Bio: Staffan Andersson is an academic researcher from University of Gothenburg. The author has contributed to research in topics: Euplectes & Plumage. The author has an hindex of 47, co-authored 116 publications receiving 6844 citations. Previous affiliations of Staffan Andersson include Uppsala University & Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: It is concluded that blue tits are markedly sex dimorphic in their own visual world, and that UV/violet coloration probably plays a role in blue tit mate acquisition.
Abstract: In spite of strong evidence for viability–based sexual selection and sex ratio adjustments, the blue tit, Parus caeruleus , is regarded as nearly sexually monomorphic and no epigamic signals have been found. The plumage coloration has not, however, been studied in relation to bird vision, which extends to the UV–A waveband (320 to 400 nm). Using molecular sex determination and UV/VIS spectrometry, we report here that blue tits are sexually dichromatic in UV/blue spectral purity (chroma) of the brilliant crown patch. It is displayed in courtship by horizontal posturing and erected nape feathers. A previously undescribed sexual dimorphism in crown size (controlling for body size) further supports its role as an epigamic ornament. Against grey–brown leaf litter and bark during pair formation in early spring, but also against green vegetation, UV contributes strongly to conspicuousness and sexual dimorphism. This should be further enhanced by the UV/bluish early morning skylight (‘woodland shade’) in which blue tits display. Among 18 breeding pairs, there was strong assortative mating with respect to UV chroma, but not size, of the crown ornament. We conclude that blue tits are markedly sex dimorphic in their own visual world, and that UV/violet coloration probably plays a role in blue tit mate acquisition.
TL;DR: Experimental evidence that females skew the sex ratio of their offspring in response to the ultraviolet plumage ornamentation of their mates is reported, suggesting that chromosomal sex determination may not constrain the sex ratios of multiparous vertebrates.
Abstract: Brilliant blue and violet structural colours are common plumage ornaments in birds, but their signalling functions are poorly understood1. This may be because birds also communicate in ultraviolet (UV-A) wavelengths (320–400 nm)2,3,4,5, invisible to humans, but a strong spectral component of many structural colours6. From a wild population of blue tits—Parus caeruleus, sexually dimorphic primarily in the ultraviolet7,8—we report experimental evidence that females skew the sex ratio of their offspring in response to the ultraviolet plumage ornamentation of their mates. Masking male ultraviolet reflectance reversed a positive correlation between reflectance and brood sex ratio observed in control pairs, demonstrating a causal effect of male ultraviolet ornamentation on offspring sex ratio. Ultraviolet reflectance also predicted male survival to the following breeding season, suggesting that it serves as a viability indicator. When taken together with ecological effects (laying date, nesting area), our experiments reveal that an unexpected amount of control exists over the primary sex ratio in birds, suggesting that chromosomal sex determination may not constrain the sex ratios of multiparous vertebrates.
TL;DR: The inhibition of cancer cell proliferation seen in these experiments correlated with levels of some carotenoids and with vitamin C levels, present at levels that can be found in human tissues, and this correlation might indicate a synergistic effect of vitamin C and other substances.
Abstract: The effects of 10 different extracts of fruits and berries on cell proliferation of colon cancer cells HT29 and breast cancer cells MCF-7 were investigated. The fruits and berries used were rosehips, blueberries, black currant, black chokeberries, apple, sea buckthorn, plum, lingonberries, cherries, and raspberries. The extracts decreased the proliferation of both colon cancer cells HT29 and breast cancer cells MCF-7, and the effect was concentration dependent. The inhibition effect for the highest concentration of the extracts varied 2-3-fold among the species, and it was in the ranges of 46-74% (average = 62%) for the HT29 cells and 24-68% (average = 52%) for the MCF-7 cells. There were great differences in the content of the analyzed antioxidants in the extracts. The level of the vitamin C content varied almost 100-fold, and the content of total carotenoids varied almost 150-fold among the species. Also in the composition and content of flavonols, hydroxycinnamic acids, anthocyanins, and phenolics were found great differences among the 10 species. The inhibition of cancer cell proliferation seen in these experiments correlated with levels of some carotenoids and with vitamin C levels, present at levels that can be found in human tissues. The same inhibition of cell proliferation could not be found by ascorbate standard alone. This correlation might indicate a synergistic effect of vitamin C and other substances. In MCF-7 cells, the anthocyanins may contribute to the inhibition of proliferation.
TL;DR: It is proposed that the “multiple receiver hypothesis” can explain the coexistence of multiple handicap signals, and the trade‐off between signal expressions might contribute to the inverse relation between nuptial tail elongation and coloration in the genus Euplectes (bishops and widowbirds).
Abstract: Sexual displays often involve several different ornamental traits. Yet most indicator models of sexual selection based on a single receiver (usually a choosy female) find that multiple handicap signals should be unstable.Here we study reasons for this contradiction, analyzing signal function, signal content, and trade-offs between signals in the polygynous red-collared widowbird Euplectes ardens. Males have both a long, graduated tail and a red carotenoid collar badge. Territory-holding "residents" have slightly shorter tails than the nonbreeding "floaters," but their carotenoid collars are 40% larger, and they have (on the basis of reflectance spectrometry and objective colorimetry) a 23-nm more long-wave ("redder") hue than floaters. This corroborates experimental evidence that the red collar is selected by male contest competition, whereas female choice is based almost exclusively on male tail length. Tail length is negatively correlated with the carotenoid signal, which together with body size and condition explains 55% of the variation in tail length. The trade-off in tail length and carotenoid investment is steeper among residents, suggesting an interaction with costs of territory defense. We propose that the "multiple receiver hypothesis" can explain the coexistence of multiple handicap signals. Furthermore, the trade-off between signal expressions might contribute to the inverse relation between nuptial tail elongation and coloration in the genus Euplectes (bishops and widowbirds).
TL;DR: In 13 of the 16 trials, the female associated most with the NR male, a preference that implies that UV colour vision is used in mate choice by female bluethroats, suggestive of a UV colour cue in age–related mate preferences.
Abstract: Many birds see in the ultraviolet (300–400 nm), but there is limited evidence for colour communication (signalling by spectral shape independently of brightness) in this ‘hidden’ waveband. Such data are critical for the understanding of extravagant plumage colours, some of which show considerable UV reflectance. We investigated UV colour vision in female social responses to the male UV/violet ornament in bluethroats, Luscinia s. svecica . In an outdoor aviary at the breeding grounds, 16 females were each presented with a unique pair of males of equal age. In UVR (UV reduction) males, sunblock chemicals reduced only the UV reflectance and thereby the spectral shape (colour) of the throat ornament. In NR (neutral reduction) males, an achromatic pigment in the same base solvent (preen gland fat) was used for a corresponding but uniform brightness reduction. Both colour and brightness effects were invisible to human eyes, and were monitored by spectrometry. In 13 of the 16 trials, the female associated most with the NR male, a preference that implies that UV colour vision is used in mate choice by female bluethroats. Reflectance differences between one–year–old and older males were significant only in UV, suggestive of a UV colour cue in age–related mate preferences.
01 Jan 2016
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TL;DR: As an example of how the current "war on terrorism" could generate a durable civic renewal, Putnam points to the burst in civic practices that occurred during and after World War II, which he says "permanently marked" the generation that lived through it and had a "terrific effect on American public life over the last half-century."
Abstract: The present historical moment may seem a particularly inopportune time to review Bowling Alone, Robert Putnam's latest exploration of civic decline in America. After all, the outpouring of volunteerism, solidarity, patriotism, and self-sacrifice displayed by Americans in the wake of the September 11 terrorist attacks appears to fly in the face of Putnam's central argument: that \"social capital\" -defined as \"social networks and the norms of reciprocity and trustworthiness that arise from them\" (p. 19)'has declined to dangerously low levels in America over the last three decades. However, Putnam is not fazed in the least by the recent effusion of solidarity. Quite the contrary, he sees in it the potential to \"reverse what has been a 30to 40-year steady decline in most measures of connectedness or community.\"' As an example of how the current \"war on terrorism\" could generate a durable civic renewal, Putnam points to the burst in civic practices that occurred during and after World War II, which he says \"permanently marked\" the generation that lived through it and had a \"terrific effect on American public life over the last half-century.\" 3 If Americans can follow this example and channel their current civic
TL;DR: In this paper, a test based on two conserved CHD (chromo-helicase-DNA-binding) genes that are located on the avian sex chromosomes of all birds, with the possible exception of the ratites (ostriches, etc.).
Abstract: Birds are difficult to sex. Nestlings rarely show sex-linked morphology and we estimate that adult females appear identical to males in over 50% of the world's bird species. This problem can hinder both evolutionary studies and human-assisted breeding of birds. DNA-based sex identification provides a solution. We describe a test based on two conserved CHD (chromo-helicase-DNA-binding) genes that are located on the avian sex chromosomes of all birds, with the possible exception of the ratites (ostriches, etc.; Struthioniformes). The CHD-W gene is located on the W chromosome; therefore it is unique to females. The other gene, CHD-Z, is found on the Z chromosome and therefore occurs in both sexes (female, ZW; male, ZZ). The test employs PCR with a single set of primers. It amplifies homologous sections of both genes and incorporates introns whose lengths usually differ. When examined on a gel there is a single CHD-Z band in males but females have a second, distinctive CHD-W band.
01 Jan 1977
TL;DR: In the Hamadryas baboon, males are substantially larger than females, and a troop of baboons is subdivided into a number of ‘one-male groups’, consisting of one adult male and one or more females with their young.
Abstract: In the Hamadryas baboon, males are substantially larger than females. A troop of baboons is subdivided into a number of ‘one-male groups’, consisting of one adult male and one or more females with their young. The male prevents any of ‘his’ females from moving too far from him. Kummer (1971) performed the following experiment. Two males, A and B, previously unknown to each other, were placed in a large enclosure. Male A was free to move about the enclosure, but male B was shut in a small cage, from which he could observe A but not interfere. A female, unknown to both males, was then placed in the enclosure. Within 20 minutes male A had persuaded the female to accept his ownership. Male B was then released into the open enclosure. Instead of challenging male A , B avoided any contact, accepting A’s ownership.
TL;DR: A review of the fundamental interactions of water with solid surfaces can be found in this paper, where the authors assimilated the results of the TM review with those covered by the authors to provide a current picture of water interactions on solid surfaces, such as how water adsorbs, what are the chemical and electrostatic forces that constitute the adsorbed layer, how is water thermally or non-thermally activated and how do coadsorbates influence these properties of water.
Abstract: Water is perhaps the most important and most pervasive chemical on our planet. The influence of water permeates virtually all areas of biochemical, chemical and physical importance, and is especially evident in phenomena occurring at the interfaces of solid surfaces. Since 1987, when Thiel and Madey (TM) published their review titled ‘The interaction of water with solid surfaces: fundamental aspects’ in Surface Science Reports, there has been considerable progress made in further understanding the fundamental interactions of water with solid surfaces. In the decade and a half, the increased capability of surface scientists to probe at the molecular-level has resulted in more detailed information of the properties of water on progressively more complicated materials and under more stringent conditions. This progress in understanding the properties of water on solid surfaces is evident both in areas for which surface science methodology has traditionally been strong (catalysis and electronic materials) and also in new areas not traditionally studied by surface scientists such as electrochemistry, photoconversion, mineralogy, adhesion, sensors, atmospheric chemistry and tribology. Researchers in all these fields grapple with very basic questions regarding the interactions of water with solid surfaces such as how is water adsorbed, what are the chemical and electrostatic forces that constitute the adsorbed layer, how is water thermally or non-thermally activated and how do coadsorbates influence these properties of water. The attention paid to these and other fundamental questions in the past decade and a half has been immense. In this review, experimental studies published since the TM review are assimilated with those covered by TM to provide a current picture of the fundamental interactions of water with solid surfaces.