Other affiliations: Bose Institute
Bio: Sreya Chattopadhyay is an academic researcher from University of Calcutta. The author has contributed to research in topic(s): Apoptosis & Oxidative stress. The author has an hindex of 21, co-authored 36 publication(s) receiving 1262 citation(s). Previous affiliations of Sreya Chattopadhyay include Bose Institute.
TL;DR: Curcumin was found to decrease the Ehrlich's ascites carcinoma (EAC) cell number by the induction of apoptosis in the tumor cells as evident from flow-cytometric analysis of cell cycle phase distribution of nuclear DNA and oligonucleosomal fragmentation.
Abstract: Curcumin, the active ingredient from the spice turmeric (Curcuma longa Linn), is a potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent. It has been recently demonstrated to possess discrete chemopreventive activities. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying such anticancer properties of curcumin still remain unrealized, although it has been postulated that induction of apoptosis in cancer cells might be a probable explanation. In the current study, curcumin was found to decrease the Ehrlich's ascites carcinoma (EAC) cell number by the induction of apoptosis in the tumor cells as evident from flow-cytometric analysis of cell cycle phase distribution of nuclear DNA and oligonucleosomal fragmentation. Probing further into the molecular signals leading to apoptosis of EAC cells, we observed that curcumin is causing tumor cell death by the up-regulation of the proto-oncoprotein Bax, release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria, and activation of caspase-3. The status of Bcl-2 remains unchanged in EAC, which would signify that curcumin is bypassing the Bcl-2 checkpoint and overriding its protective effect on apoptosis.
TL;DR: Overall, the observations suggest that the unique properties of curcumin may be exploited for successful attenuation of tumor-induced suppression of cell-mediated immune responses.
Abstract: Immune dysfunction is well documented during tumor progression and likely contributes to tumor immune evasion. CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) are involved in antigen-specific tumor destruction and CD4+ T cells are essential for helping this CD8+ T cell-dependent tumor eradication. Tumors often target and inhibit T-cell function to escape from immune surveillance. This dysfunction includes loss of effector and memory T cells, bias towards type 2 cytokines and expansion of T regulatory (Treg) cells. Curcumin has previously been shown to have antitumor activity and some research has addressed the immunoprotective potential of this plant-derived polyphenol in tumor-bearing hosts. Here we examined the role of curcumin in the prevention of tumor-induced dysfunction of T cell-based immune responses. We observed severe loss of both effector and memory T-cell populations, downregulation of type 1 and upregulation of type 2 immune responses and decreased proliferation of effector T cells in the presence of tumors. Curcumin, in turn, prevented this loss of T cells, expanded central memory T cell (TCM)/effector memory T cell (TEM) populations, reversed the type 2 immune bias and attenuated the tumor-induced inhibition of T-cell proliferation in tumor-bearing hosts. Further investigation revealed that tumor burden upregulated Treg cell populations and stimulated the production of the immunosuppressive cytokines transforming growth factor (TGF)-β and IL-10 in these cells. Curcumin, however, inhibited the suppressive activity of Treg cells by downregulating the production of TGF-β and IL-10 in these cells. More importantly, curcumin treatment enhanced the ability of effector T cells to kill cancer cells. Overall, our observations suggest that the unique properties of curcumin may be exploited for successful attenuation of tumor-induced suppression of cell-mediated immune responses.
TL;DR: PFE was shown to reduce ROS generation in hepatocytes by activating the Nrf2-ARE pathway and inhibiting NF-κB as a consequence of which the antioxidant defense mechanism in the liver was up-regulated, thereby conferring protection against MTX-induced hepatotoxicity and apoptosis.
Abstract: The clinical efficacy of the widely used chemotherapeutic drug methotrexate (MTX) is limited due to its associated hepatotoxicity. Pomegranate polyphenols are of huge health benefits and known to possess remarkable antioxidant properties capable of protecting normal cells from various stimuli-induced oxidative stress and cell death. In this study, we explored the protective role of pomegranate fruit extract (PFE) in ameliorating MTX-induced hepatic damage. Male Swiss albino mice exposed to MTX (20 mg/kg body weight) exhibited distinct markers of toxicity such as increased activities of enzymes alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase and also increased oxidative stress in liver evidenced by increased ROS generation and lipid peroxidation. Decrease in reduced glutathione levels, superoxide dismutase, catalase, hepatic heme oxygenase 1 and NQO-1 activities were also observed. Tracing the signal transduction pathways, it was seen that MTX exposure significantly increased nuclear translocation of NF-κB coupled with increase in phosphorylated Iκ-B and down-regulation of NF-kappaB-dependent antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2. Treatment with MTX increased the expression of the apoptotic enhancer Rho/Cdc42 as well as the phosphorylation of SAPK/JNK. A shift in the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio towards apoptosis and increase in the caspase 3 level was also evident. Administration of PFE for 7 consecutive days before and after MTX challenge suppressed MTX-induced cell death, mitigated the injurious effects of MTX and offered protection against apoptosis. PFE was shown to reduce ROS generation in hepatocytes by activating the Nrf2-ARE pathway and inhibiting NF-κB as a consequence of which the antioxidant defense mechanism in the liver was up-regulated, thereby conferring protection against MTX-induced hepatotoxicity and apoptosis.
TL;DR: There is direct evidence that TQ-Nps showed more efficiency in killing cancer cells as well as proved to be less toxic to normal cells at a significantly lower dose than TQ, and evaluation of the anti-migratory effect of the TQ -Nps revealed that PEG4000-TQ-nps showed much potent anti-Migratory properties than the other types.
Abstract: Thymoquinone (TQ), a major active constituent of black seeds of Nigella sativa, has potential medical applications including spectrum of therapeutic properties against different cancers. However, little is known about their effect on breast cancer cell migration, which is the cause of over 90% of deaths worldwide. Herein, we have synthesized TQ-encapsulated nanoparticles using biodegradable, hydrophilic polymers like polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and polyethyleneglycol (PEG) to overcome TQ's poor aqueous solubility, thermal and light sensitivity as well as consequently, minimal systemic bioavailability which can greatly improve the cancer treatment efficiency. Sizes of synthesized TQ-Nps were found to be below 50 nm and they were mostly spherical in shape with smooth surface texture. Estimation of the zeta potential also revealed that all the three TQ-Nps were negatively charged which also facilitated their cellular uptake. In the present investigation, we provide direct evidence that TQ-Nps showed more efficiency in killing cancer cells as well as proved to be less toxic to normal cells at a significantly lower dose than TQ. Interestingly, evaluation of the anti-migratory effect of the TQ-Nps, revealed that PEG4000-TQ-Nps showed much potent anti-migratory properties than the other types. Further studies indicated that PEG4000-TQ-Nps could significantly increase the expression of miR-34a through p53. Moreover, NPs mediated miR-34a up-regulation directly down-regulated Rac1 expression followed by actin depolymerisation thereby disrupting the actin cytoskeleton which leads to significant reduction in the lamellipodia and filopodia formation on cell surfaces thus retarding cell migration. Considering the biodegradability, non-toxicity and effectivity of PEG4000-TQ-Nps against cancer cell migration, TQ-Nps may provide new insights into specific therapeutic approach for cancer treatment.
TL;DR: Black tea-induced apoptogenic signals overrode the growth-arresting message of p21, thereby leading the tumor cells towards death, and mechanisms of the apoptogenic effect of black tea extract were delineated.
Abstract: Next to water, tea is the most ancient and widely consumed beverage in the world. Epidemiological studies have suggested a cancer protective effect, but the results obtained so far are not conclusive. In the current study, mechanisms of the apoptogenic effect of black tea extract were delineated. Black tea administration to Ehrlich's ascites carcinoma (EAC)-bearing Swiss albino mice caused a significant decrease in the tumor cell count in a dose-dependent manner. Flowcytometric analysis showed an increase in the number of cells in the sub-G(0)/G(1) population signifying tumor cell apoptosis by black tea. These results were further confirmed by nuclear staining that demonstrated distinct morphological features of apoptosis. Our data also revealed an increase in the expression of pro-apoptotic protein p53 in EAC. It is known that upon p53 induction, multiple downstream factors contribute to the decision making between growth arrest and apoptosis. Among those, pro-apoptotic gene Bax is up regulated during p53-mediated apoptosis. On the other hand, p53-mediated growth arrest involves p21 as a major effecter. In our system, increase in p53 expression was followed by moderate expression of p21/Waf-1 and high expression of Bax at protein levels. Interestingly, anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 was down regulated resulting in decrease in Bcl-2/Bax ratio. All these observations together signify that black tea-induced apoptogenic signals overrode the growth-arresting message of p21, thereby leading the tumor cells towards death.
TL;DR: Evidence has also been presented to suggest that curcumin can suppress tumor initiation, promotion and metastasis, and Pharmacologically,Curcumin has been found to be safe.
Abstract: Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) is a polyphenol derived from the plant Curcuma longa, commonly called turmeric. Extensive research over the last 50 years has indicated this polyphenol can both prevent and treat cancer. The anticancer potential of curcumin stems from its ability to suppress proliferation of a wide variety of tumor cells, down-regulate transcription factors NF- κB, AP-1 and Egr-1; down-regulate the expression of COX2, LOX, NOS, MMP-9, uPA, TNF, chemokines, cell surface adhesion molecules and cyclin D1; down-regulate growth factor receptors (such as EGFR and HER2); and inhibit the activity of c-Jun N-terminal kinase, protein tyrosine kinases and protein serine/threonine kinases. In several systems, curcumin has been described as a potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent. Evidence has also been presented to suggest that curcumin can suppress tumor initiation, promotion and metastasis. Pharmacologically, curcumin has been found to be safe. Human clinical trials indicated no dose-limiting toxicity when administered at doses up to 10 g/day. All of these studies suggest that curcumin has enormous potential in the prevention and therapy of cancer. The current review describes in detail the data supporting these studies. Curcumin, derived from turmeric (vernacular name: Haldi), is a rhizome of the plant Curcuma longa. The medicinal use of this plant has been documented in Ayurveda (the Indian
TL;DR: Curcumin has been shown to exhibit antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal, and anticancer activities and thus has a potential against various malignant diseases, diabetes, allergies, arthritis, Alzheimer's disease, and other chronic illnesses.
Abstract: Turmeric, derived from the plant Curcuma longa, is a gold-colored spice commonly used in the Indian subcontinent, not only for health care but also for the preservation of food and as a yellow dye for textiles. Curcumin, which gives the yellow color to turmeric, was first isolated almost two centuries ago, and its structure as diferuloylmethane was determined in 1910. Since the time of Ayurveda (1900 Bc) numerous therapeutic activities have been assigned to turmeric for a wide variety of diseases and conditions, including those of the skin, pulmonary, and gastrointestinal systems, aches, pains, wounds, sprains, and liver disorders. Extensive research within the last half century has proven that most of these activities, once associated with turmeric, are due to curcumin. Curcumin has been shown to exhibit antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal, and anticancer activities and thus has a potential against various malignant diseases, diabetes, allergies, arthritis, Alzheimer's disease, and other chronic illnesses. These effects are mediated through the regulation of various transcription factors, growth factors, inflammatory cytokines, protein kinases, and other enzymes. Curcumin exhibits activities similar to recently discovered tumor necrosis factor blockers (e.g., HUMIRA, REMICADE, and ENBREL), a vascular endothelial cell growth factor blocker (e.g., AVASTIN), human epidermal growth factor receptor blockers (e.g., ERBITUX, ERLOTINIB, and GEFTINIB), and a HER2 blocker (e.g., HERCEPTIN). Considering the recent scientific bandwagon that multitargeted therapy is better than monotargeted therapy for most diseases, curcumin can be considered an ideal "Spice for Life".
01 Jan 2009
David P. Bartel1•Institutions (1)
Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous ∼23 nt RNAs that play important gene-regulatory roles in animals and plants by pairing to the mRNAs of protein-coding genes to direct their posttranscriptional repression. This review outlines the current understanding of miRNA target recognition in animals and discusses the widespread impact of miRNAs on both the expression and evolution of protein-coding genes.
01 Jan 2004
Abstract: Cancer chemopreventive agents are typically natural products or their synthetic analogs that inhibit the transformation of normal cells to premalignant cells or the progression of premalignant cells to malignant cells. These agents are believed to function by modulating processes associated with xenobiotic biotransformation, with the protection of cellular elements from oxidative damage, or with the promotion of a more differentiated phenotype in target cells. However, an increasing number of chemopreventive agents (e.g., certain retinoids, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, polyphenols, and vanilloids) have been shown to stimulate apoptosis in premalignant and malignant cells in vitro or in vivo. Apoptosis is arguably the most potent defense against cancer because it is the mechanism used by metazoans to eliminate deleterious cells. Many chemopreventive agents appear to target signaling intermediates in apoptosis-inducing pathways. Inherently, the process of carcinogenesis selects against apoptosis to initiate, promote, and perpetuate the malignant phenotype. Thus, targeting apoptosis pathways in premalignant cells--in which these pathways are still relatively intact--may be an effective method of cancer prevention. In this review, we construct a paradigm supporting apoptosis as a novel target for cancer chemoprevention by highlighting recent studies of several chemopreventive agents that engage apoptosis pathways.
TL;DR: The evidence for critical roles ofSTAT3 in oncogenesis is presented and the potential for development of novel cancer therapies based on mechanistic understanding of STAT3 signaling cascade is discussed.
Abstract: Signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) comprise a family of cytoplasmic transcription factors that mediate intracellular signaling that is usually generated at cell surface receptors and thereby transmit it to the nucleus. Numerous studies have demonstrated constitutive activation of STAT3 in a wide variety of human tumors, including hematological malignancies (leukemias, lymphomas, and multiple myeloma) as well as diverse solid tumors (such as head and neck, breast, lung, gastric, hepatocellular, colorectal and prostate cancers). There is strong evidence to suggest that aberrant STAT3 signaling promotes initiation and progression of human cancers by either inhibiting apoptosis or inducing cell proliferation, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis. Suppression of STAT3 activation results in the induction of apoptosis in tumor cells, and accordingly its pharmacological modulation by tyrosine kinase inhibitors, antisense oligonucleotides, decoy nucleotides, dominant negative proteins, RNA interference and chemopreventive agents have been employed to suppress the proliferation of various human cancer cells in culture and tumorigenicity in vivo. However, the identification and development of novel drugs that can target deregulated STAT3 activation effectively remains an important scientific and clinical challenge. This review presents the evidence for critical roles of STAT3 in oncogenesis and discusses the potential for development of novel cancer therapies based on mechanistic understanding of STAT3 signaling cascade.
Author's H-index: 21