Bio: Stan Ruecker is an academic researcher from University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign. The author has contributed to research in topics: Interface (Java) & Thesaurus (information retrieval). The author has an hindex of 12, co-authored 112 publications receiving 755 citations. Previous affiliations of Stan Ruecker include Illinois College & University of Alberta.
Papers published on a yearly basis
01 Jan 2015
TL;DR: This chapter proposes that conversational modeling has the potential to radically alter the understanding and practice of citizenship and discusses two experimental platforms that take different approaches to this problem.
Abstract: If we think of the smart city as a reading environment, we can use it to change what it means to be a citizen, to improve how public topics are addressed, and to democratize how decisions are made. The starting point is text, supplemented with the various other kinds of data that can be gathered through digital means. In this chapter, we discuss two experimental platforms that take different approaches. First is the Data Stories project, where we have been sequencing text from various dynamic sources through a thematic clustering algorithm (Latent Dirichlet Allocation), feeding those thematic clusters into a narrative generator, then putting those results into a storyboarding system. Using the output, we can examine patterns emerging from a variety of text streams, such as Twitter, Facebook, news feeds, and so on. More importantly, however, we can allow people to manipulate the parameters, so that using the same text stream can produce multiple simultaneous valid outputs, depending on the perspective that the reader wishes to take on the feed. Providing a method for encouraging this kind of interpretive or hermeneutic inquiry is a promising strategy for supporting civil discourse. Our second project, Conversational Modeling, is building on previous research to investigate the various ways in which discussions, which occur sequentially through time, can be profitably modeled as 3-D objects of various kinds. These models can subsequently be used for recollection, communication, and analysis, but they may also have a generative potential. As a means of dealing with the structure and substance of discussions in civil society, we propose that conversational modeling has the potential to radically alter our understanding and practice of citizenship.
TL;DR: It is argued that, just as an edition of a book can be a means of reifying a theory about how books should be edited, so can the creation of an experimental digital prototype be understood as conveying an argument about designing interfaces.
Abstract: In this article, we argue that, just as an edition of a book can be a means of reifying a theory about how books should be edited, so can the creation of an experimental digital prototype be understood as conveying an argument about designing interfaces. Building on this premise, we explore theoretical affinities shared by recent design and book history scholarship, and connect those theories to the emerging practice of peer-reviewing digital objects in scholarly contexts. We suggest a checklist for subjecting prototypes directly to peer review: • Is the argument reified by the prototype contestable, defensible, and substantive? • Does the prototype have a recognizable position in the context of similar work, either in terms of concept or affordances? • Is the prototype part of a series of prototypes with an identifiable trajectory? • Does the prototype address possible objections? • Is the prototype itself an original contribution to knowledge? We also outline some implications for funding agencies interested in supporting researchers who are designing experimental computer prototypes. For instance, if a series of prototypes functions as a set of smaller arguments within a larger debate, it might be more appropriate to fund the sequence rather than treating each project as an individual proposal.
TL;DR: It is demonstrated that the proposed automated techniques can estimate fairly accurately the quantity of editors' contributions across various authorship categories, and that the visualizations introduced can clearly convey this information to users.
Abstract: Wikis are designed to support collaborative editing, without focusing on individual contribution, such that it is not straightforward to determine who contributed to a specific page. However, as wikis are increasingly adopted in settings such as business, government, and education, where editors are largely driven by career goals, there is a perceived need to modify wikis so that each editor's contributions are clearly presented. In this paper we introduce an approach for assessing the contributions of wiki editors along several authorship categories, as well as a variety of information glyphs for visualizing this information. We report on three types of analysis: (a) assessing the accuracy of the algorithms, (b) estimating the understandability of the visualizations, and (c) exploring wiki editors' perceptions regarding the extent to which such an approach is likely to change their behavior. Our findings demonstrate that our proposed automated techniques can estimate fairly accurately the quantity of editors' contributions across various authorship categories, and that the visualizations we introduced can clearly convey this information to users. Moreover, our user study suggests that such tools are likely to change wiki editors' behavior. We discuss both the potential benefits and risks associated with solutions for estimating and visualizing wiki contributions. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
•28 Jun 2011
TL;DR: Research shows that rich-prospect interfaces can offer an intuitive and highly flexible alternative environment for information browsing, assisting hypothesis formation and pattern-finding and new theories and practices for designing web interfaces for library collections, digitized cultural heritage materials, and other types of digital collections.
Abstract: Browsing for information is a significant part of most research activity, but many online collections hamper browsing with interfaces that are variants on a search box. Research shows that rich-prospect interfaces can offer an intuitive and highly flexible alternative environment for information browsing, assisting hypothesis formation and pattern-finding. This unique book offers a clear discussion of this form of interface design, including a theoretical basis for why it is important, and examples of how it can be done. It will be of interest to those working in the fields of library and information science, human-computer interaction, visual communication design, and the digital humanities as well as those interested in new theories and practices for designing web interfaces for library collections, digitized cultural heritage materials, and other types of digital collections.
TL;DR: This study explores an image-based retrieval interface for drug information, focusing on usability for a specific population—seniors, and points to design features that meet seniors' needs in the context of other health-related information-seeking strategies.
Abstract: This study explores an image-based retrieval interface for drug information, focusing on usability for a specific population—seniors. Qualitative, task-based interviews examined participants' health information behaviors and documented search strategies using an existing database () and a new prototype that uses similarity-based clustering of pill images for retrieval. Twelve participants (aged 65 and older), reflecting a diversity of backgrounds and experience with Web-based resources, located pill information using the interfaces and discussed navigational and other search preferences. Findings point to design features (e.g., image enlargement) that meet seniors' needs in the context of other health-related information-seeking strategies (e.g., contacting pharmacists). © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
TL;DR: As an example of how the current "war on terrorism" could generate a durable civic renewal, Putnam points to the burst in civic practices that occurred during and after World War II, which he says "permanently marked" the generation that lived through it and had a "terrific effect on American public life over the last half-century."
Abstract: The present historical moment may seem a particularly inopportune time to review Bowling Alone, Robert Putnam's latest exploration of civic decline in America. After all, the outpouring of volunteerism, solidarity, patriotism, and self-sacrifice displayed by Americans in the wake of the September 11 terrorist attacks appears to fly in the face of Putnam's central argument: that \"social capital\" -defined as \"social networks and the norms of reciprocity and trustworthiness that arise from them\" (p. 19)'has declined to dangerously low levels in America over the last three decades. However, Putnam is not fazed in the least by the recent effusion of solidarity. Quite the contrary, he sees in it the potential to \"reverse what has been a 30to 40-year steady decline in most measures of connectedness or community.\"' As an example of how the current \"war on terrorism\" could generate a durable civic renewal, Putnam points to the burst in civic practices that occurred during and after World War II, which he says \"permanently marked\" the generation that lived through it and had a \"terrific effect on American public life over the last half-century.\" 3 If Americans can follow this example and channel their current civic
19 Apr 2012
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors introduce concepts relevant to Information Behavior Models, Paradigms, and Theories in the study of Information Behavior Methods for Studying Information Behavior Research Results and Reflections.
Abstract: Abbreviated Contents Figures and Tables Preface Introduction and Examples Concepts Relevant to Information Behavior Models, Paradigms, and Theories in the Study of Information Behavior Methods for Studying Information Behavior Research Results and Reflections Appendix: Glossary Appendix: Questions for Discussion and Application References Index
TL;DR: A holistic view of the study of computer use by older adults is provided, which provides a synthesis of the findings across these many disciplines, and attempts to highlight any gaps that exist.
Abstract: As the populations of most of the world's developed nations experience an increase in average age, a similar trend is being observed in the population of computer and Internet users. In many cases, older adults are the fastest growing computer and Internet user group in both personal and workplace contexts. However, the needs and concerns of older adults as computer users differ from those of younger users as a result of the natural changes associated with the aging process. Much research has been conducted in a variety of fields in order to understand how these changes experienced by older adults impact their use of computers and the Internet. This article reviews this existing research and provides a holistic view of the field. Since the study of computer use by older adults is a multi-disciplinary topic by nature, we provide a synthesis of the findings across these many disciplines, and attempt to highlight any gaps that exist. We use Social Cognitive Theory as a lens to view and organize the literature, as well as illustrate means through which computer use by this user group can be encouraged. Finally, suggestions for future research are proposed, and implications for research and practice are discussed.
01 Jan 1995
TL;DR: Booth, Colomb and Williams as discussed by the authors presented a completely revised and updated version of their classic handbook, "The Craft of Research" for students and researchers to conduct research and report it effectively.
Abstract: Since 1995, more than 150,000 students and researchers have turned to "The Craft of Research" for clear and helpful guidance on how to conduct research and report it effectively. Now, master teachers Wayne C. Booth, Gregory G. Colomb and Joseph M. Williams present a completely revised and updated version of their classic handbook. Like its predecessor, this new edition reflects the way researchers actually work: in a complex circuit of thinking, writing, revising and rethinking. It shows how each part of this process influences the others and how a successful research report is an orchestrated conversation between a researcher and a reader. Along with many other topics, "The Craft of Research" explains how to build an argument that motivates readers to accept a claim; how to anticipate the reservations of thoughtful yet critical readers and to respond to them appropriately; and how to create introductions and conclusions that answer that most demanding question, "So what?" This popular book retains its five-part structure. Part 1 provides an orientation to the research process and begins the discussion of what motivates researchers and their readers. Part 2 focuses on finding a topic, planning the project and locating appropriate sources. This section is brought up to date with new information on the role of the Internet in research, including how to find and evaluate sources, avoid their misuse and test their reliability. Part 3 explains the art of making an argument and supporting it. The authors have extensively revised this section to present the structure of an argument in clearer and more accessible terms than in the first edition. New distinctions are made among "reasons", "evidence", and "reports of evidence". The concepts of "qualifications and rebuttals" are recast as "acknowledgement and response". Part 4 covers drafting and revising, and offers new information on the visual representation of data. Part 5 concludes the book with an updated discussion of the ethics of research, as well as an expanded bibliography that includes many electronic sources. The new edition retains the accessibility, insights and directness that have made "The Craft of Research" a useful guide for anyone doing research, from students in high school through advanced graduate study to business people and government employees. The authors demonstrate convincingly that researching and reporting skills can be learned and used by all who undertake research projects.
01 Apr 2004