggesting that parent perceptions may play a role in these associations.

86 citations

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TL;DR: Feeding attitudes and maternal moods were closely linked, but each contributed independently and uniquely to different aspects of breastfeeding, especially at 6 months.
Abstract: Maternal feeding attitudes, maternal moods and infant feeding practices during the first 6 months postpartum were assessed in 226 healthy, well-nourished Barbadian mother-infant dyads. Factor analysis of the feeding attitudes questionnaire resulted in six independent factors. The belief that breastfeeding was better than bottle-feeding was associated with higher family income, more information seeking behavior and older maternal age at the time of her first pregnancy. Women who believed that breastfeeding was better at 7 weeks postpartum were also more likely to breastfeed at concurrent and later ages, up to 6 months postpartum. This belief was also associated with less maternal depression at 7 weeks and 6 months. The association between feeding attitudes and actual feeding practices was significant even after correcting for maternal moods and other background variables. Conversely, after controlling for feeding attitudes, maternal mood at 7 weeks was still significantly associated with infant feeding practices at 6 months. Thus, feeding attitudes and maternal moods were closely linked, but each contributed independently and uniquely to different aspects of breastfeeding, especially at 6 months. These findings suggest that early intervention addressing maternal feeding attitudes, may improve the extent of breastfeeding and the health of children in this setting.

52 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This introduction to the special issue on international perspectives on elder abuse presents basic elements of a cognitive-ecological approach to elder abuse.
Abstract: This introduction to the special issue on international perspectives on elder abuse presents basic elements of a cognitive-ecological approach to elder abuse. It also describes the research project out of which the current set of studies emerged, and provides a rationale for the five case studies (Japan, Germany, African Americans, Israel and Brazil) focused on in this issue.

25 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article , a structured questionnaire has been developed and data has been collected from officers in different banks in India, especially working in the credit department, which has been empirically tested for reliability and validity using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and also Z-test for checking the significance of explored and confirmed factors.
Abstract: The present article draws on the banker’s perspective and extracts some practical insights about the factors behind specific NPAs resolution strategies. Based on the thorough review of the perspective, conceptual and empirical literature, and using exploratory factor analysis (EFA), the study has identified 21 dimensions for ‘management of NPAs’. The empirical analysis of these dimensions has extracted 7 factors for management to be significant. A structured questionnaire has been developed and data has been collected from officers in different banks in India, especially working in the credit department. The questionnaire has been empirically tested for reliability and validity using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and also Z-test for checking the significance of the explored and confirmed factors. The present research work offers pragmatic suggestions for banking regulators, on improving the asset quality of banks in India and also throws new insights on effective credit management in banks. JEL Codes: G01, G21, G32, E44

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01 Jan 1901

2,681 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The results from this review suggest that women with depressive symptomatology in the early postpartum period may be at increased risk for negative infant-feeding outcomes including decreased breastfeeding duration, increased breastfeeding difficulties, and decreased levels of breastfeeding self-efficacy.
Abstract: CONTEXT. The negative health consequences of postpartum depression are well documented, as are the benefits of breastfeeding. Despite the detailed research related to these maternal and infant health outcomes, the relationship between maternal mood and breastfeeding remains equivocal. OBJECTIVE. A qualitative systematic review was conducted to examine the relationship between postpartum depressive symptomatology and infant-feeding outcomes. METHODS. We performed electronic searchers in Medline (1966–2007), the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) (1982–2007), and Embase (1980–2007) by using specific key words. A hand search of selected specialist journals and reference lists of articles obtained was then conducted. Seventy-five articles were reviewed, of which 49 specifically provided data to be extracted related to postpartum depressive symptomatology and infant-feeding outcomes. Both authors independently extracted data including study design, participants (number and characteristics), and results. RESULTS. The results from this review suggest that women with depressive symptomatology in the early postpartum period may be at increased risk for negative infant-feeding outcomes including decreased breastfeeding duration, increased breastfeeding difficulties, and decreased levels of breastfeeding self-efficacy. There is also beginning evidence to suggest that depressed women may be less likely to initiate breastfeeding and do so exclusively. CONCLUSIONS. Depressive symptomatology in the postpartum period negatively influences infant-feeding outcomes. These findings have important clinical implications and support the need for early identification and treatment of women with depressive symptomatology. However, strategies to address help-seeking barriers are needed if women are to receive appropriate and timely treatment. Research to determine effective interventions to support depressed breastfeeding women is warranted.

459 citations

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TL;DR: This review examines the evidence from low- and middle-income countries that links maternal depression with children's health, development, and behavior and examines how maternal depression affects the rights of millions of children living in these countries.
Abstract: Depressive disorders are a common source of disability among women. In addition to the economic and human costs of maternal depression, children of depressed mothers are at risk for health, developmental, and behavioral problems. Although most of the research examining the evidence and inter-generational aspects of maternal depression has been conducted in high-income countries, recent evidence suggests that rates of maternal depression may be higher in low- and middle-income countries, where nearly 90% of the world's children live. This review examines the evidence from low- and middle-income countries that links maternal depression with children's health, development, and behavior. We present recommendations for future policies and intervention programs related to maternal depression and examine how maternal depression affects the rights of millions of children living in these countries.

362 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Although strong empirical evidence regarding the associations among breastfeeding and pregnancy or postpartum depression was separately provided, further research, such as prospective studies, is needed to clarify the association among these three variables.

349 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: There is a compelling case for the implementation of interventions to reduce the impact of PND on the quality of the mother-infant relationship and improve child outcomes.
Abstract: Introduction or background It is well established that postnatal depression (PND) is prevalent in high-income countries and is associated with negative personal, family and child developmental outcomes. Sources of data Here, studies on the prevalence of maternal PND in low- and middle-income countries are reviewed and a geographical prevalence map is presented. The impact of PND upon child outcomes is also reviewed. Areas of agreement The available evidence suggests that rates of PND are substantial, and in many regions, are higher than those reported for high-income countries. An association between PND and adverse child developmental outcomes was identified in many of the countries examined. Areas of controversy Significant heterogeneity in prevalence rates and impact on child outcomes across studies means that the true extent of the disease burden is still unclear. Areas timely for developing research Nonetheless, there is a compelling case for the implementation of interventions to reduce the impact of PND on the quality of the mother-infant relationship and improve child outcomes.

298 citations