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Author

Stephen B. Weinstein

Other affiliations: Bell Labs
Bio: Stephen B. Weinstein is an academic researcher from Telcordia Technologies. The author has contributed to research in topic(s): Adaptive equalizer & Data transmission. The author has an hindex of 16, co-authored 38 publication(s) receiving 4651 citation(s). Previous affiliations of Stephen B. Weinstein include Bell Labs.
Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The Fourier transform data communication system is described and the effects of linear channel distortion are investigated and a differential phase modulation scheme is presented that obviates any equalization.
Abstract: The Fourier transform data communication system is a realization of frequency-division multiplexing (FDM) in which discrete Fourier transforms are computed as part of the modulation and demodulation processes. In addition to eliminating the bunks of subcarrier oscillators and coherent demodulators usually required in FDM systems, a completely digital implementation can be built around a special-purpose computer performing the fast Fourier transform. In this paper, the system is described and the effects of linear channel distortion are investigated. Signal design criteria and equalization algorithms are derived and explained. A differential phase modulation scheme is presented that obviates any equalization.

2,446 citations


Patent
02 Feb 1994-
Abstract: A store-and-forward architecture which stores and distributes information programs to subscribers includes: information warehouses which archive information programs and dispense information programs in segments to central offices in bursts; central offices which manage subscriber's requests for service and buffer segments of information programs for delivery to subscribers in real-time under the subscriber's interactive control; and customer premises equipment. The central offices employ CO buffers, and each CO buffer includes: processors (402, 405), for administering internal buffer operations and processing subscribers requests based upon the service presentation script and a program presentation map; interfaces (43, 46) for providing external access; busses (411, 412) for internal transport; buffer storage (403, 404) for storing segments of information programs; and memory storage (407, 413) for storing the script and map.

464 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper an asymptotic (large signal-to-noise ratio) expression is derived for the error rate and it is rigorously proved in the Appendix that the optimum constellations tend toward an equilateral structure, and become uniformly distributed in a circle.
Abstract: A considerable amount of literature exists on the problem of selecting an efficient set of N digital signals with in-phase and quadrature components for use in a suppressed carrier data transmission system. However, the signal constellation which minimizes the probability of error in Gaussian noise, under an average power constraint, has not been determined when the number of signals is greater than two. In this paper an asymptotic (large signal-to-noise ratio) expression, of the minimum distance type, is derived for the error rate. Using this expression, a gradient-search procedure, which is initiated from several randomly chosen N -point arrays, converges in each case to a locally optimum constellation. The algorithm incorporates a radial contraction technique to meet the average signal power constraint. The best solutions are described for several values of N and compared with well-known signal formats. As an example, the best locally optimum 16-point constellation shows an advantage of about 0.5 dB in signal-signal-to-noise ratio over quadrature amplitude modulation. The locally optimum constellations are the vertices of a trellis of (almost) equilateral triangles. As N \rightarrow \infty , it is rigorously proved in the Appendix that the optimum constellations tend toward an equilateral structure, and become uniformly distributed in a circle.

328 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The performance improvement of voice-grade modems which use a Fractionally-Spaced Equalizer (FSE) instead of a conventional synchronous equalizer is described and demonstrated, via analysis and simulation.
Abstract: Here we describe and demonstrate, via analysis and simulation, the performance improvement of voice-grade modems which use a Fractionally-Spaced Equalizer (FSE) instead of a conventional synchronous equalizer. The reason for this superior performance is that the fse adoptively realizes the optimum linear receiver; consequently it can effectively compensate for more severe delay distortion than the conventional adaptive equalizer, which suffers from aliasing effects. An additional advantage of the FSE is that data transmission can begin with an arbitrary sampling phase, since the equalizer synthesizes the correct delay during adaptation. We show that an FSE combined with a decision feedback section, which can mitigate the effect of severe amplitude distortion, can compensate for a wide range of linear distortion. At 9.6 kbit/s, the FSE provides a 2 to 3 dB gain in output signal-to-noise ratio, relative to the synchronous equalizer, over worst-case private-line channels. This translates to a theoretical improvement of approximately two orders of magnitude in bit error rate.

267 citations


Book
27 Sep 2012-
TL;DR: Theoretical Foundations of Digital Communications: Error Correcting and Detecting Codes, Automatic and Adaptive Equalization, and Echo Cancellation.
Abstract: Introduction to Data Communications. Theoretical Foundations of Digital Communications. Error Correcting and Detecting Codes. Baseband Pulse Transmission. Passband Data Transmission. Synchronization. Optimum Data Transmission. Automatic and Adaptive Equalization. Echo Cancellation. Topics in Digital Communications. Index.

204 citations


Cited by
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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: This paper is motivated by the need for fundamental understanding of ultimate limits of bandwidth efficient delivery of higher bit-rates in digital wireless communications and to also begin to look into how these limits might be approached. We examine exploitation of multi-element array (MEA) technology, that is processing the spatial dimension (not just the time dimension) to improve wireless capacities in certain applications. Specifically, we present some basic information theory results that promise great advantages of using MEAs in wireless LANs and building to building wireless communication links. We explore the important case when the channel characteristic is not available at the transmitter but the receiver knows (tracks) the characteristic which is subject to Rayleigh fading. Fixing the overall transmitted power, we express the capacity offered by MEA technology and we see how the capacity scales with increasing SNR for a large but practical number, n, of antenna elements at both transmitter and receiver. We investigate the case of independent Rayleigh faded paths between antenna elements and find that with high probability extraordinary capacity is available. Compared to the baseline n = 1 case, which by Shannon‘s classical formula scales as one more bit/cycle for every 3 dB of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) increase, remarkably with MEAs, the scaling is almost like n more bits/cycle for each 3 dB increase in SNR. To illustrate how great this capacity is, even for small n, take the cases n = 2, 4 and 16 at an average received SNR of 21 dB. For over 99% of the channels the capacity is about 7, 19 and 88 bits/cycle respectively, while if n = 1 there is only about 1.2 bit/cycle at the 99% level. For say a symbol rate equal to the channel bandwith, since it is the bits/symbol/dimension that is relevant for signal constellations, these higher capacities are not unreasonable. The 19 bits/cycle for n = 4 amounts to 4.75 bits/symbol/dimension while 88 bits/cycle for n = 16 amounts to 5.5 bits/symbol/dimension. Standard approaches such as selection and optimum combining are seen to be deficient when compared to what will ultimately be possible. New codecs need to be invented to realize a hefty portion of the great capacity promised.

10,358 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The general technique of parallel transmission on many carriers, called multicarrier modulation (MCM), is explained, and the performance that can be achieved on an undistorted channel and algorithms for achieving that performance are discussed.
Abstract: The general technique of parallel transmission on many carriers, called multicarrier modulation (MCM), is explained. The performance that can be achieved on an undistorted channel and algorithms for achieving that performance are discussed. Ways of dealing with channel impairments and of improving the performance through coding are described, and implementation methods are considered. Duplex operation of MCM and the possible use of this on the general switched telephone network are examined. >

3,961 citations


Book
31 Aug 1994-
TL;DR: The use of infrared radiation as a medium for high-speed short-range wireless digital communication, and several modification formats, including on-off keying (OOK), pulse-position modulation (PPM), and subcarrier modulation, are discussed.
Abstract: The use of infrared radiation as a medium for high-speed short-range wireless digital communication is discussed. Available infrared links and local-area networks are described. Advantages and drawbacks of the infrared medium are compared to those of radio and microwave media. The physical characteristics of infrared channels using intensity modulation with direct detection (IM/DD) are presented including path losses and multipath responses. Natural and artificial ambient infrared noise sources are characterized. Strategies for designs of transmitter and receivers that maximize link signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) are described. Several modification formats are discussed in detail, including on-off keying (OOK) pulse-position modulation (PPM), and subcarrier modulation. The performance of these techniques in the presence of multipath distortion is quantified. Techniques for multiplexing the transmissions of different users are reviewed. The performance of an experimental 50-Mb/s on-off-keyed diffuse infrared link is described.

2,777 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
D. Godard1
TL;DR: This paper solves the general problem of adaptive channel equalization without resorting to a known training sequence or to conditions of limited distortion.
Abstract: Conventional equalization and carrier recovery algorithms for minimizing mean-square error in digital communication systems generally require an initial training period during which a known data sequence is transmitted and properly synchronized at the receiver. This paper solves the general problem of adaptive channel equalization without resorting to a known training sequence or to conditions of limited distortion. The criterion for equalizer adaptation is the minimization of a new class of nonconvex cost functions which are shown to characterize intersymbol interference independently of carrier phase and of the data symbol constellation used in the transmission system. Equalizer convergence does not require carrier recovery, so that carrier phase tracking can be carried out at the equalizer output in a decision-directed mode. The convergence properties of the self-recovering algorithms are analyzed mathematically and confirmed by computer simulation.

2,608 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Jr. L.J. Cimini1
TL;DR: The analysis and simulation of a technique for combating the effects of multipath propagation and cochannel interference on a narrow-band digital mobile channel using the discrete Fourier transform to orthogonally frequency multiplex many narrow subchannels, each signaling at a very low rate, into one high-rate channel is discussed.
Abstract: This paper discusses the analysis and simulation of a technique for combating the effects of multipath propagation and cochannel interference on a narrow-band digital mobile channel. This system uses the discrete Fourier transform to orthogonally frequency multiplex many narrow subchannels, each signaling at a very low rate, into one high-rate channel. When this technique is used with pilot-based correction, the effects of flat Rayleigh fading can be reduced significantly. An improvement in signal-to-interference ratio of 6 dB can be obtained over the bursty Rayleigh channel. In addition, with each subchannel signaling at a low rate, this technique can provide added protection against delay spread. To enhance the behavior of the technique in a heavily frequency-selective environment, interpolated pilots are used. A frequency offset reference scheme is employed for the pilots to improve protection against cochannel interference.

2,573 citations


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Performance
Metrics

Author's H-index: 16

No. of papers from the Author in previous years
YearPapers
20121
20091
19942
19929
19871
19841

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Author's top 3 most impactful journals

IEEE Transactions on Communications

7 papers, 2.8K citations

Bell System Technical Journal

3 papers, 526 citations