scispace - formally typeset
Search or ask a question
Author

Stephen McAdams

Other affiliations: IRCAM, Paris Descartes University, Stanford University  ...read more
Bio: Stephen McAdams is an academic researcher from McGill University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Timbre & Music psychology. The author has an hindex of 53, co-authored 264 publications receiving 8439 citations. Previous affiliations of Stephen McAdams include IRCAM & Paris Descartes University.


Papers
More filters
Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The model with latent classes and specificities gave a better fit to the data and made the acoustic correlates of the common dimensions more interpretable, suggesting that musical timbres possess specific attributes not accounted for by these shared perceptual dimensions.
Abstract: To study the perceptual structure of musical timbre and the effects of musical training, timbral dissimilarities of synthesized instrument sounds were rated by professional musicians, amateur musicians, and nonmusicians The data were analyzed with an extended version of the multidimensional scaling algorithm CLASCAL (Winsberg & De Soete, 1993), which estimates the number of latent classes of subjects, the coordinates of each timbre on common Euclidean dimensions, a specificity value of unique attributes for each timbre, and a separate weight for each latent class on each of the common dimensions and the set of specificities Five latent classes were found for a three-dimensional spatial model with specificities Common dimensions were quantified psychophysically in terms of log-rise time, spectral centroid, and degree of spectral variation The results further suggest that musical timbres possess specific attributes not accounted for by these shared perceptual dimensions Weight patterns indicate that perceptual salience of dimensions and specificities varied across classes A comparison of class structure with biographical factors associated with degree of musical training and activity was not clearly related to the class structure, though musicians gave more precise and coherent judgments than did nonmusicians or amateurs The model with latent classes and specificities gave a better fit to the data and made the acoustic correlates of the common dimensions more interpretable

599 citations

MonographDOI
01 Apr 1993
TL;DR: In this paper, the role of temporal organization of sound sources and events in human auditory cognition has been discussed, and Isabelle Peretz contributions of music to research on auditory cognition have been discussed.
Abstract: Introduction to auditory cognition, Stephen McAdams and Emmanuel Bigand auditory scene analysis, Albert S. Bregman perception of acoustic sequences - global integration versus temporal resolution, Richard Warren attending to auditory events - the role of temporal organization, Mari Riess Jones and William Yee auditory memory, Robert Crowder recognition of sound sources and events, Stephen McAdams auditory agnosia - a functional analysis, Isabelle Peretz contributions of music to research on human auditory cognition, Emmanuel Bigand listening strategies in infancy - the roots of music and language development, Sandra E. Trehub and Laurel J. Trainor.

341 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This analysis suggests ten classes of relatively independent audio descriptors, showing that the Timbre Toolbox is a multidimensional instrument for the measurement of the acoustical structure of complex sound signals.
Abstract: The analysis of musical signals to extract audio descriptors that can potentially characterize their timbre has been disparate and often too focused on a particular small set of sounds. The Timbre Toolbox provides a comprehensive set of descriptors that can be useful in perceptual research, as well as in music information retrieval and machine-learning approaches to content-based retrieval in large sound databases. Sound events are first analyzed in terms of various input representations (short-term Fourier transform, harmonic sinusoidal components, an auditory model based on the equivalent rectangular bandwidth concept, the energy envelope). A large number of audio descriptors are then derived from each of these representations to capture temporal, spectral, spectrotemporal, and energetic properties of the sound events. Some descriptors are global, providing a single value for the whole sound event, whereas others are time-varying. Robust descriptive statistics are used to characterize the time-varying descriptors. To examine the information redundancy across audio descriptors, correlational analysis followed by hierarchical clustering is performed. This analysis suggests ten classes of relatively independent audio descriptors, showing that the Timbre Toolbox is a multidimensional instrument for the measurement of the acoustical structure of complex sound signals.

309 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Listeners presented with carefully controlled synthetic tones use attack time, spectral centroid, and spectrum fine structure in dissimilarity rating experiments, and spectral flux appears as a less salient timbre parameter, its salience depending on the number of other dimensions varying concurrently in the stimulus set.
Abstract: Timbre spaces represent the organization of perceptual distances, as measured with dissimilarity ratings, among tones equated for pitch, loudness, and perceived duration. A number of potential acoustic correlates of timbre-space dimensions have been proposed in the psychoacoustic literature, including attack time, spectral centroid, spectral flux, and spectrum fine structure. The experiments reported here were designed as direct tests of the perceptual relevance of these acoustical parameters for timbre dissimilarity judgments. Listeners presented with carefully controlled synthetic tones use attack time, spectral centroid, and spectrum fine structure in dissimilarity rating experiments. These parameters thus appear as major determinants of timbre. However, spectral flux appears as a less salient timbre parameter, its salience depending on the number of other dimensions varying concurrently in the stimulus set. Dissimilarity ratings were analyzed with two different multidimensional scaling models (CLASCAL and CONSCAL), the latter providing psychophysical functions constrained by the physical parameters. Their complementarity is discussed.

240 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: For instance, the authors found that negative news elicits stronger and more sustained reactions than does positive news, and that negative information plays a greater role in voting behavior than positive news.
Abstract: Work in political communication has discussed the ongoing predominance of negative news, but has offered few convincing accounts for this focus. A growing body of lit- erature shows that humans regularly pay more attention to negative information than to positive information, however. This article argues that we should view the nature of news content in part as a consequence of this asymmetry bias observed in human behavior. A psychophysiological experiment capturing viewers' reactions to actual news content shows that negative news elicits stronger and more sustained reactions than does positive news. Results are discussed as they pertain to political behavior and communication, and to politics and political institutions more generally. News content is dominated by the negative. Consider the well-known phrases "If it bleeds, it leads" or "No news is good news." Or simply consider any recent newspaper or televi- sion news broadcast. That news tends to be negative is clear enough to any regular news consumer. Political news is of course no exception. And an increasing body of work in political science suggests that this negative information may matter a great deal. Research suggests asymmetry in responses to negative versus positive information, across a wide range of domains. There is evidence that negative information plays a greater role in voting behavior, for instance; that U.S. presidents are penalized electorally for negative economic trends but reap few electoral benefits from positive trends; asymmetries have been identified in the formation of more general impressions of U.S. presidential candidates and parties; and the significance of negativity has been examined as it relates to the effects of negative campaigning, and declining trust in governments. 1 Why is there such an emphasis on negative information in mass media, and in politi- cal communications and politics more generally? This article explores one likely answer to this question. The paper reports findings from a lab experiment in which participants view a selection of real television news stories while we monitor a number of physiological indica- tors, including heart rate and skin conductance. Results confirm that negative information produces a much stronger psychophysiological response than does positive information;

231 citations


Cited by
More filters
01 Jan 1964
TL;DR: In this paper, the notion of a collective unconscious was introduced as a theory of remembering in social psychology, and a study of remembering as a study in Social Psychology was carried out.
Abstract: Part I. Experimental Studies: 2. Experiment in psychology 3. Experiments on perceiving III Experiments on imaging 4-8. Experiments on remembering: (a) The method of description (b) The method of repeated reproduction (c) The method of picture writing (d) The method of serial reproduction (e) The method of serial reproduction picture material 9. Perceiving, recognizing, remembering 10. A theory of remembering 11. Images and their functions 12. Meaning Part II. Remembering as a Study in Social Psychology: 13. Social psychology 14. Social psychology and the matter of recall 15. Social psychology and the manner of recall 16. Conventionalism 17. The notion of a collective unconscious 18. The basis of social recall 19. A summary and some conclusions.

5,690 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors develop a novel theoretical framework to explain cross-language data, which they label a psycholinguistic grain size theory of reading and its development.
Abstract: The development of reading depends on phonological awareness across all languages so far studied. Languages vary in the consistency with which phonology is represented in orthography. This results in developmental differences in the grain size of lexical representations and accompanying differences in developmental reading strategies and the manifestation of dyslexia across orthographies. Differences in lexical representations and reading across languages leave developmental “footprints” in the adult lexicon. The lexical organization and processing strategies that are characteristic of skilled reading in different orthographies are affected by different developmental constraints in different writing systems. The authors develop a novel theoretical framework to explain these cross-language data, which they label a psycholinguistic grain size theory of reading and its development.

2,437 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The mismatch negativity (MMN) enables one to establish the brain processes underlying the initiation of attention switch to, conscious perception of, sound change in an unattended stimulus stream.

2,104 citations

01 Jan 2007
TL;DR: In this article, the basic research using the mismatch negativity (MMN) and analogous results obtained by using the magnetoencephalography (MEG) and other brain-imaging technologies is reviewed.
Abstract: In the present article, the basic research using the mismatch negativity (MMN) and analogous results obtained by using the magnetoencephalography (MEG) and other brain-imaging technologies is reviewed. This response is elicited by any discriminable change in auditory stimulation but recent studies extended the notion of the MMN even to higher-order cognitive processes such as those involving grammar and semantic meaning. Moreover, MMN data also show the presence of automatic intelligent processes such as stimulus anticipation at the level of auditory cortex. In addition, the MMN enables one to establish the brain processes underlying the initiation of attention switch to, conscious perception of, sound change in an unattended stimulus stream. 2007 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

1,994 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The problem of which cues, internal or external, permit a person to label and identify his own emotional state has been with us since the days that James first tendered his doctrine that "the bodily changes follow directly the perception of the exciting fact".
Abstract: The problem of which cues, internal or external, permit a person to label and identify his own emotional state has been with us since the days that James (1890) first tendered his doctrine that \"the bodily changes follow directly the perception of the exciting fact, and that our feeling of the same changes as they occur is the emotion\" (p. 449). Since we are aware of a variety of feeling and emotion states, it should follow from James' proposition that the various emotions will be accompanied by a variety of differentiable bodily states. Following James' pronouncement, a formidable number of studies were undertaken in search of the physiological differentiators of the emotions. The results, in these early days, were almost uniformly negative. All of the emotional states experi-

1,828 citations