Stephen J. Pearton
Other affiliations: Kyungpook National University, University of Southern California, Chonbuk National University ...read more
Bio: Stephen J. Pearton is an academic researcher from University of Florida. The author has contributed to research in topic(s): Dry etching & Etching (microfabrication). The author has an hindex of 104, co-authored 1913 publication(s) receiving 58669 citation(s). Previous affiliations of Stephen J. Pearton include Kyungpook National University & University of Southern California.
Papers published on a yearly basis
14 Jun 1999-Journal of Applied Physics
TL;DR: The role of extended and point defects, and key impurities such as C, O, and H, on the electrical and optical properties of GaN is reviewed in this article, along with the influence of process-induced or grown-in defects and impurities on the device physics.
Abstract: The role of extended and point defects, and key impurities such as C, O, and H, on the electrical and optical properties of GaN is reviewed. Recent progress in the development of high reliability contacts, thermal processing, dry and wet etching techniques, implantation doping and isolation, and gate insulator technology is detailed. Finally, the performance of GaN-based electronic and photonic devices such as field effect transistors, UV detectors, laser diodes, and light-emitting diodes is covered, along with the influence of process-induced or grown-in defects and impurities on the device physics.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors summarize recent progress in doping control, materials processing methods such as dry etching and Ohmic and Schottky contact formation, new understanding of the role of hydrogen and finally the prospects for control of ferromagnetism in transition-metal doped ZnO.
Abstract: ZnO is attracting considerable attention for its possible application to UV light emitters, spin functional devices, gas sensors, transparent electronics and surface acoustic wave devices. There is also interest in integrating ZnO with other wide bandgap ceramic semiconductors such as the AlInGaN system. In this paper we summarize recent progress in doping control, materials processing methods such as dry etching and Ohmic and Schottky contact formation, new understanding of the role of hydrogen and finally the prospects for control of ferromagnetism in transition-metal doped ZnO.
20 Jan 1992-Applied Physics Letters
TL;DR: In this paper, a new microlaser design based on the highreflectivity whisperinggallery modes around the edge of a thin semiconductor microdisk is described and initial experimental results are presented.
Abstract: A new microlaser design based on the high‐reflectivity whispering‐gallery modes around the edge of a thin semiconductor microdisk is described and initial experimental results are presented. Optical confinement within the thin disk plane results in a microresonator with potential for single‐mode, ultralow threshold lasers. Initial experiments use selective etching techniques in the InP/InGaAsP system to achieve 3–10 μm diameter disks as thin as 500 A suspended in air or SiO2 on an InP pedestal. Optically pumped InGaAs quantum wells provide sufficient gain when cooled with liquid nitrogen to obtain single‐mode lasing at 1.3 and 1.5 μm wavelengths with threshold pump powers below 100 μW.
01 Jan 2003-Journal of Applied Physics
TL;DR: In this paper, a review focusing on promising candidate materials (such as GaN, GaP and ZnO) is presented, where the introduction of Mn into these and other materials under the right conditions is found to produce ferromagnetism near or above room temperature.
Abstract: Recent advances in the theory and experimental realization of ferromagnetic semiconductors give hope that a new generation of microelectronic devices based on the spin degree of freedom of the electron can be developed. This review focuses primarily on promising candidate materials (such as GaN, GaP and ZnO) in which there is already a technology base and a fairly good understanding of the basic electrical and optical properties. The introduction of Mn into these and other materials under the right conditions is found to produce ferromagnetism near or above room temperature. There are a number of other potential dopant ions that could be employed (such as Fe, Ni, Co, Cr) as suggested by theory [see, for example, Sato and Katayama-Yoshida, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 2 39, L555 (2000)]. Growth of these ferromagnetic materials by thin film techniques, such as molecular beam epitaxy or pulsed laser deposition, provides excellent control of the dopant concentration and the ability to grow single-phase layers. T...
11 Jan 2018-Applied physics reviews
TL;DR: The role of defects and impurities on the transport and optical properties of bulk, epitaxial, and nanostructures material, the difficulty in p-type doping, and the development of processing techniques like etching, contact formation, dielectrics for gate formation, and passivation are discussed in this article.
Abstract: Gallium oxide (Ga2O3) is emerging as a viable candidate for certain classes of power electronics, solar blind UV photodetectors, solar cells, and sensors with capabilities beyond existing technologies due to its large bandgap. It is usually reported that there are five different polymorphs of Ga2O3, namely, the monoclinic (β-Ga2O3), rhombohedral (α), defective spinel (γ), cubic (δ), or orthorhombic (e) structures. Of these, the β-polymorph is the stable form under normal conditions and has been the most widely studied and utilized. Since melt growth techniques can be used to grow bulk crystals of β-GaO3, the cost of producing larger area, uniform substrates is potentially lower compared to the vapor growth techniques used to manufacture bulk crystals of GaN and SiC. The performance of technologically important high voltage rectifiers and enhancement-mode Metal-Oxide Field Effect Transistors benefit from the larger critical electric field of β-Ga2O3 relative to either SiC or GaN. However, the absence of clear demonstrations of p-type doping in Ga2O3, which may be a fundamental issue resulting from the band structure, makes it very difficult to simultaneously achieve low turn-on voltages and ultra-high breakdown. The purpose of this review is to summarize recent advances in the growth, processing, and device performance of the most widely studied polymorph, β-Ga2O3. The role of defects and impurities on the transport and optical properties of bulk, epitaxial, and nanostructures material, the difficulty in p-type doping, and the development of processing techniques like etching, contact formation, dielectrics for gate formation, and passivation are discussed. Areas where continued development is needed to fully exploit the properties of Ga2O3 are identified.
30 Aug 2005-Journal of Applied Physics
TL;DR: The semiconductor ZnO has gained substantial interest in the research community in part because of its large exciton binding energy (60meV) which could lead to lasing action based on exciton recombination even above room temperature.
Abstract: The semiconductor ZnO has gained substantial interest in the research community in part because of its large exciton binding energy (60meV) which could lead to lasing action based on exciton recombination even above room temperature. Even though research focusing on ZnO goes back many decades, the renewed interest is fueled by availability of high-quality substrates and reports of p-type conduction and ferromagnetic behavior when doped with transitions metals, both of which remain controversial. It is this renewed interest in ZnO which forms the basis of this review. As mentioned already, ZnO is not new to the semiconductor field, with studies of its lattice parameter dating back to 1935 by Bunn [Proc. Phys. Soc. London 47, 836 (1935)], studies of its vibrational properties with Raman scattering in 1966 by Damen et al. [Phys. Rev. 142, 570 (1966)], detailed optical studies in 1954 by Mollwo [Z. Angew. Phys. 6, 257 (1954)], and its growth by chemical-vapor transport in 1970 by Galli and Coker [Appl. Phys. ...
23 Apr 2004-Reviews of Modern Physics
TL;DR: Spintronics, or spin electronics, involves the study of active control and manipulation of spin degrees of freedom in solid-state systems as discussed by the authors, where the primary focus is on the basic physical principles underlying the generation of carrier spin polarization, spin dynamics, and spin-polarized transport.
Abstract: Spintronics, or spin electronics, involves the study of active control and manipulation of spin degrees of freedom in solid-state systems. This article reviews the current status of this subject, including both recent advances and well-established results. The primary focus is on the basic physical principles underlying the generation of carrier spin polarization, spin dynamics, and spin-polarized transport in semiconductors and metals. Spin transport differs from charge transport in that spin is a nonconserved quantity in solids due to spin-orbit and hyperfine coupling. The authors discuss in detail spin decoherence mechanisms in metals and semiconductors. Various theories of spin injection and spin-polarized transport are applied to hybrid structures relevant to spin-based devices and fundamental studies of materials properties. Experimental work is reviewed with the emphasis on projected applications, in which external electric and magnetic fields and illumination by light will be used to control spin and charge dynamics to create new functionalities not feasible or ineffective with conventional electronics.
04 Jan 2012-Chemical Society Reviews
TL;DR: A critical review of the synthesis methods for graphene and its derivatives as well as their properties and the advantages of graphene-based composites in applications such as the Li-ion batteries, supercapacitors, fuel cells, photovoltaic devices, photocatalysis, and Raman enhancement are described.
Abstract: Graphene has attracted tremendous research interest in recent years, owing to its exceptional properties. The scaled-up and reliable production of graphene derivatives, such as graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO), offers a wide range of possibilities to synthesize graphene-based functional materials for various applications. This critical review presents and discusses the current development of graphene-based composites. After introduction of the synthesis methods for graphene and its derivatives as well as their properties, we focus on the description of various methods to synthesize graphene-based composites, especially those with functional polymers and inorganic nanostructures. Particular emphasis is placed on strategies for the optimization of composite properties. Lastly, the advantages of graphene-based composites in applications such as the Li-ion batteries, supercapacitors, fuel cells, photovoltaic devices, photocatalysis, as well as Raman enhancement are described (279 references).
TL;DR: In this article, the status of zinc oxide as a semiconductor is discussed and the role of impurities and defects in the electrical conductivity of ZnO is discussed, as well as the possible causes of unintentional n-type conductivity.
Abstract: In the past ten years we have witnessed a revival of, and subsequent rapid expansion in, the research on zinc oxide (ZnO) as a semiconductor. Being initially considered as a substrate for GaN and related alloys, the availability of high-quality large bulk single crystals, the strong luminescence demonstrated in optically pumped lasers and the prospects of gaining control over its electrical conductivity have led a large number of groups to turn their research for electronic and photonic devices to ZnO in its own right. The high electron mobility, high thermal conductivity, wide and direct band gap and large exciton binding energy make ZnO suitable for a wide range of devices, including transparent thin-film transistors, photodetectors, light-emitting diodes and laser diodes that operate in the blue and ultraviolet region of the spectrum. In spite of the recent rapid developments, controlling the electrical conductivity of ZnO has remained a major challenge. While a number of research groups have reported achieving p-type ZnO, there are still problems concerning the reproducibility of the results and the stability of the p-type conductivity. Even the cause of the commonly observed unintentional n-type conductivity in as-grown ZnO is still under debate. One approach to address these issues consists of growing high-quality single crystalline bulk and thin films in which the concentrations of impurities and intrinsic defects are controlled. In this review we discuss the status of ZnO as a semiconductor. We first discuss the growth of bulk and epitaxial films, growth conditions and their influence on the incorporation of native defects and impurities. We then present the theory of doping and native defects in ZnO based on density-functional calculations, discussing the stability and electronic structure of native point defects and impurities and their influence on the electrical conductivity and optical properties of ZnO. We pay special attention to the possible causes of the unintentional n-type conductivity, emphasize the role of impurities, critically review the current status of p-type doping and address possible routes to controlling the electrical conductivity in ZnO. Finally, we discuss band-gap engineering using MgZnO and CdZnO alloys.