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Stephen White

Bio: Stephen White is an academic researcher from Cardiff University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Diminished responsibility & Queen (playing card). The author has an hindex of 5, co-authored 14 publications receiving 88 citations. Previous affiliations of Stephen White include University of Southampton & University of Wales.

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TL;DR: The Cremation Society of England as mentioned in this paper was concerned to appear respectable and was unwilling to take the risks involved in testing the law, and neither of these risks was taken by the Society.
Abstract: For more than 1000 years before the 19th century burial was the conventionally respectful way of dealing with dead bodies in Christian Europe. From the moment in 1874 when it was founded to replace burial by cremation, the Cremation Society of England was always concerned to appear respectable. Although it was not clear that cremation was lawful, it was far from certain that it was illegal—indeed the Society received legal advice that cremation could be conducted lawfully. One consequence of the Society's concern for respectability, however, was that it was unwilling to take the risks involved in testing the law. It wanted legislation expressly permitting cremation or assurances from the Home Office that it would not be prosecuted should it carry out a cremation. Neither were forthcoming. A single adverse judicial precedent would be a great impediment to the Society, but since it was not prepared to force the issue, it was not able to shape the contexts in which judicial precedents might be created. In th...

12 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The appearance of Barry's compelling biography of Alexander Maconochie in 1958 made for a reexamination of the place conventionally accorded to Macanochie in the history of penal institutions, and the effect was to rectify a considerable injustice symbolized in the omission of an entry for him in the Dictionary of National Biography.
Abstract: The appearance of Barry's compelling biography of Alexander Maconochie in 1958,1 a foretaste of which had appeared in an article in the Journal, 2 made for a reexamination of the place conventionally accorded to Maconochie in the history of penal institutions. Among Englishmen and Australians the effect was, as Barry had intended, to rectify a considerable injustice symbolized in the omission of an entry for Maconochie in the Dictionary of National Biography. To penologists in America, on the other hand, and to a few in England, Maconochie had always appeared a person of significance. Some had even overrated his importance, especially in the history of systems of what we now call parole. It is difficult to say why American penologists came to do this. While it is certainly true that they were wrong to assume that the origins of parole could not be traced back beyond the system of tickets-ofleave developed by colonial administrators in the British penal colonies in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries,' it is also true that the ticket-ofleave represented a very important stage in the development of the idea of parole. Early writings about parole contained errors about the chronology of the development of tickets-of-leave, ' and about the timing7 and extent 8 of Maconochie's administration in Australia, but none of the writings examined conta n n suggestions that Maconochie contributed to the development of systems of parole. In 1927, however, Witmer could refer to a custom then p va ling of crediting Maconochie with being the "originator of the system in Australia," 9 although she expressed some doubt about the validity of this view. In the Attorney-General's Survey of Release Pro edures Maconochie, although stated definitely not to have been the inventor of tickets-of-leave, is given "c ief credit for developing an early parole system"1' in that he provided a transitional stage between captivity and complete freedom. ' Probably the most influential dicta in consolidating what might be called the conventional view of Maconochie's part in the development of parole were those of Barnes and Teeters. In each of the editions of their New Horizons in Criminology they refer to Ma-

7 citations


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TL;DR: In this paper, four traditional aims of the probation service are identified: provision of appropriate help for offenders, statutory supervision of offenders, diverting appropriate offenders from custodial sentences, and reduction of crime.
Abstract: Empirical and theoretical critiques of treatment can no longer be ignored in probation practice, but the probation service's traditional core values of respect for persons and hope for the future can be realized in a non-treatment context. Four traditional aims of the probation service are identified, namely (i) the provision of appropriate help for offenders; (ii) the statutory supervision of offenders; (iii) diverting appropriate offenders from custodial sen tences; (iv) the reduction of crime. It is argued that each of these aims remains worth pursuing, but that they need radical reconceptuaiization in the light of the collapse of treatment. A paradigm for practice in respect of each aim is offered for criticism and comment.

164 citations

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TL;DR: The authors argue that the sense of presence does not occur at a single stage of bereavement and that it lasts for much longer than the literature has previously suggested, and they also look at some of the ways these sorts of experiences have been commo...
Abstract: It is very common for newly bereaved people to hold on to their spouse's possessions, and talk to photographs of them, or to feel that they are still communicating with them. A post-bereavement experience that encapsulates these themes, providing closeness, communication, and the continuation of an important relationship, is the sense of the dead person's presence. At its weakest this is a feeling that one is somehow being watched; at its strongest it is a full-blown sensory experience. This experience has over the past 50 years become well documented in medical, counselling and psychological literature. Our discussion is based on two empirical studies undertaken roughly 15 years apart, and it leads us to challenge some assumptions found in the literature. We argue, for example, that the sense of presence does not occur at a single stage of bereavement and that it lasts for much longer than the literature has previously suggested. We also look at some of the ways these sorts of experiences have been commo...

117 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors explored the efforts of the Police Court Mission in the courts of summary jurisdiction, and explained how it was possible for the missionaries to be absorbed into the probation system, and for their religious ideals to yield, eventually, to the radically different philosophy of the aspiring, "scientific" social work diagnosticians.
Abstract: This essay explores the efforts of the Police Court Mission in the courts of summary jurisdiction. For 60 years, in an age which accorded ever-increasing importance to the methods of science, the missionaries held firmly to a religious philosophy, distinctively their own. This paper attempts to explain how it was possible for the missionaries to be absorbed into the probation system, and for their religious ideals to yield, eventually, to the radically different philosophy of the aspiring, “scientific” social work diagnosticians.

99 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a cross-cultural study of the activities and dispositions of people who visit and tend graves in urban, Western society has been carried out in the context of cross-culture research.
Abstract: Burial sites have been a long-standing focus for cross-cultural research. The cemetery activities and dispositions of people who visit and tend graves in urban, Western society have not, however, c...

83 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Bennett as mentioned in this paper argues that rationalism is a folklore tradition itself, which adheres to patterns of explanation and thought in competition with supernaturalist discourse, or the "tradition of belief"; furthermore, rationalism and supernaturalism are cultural options, competing discourses; and that neither is 'better' or less'superstitious' than the other.
Abstract: Alas, Poor Ghost! Traditions of Belief in Story and Discourse. By Gillian Bennett. (Logan, Utah: Utah State University Press, 1999. Pp. 232, appendix, notes, bibliography, index. $39.95 cloth, $21.95 paper) In a further analysis of field research first presented in Traditions of Belief Women and the Supernatural (Pelican, 1987), as well as material collected during a recent study of widow's memorates, Gillian Bennett explores the ways in which elderly British women make meaning of "the mysterious side of life" (176). Though Alas, Poor Ghost! offers some recycled material based on data from her first study of elderly Manchester women, Bennett's emphasis on the competing discourses used by the women in these studies to explain life after death, visitations, and ghosts offers an extensive and convincing portrait of narrative negotiation in contemporary belief (fi). Throughout the book, Bennett argues that there are two cultural options available to these groups of women for interpreting their experiences, which she terms rationalist and supernaturalist. A rationalist "tradition of disbelief' (a term first coined by David Hufford in 1982) interprets supernatural encounters as "dreams, hallucinations, or as the result of creative imaginations"; employing this discourse may also include ridiculing the people who report such experiences (33). Bennett points out that rationalism is a folklore tradition itself, which adheres to patterns of explanation and thought in competition with supernaturalist discourse, or the "tradition of belief"; furthermore, "rationalism and supernaturalism are cultural options, competing discourses; and that neither is 'better' or less 'superstitious' than the other," a cogent assertion based on her findings that women who told these stories knew both interpretive options and could counter the opposite discourse with their own (38). However, believer's discourse is the primary subject of this relatively short book (it offers only 173 pages of actual text, though Bennett covers a lot of territory in five chapters), and the first part discusses two different groups of women's memorates to uncover "coherent tradition[s] with an appealing rationale" (49). Supernaturalist stories, according to Bennett, reflect a faith in human perception and the ability of people to see events accurately; furthermore, believers are "intensely aware of their opponent's case" and "insist that their informants are of the highest probity, their perception seen or remembered with the most distinct clarity, and, moreover, that such cases are both numerous and well-documented and do not depend on the evidence of a single person, however reliable" (37). Bennett also offers a thorough structural analysis of these narratives and demonstrates that content is not the only or even the most important part of a narrative, illuminating "how narrators invite listeners to construct meaning from raw events," and Bennett argues that by using rhetorical strategies which include asking and answering questions or challenges to the narrative and anticipating what the listener will think of the story, narrators indicate how aware they are of judgmental listeners (117). In the first two chapters, Bennett focuses on memor-ates collected during the study of Manchester women, which came about when she was working on her dissertation study of the way narrative shape reflects belief in stories of the supernatural. She collected these accounts from her father's patients in his Manchester podiatry surgery for five months, and spoke to the patients during their examination by her father. …

64 citations