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Stuart A. Wolf

Bio: Stuart A. Wolf is an academic researcher from University of Virginia. The author has contributed to research in topics: Superconductivity & Thin film. The author has an hindex of 42, co-authored 339 publications receiving 16915 citations. Previous affiliations of Stuart A. Wolf include Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics & United States Naval Research Laboratory.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
16 Nov 2001-Science
TL;DR: This review describes a new paradigm of electronics based on the spin degree of freedom of the electron, which has the potential advantages of nonvolatility, increased data processing speed, decreased electric power consumption, and increased integration densities compared with conventional semiconductor devices.
Abstract: This review describes a new paradigm of electronics based on the spin degree of freedom of the electron. Either adding the spin degree of freedom to conventional charge-based electronic devices or using the spin alone has the potential advantages of nonvolatility, increased data processing speed, decreased electric power consumption, and increased integration densities compared with conventional semiconductor devices. To successfully incorporate spins into existing semiconductor technology, one has to resolve technical issues such as efficient injection, transport, control and manipulation, and detection of spin polarization as well as spin-polarized currents. Recent advances in new materials engineering hold the promise of realizing spintronic devices in the near future. We review the current state of the spin-based devices, efforts in new materials fabrication, issues in spin transport, and optical spin manipulation.

9,917 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
19 Jul 2012-Nature
TL;DR: The observation of an insulator–metal transition in vanadium dioxide induced by a terahertz electric field is reported, demonstrating that integration of metamaterials with complex matter is a viable pathway to realize functional nonlinear electromagnetic composites.
Abstract: An innovative technique uses ultrafast below-bandgap electric-field pulses to induce and probe an insulator–metal transition in an oxide thin film on which a metamaterial structure has been deposited. The transition from insulating to metallic behaviour and the microscopic interactions that accompany the transition are important phenomena in electronic materials. Until now it has not been possible to observe the transition directly in a time-resolved manner. Here, Richard Averitt and colleagues use ultrafast terahertz pulses to induce a phase transition in a prototypical insulator–metal transition material (vanadium dioxide) on which a metamaterial structure has been deposited. The metamaterial serves to amplify the local terahertz field, as well as to detect macroscopic changes in vanadium dioxide. Through direct, time-resolved observations, the authors establish a detailed microscopic picture of the structural and electronic changes underlying the insulator–metal transition. They conclude that their technique is versatile and could even be used to study phase transitions in superconductors. Electron–electron interactions can render an otherwise conducting material insulating1, with the insulator–metal phase transition in correlated-electron materials being the canonical macroscopic manifestation of the competition between charge-carrier itinerancy and localization. The transition can arise from underlying microscopic interactions among the charge, lattice, orbital and spin degrees of freedom, the complexity of which leads to multiple phase-transition pathways. For example, in many transition metal oxides, the insulator–metal transition has been achieved with external stimuli, including temperature, light, electric field, mechanical strain or magnetic field2,3,4,5,6,7. Vanadium dioxide is particularly intriguing because both the lattice and on-site Coulomb repulsion contribute to the insulator-to-metal transition at 340 K (ref. 8). Thus, although the precise microscopic origin of the phase transition remains elusive, vanadium dioxide serves as a testbed for correlated-electron phase-transition dynamics. Here we report the observation of an insulator–metal transition in vanadium dioxide induced by a terahertz electric field. This is achieved using metamaterial-enhanced picosecond, high-field terahertz pulses to reduce the Coulomb-induced potential barrier for carrier transport9. A nonlinear metamaterial response is observed through the phase transition, demonstrating that high-field terahertz pulses provide alternative pathways to induce collective electronic and structural rearrangements. The metamaterial resonators play a dual role, providing sub-wavelength field enhancement that locally drives the nonlinear response, and global sensitivity to the local changes, thereby enabling macroscopic observation of the dynamics10,11. This methodology provides a powerful platform to investigate low-energy dynamics in condensed matter and, further, demonstrates that integration of metamaterials with complex matter is a viable pathway to realize functional nonlinear electromagnetic composites.

1,023 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The progress of the work on device design, material improvement, wafer processing, integration with CMOS, and testing for a demonstration STT-RAM test chip are reported, and projections based on modeling of the future characteristics of STt-RAM are projected.
Abstract: Spin-transfer torque random access memory (STT-RAM) is a potentially revolutionary universal memory technology that combines the capacity and cost benefits of DRAM, the fast read and write performance of SRAM, the non-volatility of Flash, and essentially unlimited endurance. In order to realize a small cell size, high speed and achieve a fully functional STT-RAM chip, the MgO-barrier magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJ) used as the core storage and readout element must meet a set of performance requirements on switching current density, voltage, magneto-resistance ratio (MR), resistance-area product (RA), thermal stability factor (?) , switching current distribution, read resistance distribution and reliability. In this paper, we report the progress of our work on device design, material improvement, wafer processing, integration with CMOS, and testing for a demonstration STT-RAM test chip, and projections based on modeling of the future characteristics of STT-RAM.

401 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
16 Sep 2010
TL;DR: This paper will introduce a new nonlithographic method of producing reconfigurable arrays of MQCAs and/or storage bits that can be configured electrically and provide a brief description of magnetoresistiverandom access memory (MRAM), the first mainstream spintronic nonvolatile random access memory and project how far it can go to provide a truly universal memory.
Abstract: This paper is both a review of some recent developments in the utilization of magnetism for applications to logic and memory and a description of some new innovations in nanomagnetics and spintronics. Nanomagnetics is primarily based on the magnetic interactions, while spintronics is primarily concerned with devices that utilize spin polarized currents. With the end of complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) in sight, nanomagnetics can provide a new paradigm for information process using the principles of magnetic quantum cellular automata (MQCA). This paper will review and describe these principles and then introduce a new nonlithographic method of producing reconfigurable arrays of MQCAs and/or storage bits that can be configured electrically. Furthermore, this paper will provide a brief description of magnetoresistive random access memory (MRAM), the first mainstream spintronic nonvolatile random access memory and project how far its successor spin transfer torque random access memory (STT-RAM) can go to provide a truly universal memory that can in principle replace most, if not all, semiconductor memories in the near future. For completeness, a description of an all-metal logic architecture based on magnetoresistive structures (transpinnor) will be described as well as some approaches to logic using magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs).

335 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Studies of spin-polarized transport in bulk and low-dimensional semiconductor structures show promise for the creation of a hybrid device that would combine magnetic storage with gain-in effect, a spin memory transistor.
Abstract: Spintronics is a rapidly emerging field of science and technology that will most likely have a significant impact on the future of all aspects of electronics as we continue to move into the 21st century. Conventional electronics are based on the charge of the electron. Attempts to use the other fundamental property of an electron, its spin, have given rise to a new, rapidly evolving field, known as spintronics, an acronym for spin transport electronics that was first introduced in 1996 to designate a program of the U.S. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). Initially, the spintronics program involved overseeing the development of advanced magnetic memory and sensors based on spin transport electronics. It was then expanded to included Spins IN Semiconductors (SPINS), in the hope of developing a new paradigm in semiconductor electronics based on the spin degree of freedom of the electron. Studies of spin-polarized transport in bulk and low-dimensional semiconductor structures show promise for the creation of a hybrid device that would combine magnetic storage with gain-in effect, a spin memory transistor. This paper reviews some of the major developments in this field and provides a perspective of what we think will be the future of this exciting field. It is not meant to be a comprehensive review of the whole field but reflects a bias on the part of the authors toward areas that they believe will lead to significant future technologies.

252 citations


Cited by
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Spintronics, or spin electronics, involves the study of active control and manipulation of spin degrees of freedom in solid-state systems as discussed by the authors, where the primary focus is on the basic physical principles underlying the generation of carrier spin polarization, spin dynamics, and spin-polarized transport.
Abstract: Spintronics, or spin electronics, involves the study of active control and manipulation of spin degrees of freedom in solid-state systems. This article reviews the current status of this subject, including both recent advances and well-established results. The primary focus is on the basic physical principles underlying the generation of carrier spin polarization, spin dynamics, and spin-polarized transport in semiconductors and metals. Spin transport differs from charge transport in that spin is a nonconserved quantity in solids due to spin-orbit and hyperfine coupling. The authors discuss in detail spin decoherence mechanisms in metals and semiconductors. Various theories of spin injection and spin-polarized transport are applied to hybrid structures relevant to spin-based devices and fundamental studies of materials properties. Experimental work is reviewed with the emphasis on projected applications, in which external electric and magnetic fields and illumination by light will be used to control spin and charge dynamics to create new functionalities not feasible or ineffective with conventional electronics.

9,158 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors consider the atomic dynamics and the optical response of the medium to a continuous-wave laser and show how coherently prepared media can be used to improve frequency conversion in nonlinear optical mixing experiments.
Abstract: Coherent preparation by laser light of quantum states of atoms and molecules can lead to quantum interference in the amplitudes of optical transitions. In this way the optical properties of a medium can be dramatically modified, leading to electromagnetically induced transparency and related effects, which have placed gas-phase systems at the center of recent advances in the development of media with radically new optical properties. This article reviews these advances and the new possibilities they offer for nonlinear optics and quantum information science. As a basis for the theory of electromagnetically induced transparency the authors consider the atomic dynamics and the optical response of the medium to a continuous-wave laser. They then discuss pulse propagation and the adiabatic evolution of field-coupled states and show how coherently prepared media can be used to improve frequency conversion in nonlinear optical mixing experiments. The extension of these concepts to very weak optical fields in the few-photon limit is then examined. The review concludes with a discussion of future prospects and potential new applications.

4,218 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
26 Mar 2013-ACS Nano
TL;DR: The properties and advantages of single-, few-, and many-layer 2D materials in field-effect transistors, spin- and valley-tronics, thermoelectrics, and topological insulators, among many other applications are highlighted.
Abstract: Graphene’s success has shown that it is possible to create stable, single and few-atom-thick layers of van der Waals materials, and also that these materials can exhibit fascinating and technologically useful properties. Here we review the state-of-the-art of 2D materials beyond graphene. Initially, we will outline the different chemical classes of 2D materials and discuss the various strategies to prepare single-layer, few-layer, and multilayer assembly materials in solution, on substrates, and on the wafer scale. Additionally, we present an experimental guide for identifying and characterizing single-layer-thick materials, as well as outlining emerging techniques that yield both local and global information. We describe the differences that occur in the electronic structure between the bulk and the single layer and discuss various methods of tuning their electronic properties by manipulating the surface. Finally, we highlight the properties and advantages of single-, few-, and many-layer 2D materials in...

4,123 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
16 Nov 2006-Nature
TL;DR: In this article, it was shown that if in-plane homogeneous electric fields are applied across the zigzag-shaped edges of the graphene nanoribbons, their magnetic properties can be controlled by the external electric fields.
Abstract: Electrical current can be completely spin polarized in a class of materials known as half-metals, as a result of the coexistence of metallic nature for electrons with one spin orientation and insulating nature for electrons with the other. Such asymmetric electronic states for the different spins have been predicted for some ferromagnetic metals--for example, the Heusler compounds--and were first observed in a manganese perovskite. In view of the potential for use of this property in realizing spin-based electronics, substantial efforts have been made to search for half-metallic materials. However, organic materials have hardly been investigated in this context even though carbon-based nanostructures hold significant promise for future electronic devices. Here we predict half-metallicity in nanometre-scale graphene ribbons by using first-principles calculations. We show that this phenomenon is realizable if in-plane homogeneous electric fields are applied across the zigzag-shaped edges of the graphene nanoribbons, and that their magnetic properties can be controlled by the external electric fields. The results are not only of scientific interest in the interplay between electric fields and electronic spin degree of freedom in solids but may also open a new path to explore spintronics at the nanometre scale, based on graphene.

3,519 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a review of various nanostructures of ZnO grown by the solid-vapour phase technique and their corresponding growth mechanisms is presented. And the application of nanobelts as nanosensors, nanocantilevers, field effect transistors and nanoresonators is demonstrated.
Abstract: Zinc oxide is a unique material that exhibits semiconducting and piezoelectric dual properties. Using a solid–vapour phase thermal sublimation technique, nanocombs, nanorings, nanohelixes/nanosprings, nanobelts, nanowires and nanocages of ZnO have been synthesized under specific growth conditions. These unique nanostructures unambiguously demonstrate that ZnO probably has the richest family of nanostructures among all materials, both in structures and in properties. The nanostructures could have novel applications in optoelectronics, sensors, transducers and biomedical sciences. This article reviews the various nanostructures of ZnO grown by the solid–vapour phase technique and their corresponding growth mechanisms. The application of ZnO nanobelts as nanosensors, nanocantilevers, field effect transistors and nanoresonators is demonstrated.

3,361 citations