Author

# Steven Weinberg

Other affiliations: University of California, Imperial College London, Columbia University ...read more

Bio: Steven Weinberg is an academic researcher from University of Texas at Austin. The author has contributed to research in topics: Elementary particle & Gauge theory. The author has an hindex of 111, co-authored 340 publications receiving 73371 citations. Previous affiliations of Steven Weinberg include University of California & Imperial College London.

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TL;DR: In this article, five different approaches to the cosmological constant problem are described, and a brief review of the history of this problem is given. But none of the approaches are considered in this paper.

Abstract: Astronomical observations indicate that the cosmological constant is many orders of magnitude smaller than estimated in modern theories of elementary particles. After a brief review of the history of this problem, five different approaches to its solution are described.

6,248 citations

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5,265 citations

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30 Jun 1995TL;DR: Weinberg as discussed by the authors presented a self-contained, up-to-date and comprehensive introduction to supersymmetry, a highly active area of theoretical physics, including supersymmetric algebras.

Abstract: In this third volume of The Quantum Theory of Fields, available for the first time in paperback, Nobel Laureate Steven Weinberg continues his masterly exposition of quantum field theory. This volume presents a self-contained, up-to-date and comprehensive introduction to supersymmetry, a highly active area of theoretical physics. The text introduces and explains a broad range of topics, including supersymmetric algebras, supersymmetric field theories, extended supersymmetry, supergraphs, non-perturbative results, theories of supersymmetry in higher dimensions, and supergravity. A thorough review is given of the phenomenological implications of supersymmetry, including theories of both gauge and gravitationally-mediated supersymmetry breaking. Also provided is an introduction to mathematical techniques, based on holomorphy and duality, that have proved so fruitful in recent developments. This book contains much material not found in other books on supersymmetry, including previously unpublished results. Exercises are included.

4,988 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, it was pointed out that a global U(1) symmetry, introduced in order to preserve the parity and time-reversal invariance of strong interactions despite the effects of instantons, would lead to a neutral pseudoscalar boson, the "axion", with mass roughly of order 100 keV to 1 MeV.

Abstract: It is pointed out that a global U(1) symmetry, that has been introduced in order to preserve the parity and time-reversal invariance of strong interactions despite the effects of instantons, would lead to a neutral pseudoscalar boson, the "axion," with mass roughly of order 100 keV to 1 MeV. Experimental implications are discussed.

4,138 citations

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01 Jan 1972

TL;DR: In this paper, the General Theory of Relativity and Feneral Relativity are discussed, as well as applications of feneral relativity in cosmology and cosmology.

Abstract: Preface. Notation. Copyright Acknowledgements. Part One Preliminaries. Part Two the General Theory of Relativity. Part Three Applications of Feneral Relativity. Part Four Formal Developments. Part Five Cosmology. Appendix. Some Useful Numbers. Index.

4,056 citations

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TL;DR: This biennial Review summarizes much of particle physics, using data from previous editions.

12,798 citations

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Peter A. R. Ade

^{1}, Nabila Aghanim^{2}, Monique Arnaud^{3}, M. Ashdown^{4}+334 more•Institutions (82)TL;DR: In this article, the authors present a cosmological analysis based on full-mission Planck observations of temperature and polarization anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation.

Abstract: This paper presents cosmological results based on full-mission Planck observations of temperature and polarization anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Our results are in very good agreement with the 2013 analysis of the Planck nominal-mission temperature data, but with increased precision. The temperature and polarization power spectra are consistent with the standard spatially-flat 6-parameter ΛCDM cosmology with a power-law spectrum of adiabatic scalar perturbations (denoted “base ΛCDM” in this paper). From the Planck temperature data combined with Planck lensing, for this cosmology we find a Hubble constant, H0 = (67.8 ± 0.9) km s-1Mpc-1, a matter density parameter Ωm = 0.308 ± 0.012, and a tilted scalar spectral index with ns = 0.968 ± 0.006, consistent with the 2013 analysis. Note that in this abstract we quote 68% confidence limits on measured parameters and 95% upper limits on other parameters. We present the first results of polarization measurements with the Low Frequency Instrument at large angular scales. Combined with the Planck temperature and lensing data, these measurements give a reionization optical depth of τ = 0.066 ± 0.016, corresponding to a reionization redshift of . These results are consistent with those from WMAP polarization measurements cleaned for dust emission using 353-GHz polarization maps from the High Frequency Instrument. We find no evidence for any departure from base ΛCDM in the neutrino sector of the theory; for example, combining Planck observations with other astrophysical data we find Neff = 3.15 ± 0.23 for the effective number of relativistic degrees of freedom, consistent with the value Neff = 3.046 of the Standard Model of particle physics. The sum of neutrino masses is constrained to ∑ mν < 0.23 eV. The spatial curvature of our Universe is found to be very close to zero, with | ΩK | < 0.005. Adding a tensor component as a single-parameter extension to base ΛCDM we find an upper limit on the tensor-to-scalar ratio of r0.002< 0.11, consistent with the Planck 2013 results and consistent with the B-mode polarization constraints from a joint analysis of BICEP2, Keck Array, and Planck (BKP) data. Adding the BKP B-mode data to our analysis leads to a tighter constraint of r0.002 < 0.09 and disfavours inflationarymodels with a V(φ) ∝ φ2 potential. The addition of Planck polarization data leads to strong constraints on deviations from a purely adiabatic spectrum of fluctuations. We find no evidence for any contribution from isocurvature perturbations or from cosmic defects. Combining Planck data with other astrophysical data, including Type Ia supernovae, the equation of state of dark energy is constrained to w = −1.006 ± 0.045, consistent with the expected value for a cosmological constant. The standard big bang nucleosynthesis predictions for the helium and deuterium abundances for the best-fit Planck base ΛCDM cosmology are in excellent agreement with observations. We also constraints on annihilating dark matter and on possible deviations from the standard recombination history. In neither case do we find no evidence for new physics. The Planck results for base ΛCDM are in good agreement with baryon acoustic oscillation data and with the JLA sample of Type Ia supernovae. However, as in the 2013 analysis, the amplitude of the fluctuation spectrum is found to be higher than inferred from some analyses of rich cluster counts and weak gravitational lensing. We show that these tensions cannot easily be resolved with simple modifications of the base ΛCDM cosmology. Apart from these tensions, the base ΛCDM cosmology provides an excellent description of the Planck CMB observations and many other astrophysical data sets.

10,728 citations

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TL;DR: The CASTEP program as mentioned in this paper is a computer program for first principles electro-Nic structure calculations, and some of its features and capabilities are described and near-future development plans outlined.

Abstract: CASTEP Computer program / Density functional theory / Pseudopotentials / ab initio study / Plane-wave method / Computational crystallography Abstract. The CASTEP code for first principles electro- nic structure calculations will be described. A brief, non- technical overview will be given and some of the features and capabilities highlighted. Some features which are un- ique to CASTEP will be described and near-future devel- opment plans outlined.

9,884 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present results based on full-mission Planck observations of temperature and polarization anisotropies of the CMB, which are consistent with the six-parameter inflationary LCDM cosmology.

Abstract: We present results based on full-mission Planck observations of temperature and polarization anisotropies of the CMB. These data are consistent with the six-parameter inflationary LCDM cosmology. From the Planck temperature and lensing data, for this cosmology we find a Hubble constant, H0= (67.8 +/- 0.9) km/s/Mpc, a matter density parameter Omega_m = 0.308 +/- 0.012 and a scalar spectral index with n_s = 0.968 +/- 0.006. (We quote 68% errors on measured parameters and 95% limits on other parameters.) Combined with Planck temperature and lensing data, Planck LFI polarization measurements lead to a reionization optical depth of tau = 0.066 +/- 0.016. Combining Planck with other astrophysical data we find N_ eff = 3.15 +/- 0.23 for the effective number of relativistic degrees of freedom and the sum of neutrino masses is constrained to < 0.23 eV. Spatial curvature is found to be |Omega_K| < 0.005. For LCDM we find a limit on the tensor-to-scalar ratio of r <0.11 consistent with the B-mode constraints from an analysis of BICEP2, Keck Array, and Planck (BKP) data. Adding the BKP data leads to a tighter constraint of r < 0.09. We find no evidence for isocurvature perturbations or cosmic defects. The equation of state of dark energy is constrained to w = -1.006 +/- 0.045. Standard big bang nucleosynthesis predictions for the Planck LCDM cosmology are in excellent agreement with observations. We investigate annihilating dark matter and deviations from standard recombination, finding no evidence for new physics. The Planck results for base LCDM are in agreement with BAO data and with the JLA SNe sample. However the amplitude of the fluctuations is found to be higher than inferred from rich cluster counts and weak gravitational lensing. Apart from these tensions, the base LCDM cosmology provides an excellent description of the Planck CMB observations and many other astrophysical data sets.

9,745 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, a search for the Standard Model Higgs boson in proton-proton collisions with the ATLAS detector at the LHC is presented, which has a significance of 5.9 standard deviations, corresponding to a background fluctuation probability of 1.7×10−9.

9,282 citations