Bio: Stephanie Mansourian is an academic researcher from Geneva College. The author has contributed to research in topics: Forest restoration & Forest management. The author has an hindex of 17, co-authored 27 publications receiving 1134 citations.
TL;DR: The interactions between faiths and protected areas are considered with respect to all 11 mainstream faiths and to a number of local belief systems, which offer major conservation opportunities, but also pose challenges.
Abstract: Most people follow and are influenced by some kind of spiritual faith. We examined two ways in which religious faiths can in turn influence biodiversity conservation in protected areas. First, biodiversity conservation is influenced through the direct and often effective protection afforded to wild species in sacred natural sites and in seminatural habitats around religious buildings. Sacred natural sites are almost certainly the world's oldest form of habitat protection. Although some sacred natural sites exist inside official protected areas, many thousands more form a largely unrecognized "shadow" conservation network in many countries throughout the world, which can be more stringently protected than state-run reserves. Second, faiths have a profound impact on attitudes to protection of the natural world through their philosophy, teachings, investment choices, approaches to land they control, and religious-based management systems. We considered the interactions between faiths and protected areas with respect to all 11 mainstream faiths and to a number of local belief systems. The close links between faiths and habitat protection offer major conservation opportunities, but also pose challenges. Bringing a sacred natural site into a national protected-area system can increase protection for the site, but may compromise some of its spiritual values or even its conservation values. Most protected-area managers are not trained to manage natural sites for religious purposes, but many sacred natural sites are under threat from cultural changes and habitat degradation. Decisions about whether or not to make a sacred natural site an "official" protected area therefore need to be made on a case-by-case basis. Such sites can play an important role in conservation inside and outside official protected areas. More information about the conservation value of sacred lands is needed as is more informed experience in integrating these into wider conservation strategies. In addition, many protected-area staff need training in how to manage sensitive issues relating to faiths where important faith sites occur in protected areas.
01 Jan 2005
TL;DR: Forest landscape restoration in context as mentioned in this paper is a strategy to contribute to ecoregion visions and why do we need to consider restoration in a landscape context?- Addressing trade-offs in forest landscape restoration.
Abstract: Forest landscape restoration in context.- Overview of forest restoration strategies and terms.- Impact of forest loss and degeneration on biodiversity.- The impacts of degradation and forest loss on human well-being and its social and political relevance for restoration.- Restoring forest landscapes in the face of climate change.- Restoration as a strategy to contribute to ecoregion visions.- Why do we need to consider restoration in a landscape context?- Addressing trade-offs in forest landscape restoration.- An attempt to develop a framework for restoration planning.- Assessing and addressing threats in restoration programmes.- Perverse policy incentives.- Land ownership and forest restoration.- Challenges for forest landscape restoration based on WWF's experience to date.- Goals and targets of forest landscape restoration.- Identifying and using reference landscapes for restoration.- Mapping and modelling as tools to set targets, identify opportunities and measure progress.- Policy intervention.
01 Jan 2010
18 May 2015
TL;DR: In this article, the authors propose a solution to solve the problem of "uniformity" and "uncertainty" in the context of video games.88.5.88
01 Jan 2005
TL;DR: The Forests for Life Programme as mentioned in this paper is a global network of more than 250 staff working on over 300 projects in nearly 90 coun-tries, supported by a core team based at WWF International in Switzerland.
Abstract: WWF’s vision for the forests of the world, shared with its long-standing partner, the World Conservation Union (IUCN), is that“the world will have more extensive, more diverse and higher-quality forest landscapes which will meet human needs and aspi-rations fairly,while conserving biological diversity and fulﬁlling theecosystem functions necessary for all life on Earth.”WWF’s approach to forest conservation has evolved over timeinto a global programme of integrated ﬁeld and policy activitiesaimed at the protection, responsible management, and restorationof forests, whilst at the same time working to address the keythreats which could potentially undermine these efforts. Those ofparticular concern to WWF are illegal logging and forest crime,conversion of forests to plantation crops of palm oil and soy, forestﬁres, and climate change.The Forests for Life Programme consists of a global network ofmore than 250 staff working on over 300 projects in nearly 90 coun-tries. Regional forest ofﬁcers coordinate efforts in each of the ﬁveregions, supported by a core team based at WWF International inSwitzerland. The programme also draws on the complementaryskills and support of partners to help achieve its goals.
01 Jan 2008
TL;DR: IUCN's Protected Areas Management Categories (PAMC) are recognized by international bodies such as the United Nations as well as many national governments as mentioned in this paper as the benchmark for defining, recording and classifying protected areas.
Abstract: IUCNs Protected Areas Management Categories, which classify protected areas according to their management objectives, are today accepted as the benchmark for defining, recording and classifying protected areas.They are recognized by international bodies such as the United Nations as well as many national governments. As a result, they are increasingly being incorporated into government legislation. These guidelines provide as much clarity as possible regarding the meaning and application of the Categories. They describe the definition of the Categories and discuss application in particular biomes and management approaches.
TL;DR: Despite continued forest conversion and degradation, forest cover is increasing in countries across the globe, and opportunities abound to combine ambitious forest restoration and regeneration goals with sustainable rural livelihoods and community participation.
Abstract: Despite continued forest conversion and degradation, forest cover is increasing in countries across the globe. New forests are regenerating on former agricultural land, and forest plantations are being established for commercial and restoration purposes. Plantations and restored forests can improve ecosystem services and enhance biodiversity conservation, but will not match the composition and structure of the original forest cover. Approaches to restoring forest ecosystems depend strongly on levels of forest and soil degradation, residual vegetation, and desired restoration outcomes. Opportunities abound to combine ambitious forest restoration and regeneration goals with sustainable rural livelihoods and community participation. New forests will require adaptive management as dynamic, resilient systems that can withstand stresses of climate change, habitat fragmentation, and other anthropogenic effects.
University of Arizona1, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna2, Resources For The Future3, University of British Columbia4, Portland State University5, Stockholm University6, University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign7, United States Department of Agriculture8, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne9, Indiana University10, University of Oregon11, University of East Anglia12, Ukrainian National Forestry University13, VU University Amsterdam14
TL;DR: A common representation is offered that frames cultural services, along with all ES, by the relative contribution of relevant ecological structures and functions and by applicable social evaluation approaches, which provides a foundation for merging ecological and social science epistemologies to define and integrate cultural services better within the broader ES framework.
Abstract: Cultural ecosystem services (ES) are consistently recognized but not yet adequately defined or integrated within the ES framework. A substantial body of models, methods, and data relevant to cultural services has been developed within the social and behavioral sciences before and outside of the ES approach. A selective review of work in landscape aesthetics, cultural heritage, outdoor recreation, and spiritual significance demonstrates opportunities for operationally defining cultural services in terms of socioecological models, consistent with the larger set of ES. Such models explicitly link ecological structures and functions with cultural values and benefits, facilitating communication between scientists and stakeholders and enabling economic, multicriterion, deliberative evaluation and other methods that can clarify tradeoffs and synergies involving cultural ES. Based on this approach, a common representation is offered that frames cultural services, along with all ES, by the relative contribution of relevant ecological structures and functions and by applicable social evaluation approaches. This perspective provides a foundation for merging ecological and social science epistemologies to define and integrate cultural services better within the broader ES framework.