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Author

Subir Bera

Bio: Subir Bera is an academic researcher from University of Calcutta. The author has contributed to research in topics: Phytolith & Pollen. The author has an hindex of 22, co-authored 136 publications receiving 1774 citations. Previous affiliations of Subir Bera include Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur & Sidho Kanho Birsha University.
Topics: Phytolith, Pollen, Monsoon, Neogene, Paleontology


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
01 Mar 2017-Geology
TL;DR: The authors reconstructs the rise of a segment of the southern flank of the Himalaya-Tibet orogen, to the south of the Lhasa terrane, using a paleoaltimeter based on paleoenthalpy encoded in fossil leaves from two new assemblages in southern Tibet (Liuqu and Qiabulin) and four previously known floras from the foreland basin.
Abstract: We reconstruct the rise of a segment of the southern flank of the Himalaya-Tibet orogen, to the south of the Lhasa terrane, using a paleoaltimeter based on paleoenthalpy encoded in fossil leaves from two new assemblages in southern Tibet (Liuqu and Qiabulin) and four previously known floras from the Himalaya foreland basin. U-Pb dating of zircons constrains the Liuqu flora to the latest Paleocene (ca. 56 Ma) and the Qiabulin flora to the earliest Miocene (21- 19 Ma). The proto-Himalaya grew slowly against a high (similar to 4 km) proto-Tibetan Plateau from similar to 1 km in the late Paleocene to similar to 2.3 km at the beginning of the Miocene, and achieved at least similar to 5.5 km by ca. 15 Ma. Contrasting precipitation patterns between the Himalaya-Tibet edifice and the Himalaya foreland basin for the past similar to 56 m.y. show progressive drying across southern Tibet, seemingly linked to the uplift of the Himalaya orogen.

266 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The Yanghai tombs near Turpan, Xinjiang-Uighur Autonomous Region, China have recently been excavated to reveal the 2700-year-old grave of a Caucasoid shaman whose accoutrements included a large cache of cannabis, superbly preserved by climatic and burial conditions.
Abstract: The Yanghai Tombs near Turpan, Xinjiang-Uighur Autonomous Region, China have recently been excavated to reveal the 2700-year-old grave of a Caucasoid shaman whose accoutrements included a large cache of cannabis, superbly preserved by climatic and burial conditions. A multidisciplinary international team demonstrated through botanical examination, phytochemical investigation, and genetic deoxyribonucleic acid analysis by polymerase chain reaction that this material contained tetrahydrocannabinol, the psychoactive component of cannabis, its oxidative degradation product, cannabinol, other metabolites, and its synthetic enzyme, tetrahydrocannabinolic acid synthase, as well as a novel genetic variant with two single nucleotide polymorphisms. The cannabis was presumably employed by this culture as a medicinal or psychoactive agent, or an aid to divination. To our knowledge, these investigations provide the oldest documentation of cannabis as a pharmacologically active agent, and contribute to the medical and archaeological record of this pre-Silk Road culture.

181 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: By comparing the morphological and anatomical characteristics of the plant remains found in the tomb and specimens of modern plants, it is shown that the remains belong to Cannabis.

150 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, four fossil floras ranging in age from the mid Miocene to the early Pleistocene from the eastern Siwaliks near Darjeeling and in Arunachal Pradesh (AP) were compared taxonomically and subjected to a CLAMP (Climate Leaf Analysis Multivariate Program) analysis using a new calibration dataset that includes sites from India, southern China and Thailand and high resolution gridded climate data.

124 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The Early-Middle Eocene palynoflora and paleoclimate of Changchang Basin, Hainan Island, South China, is described in the present paper and is compared with that of the Middle-Late Eocene, Hunchun City, Jilin Province, North China.
Abstract: The Early–Middle Eocene palynoflora and paleoclimate of Changchang Basin, Hainan Island, South China, is described in the present paper and is compared with that of the Middle–Late Eocene, Hunchun City, Jilin Province, North China. The nearest living relatives (NLRs) of the recovered palynotaxa suggest a subtropical evergreen or deciduous broad-leaved forest at the center of the basin but a temperate evergreen or deciduous broad-leaved forest and needle-leaved forest growing in the peripheral part of the basin. Based on the climatic preferences of the NLRs, the climate in the Changchang Basin during the Early–Middle Eocene was warm and humid subtropical with a mean annual temperature of 14.2–19.8°C, a mean temperature of the warmest month of 22.5–29.1°C, a mean temperature of the coldest month of 1.7–11.9°C, a difference of temperature between coldest and warmest months of 12.1–24.6°C, a mean annual precipitation of 784.7–1,113.3 mm, a mean maximum monthly precipitation of 141.5–268.1 mm and a mean minimum monthly precipitation of 6.9–14.1 mm. A comparison of the palynoflora and paleoclimate between the Changchang Basin and Hunchun City, suggests essentially a similar climate in South and North China during Eocene time in contrast to the oceanic tropical climate in South China and cool dry temperate climate in North China as at present.

60 citations


Cited by
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Particular focus will be placed on phytocannabinoid‐terpenoid interactions that could produce synergy with respect to treatment of pain, inflammation, depression, anxiety, addiction, epilepsy, cancer, fungal and bacterial infections (including methicillin‐resistant Staphylococcus aureus).
Abstract: Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) has been the primary focus of cannabis research since 1964, when Raphael Mechoulam isolated and synthesized it. More recently, the synergistic contributions of cannabidiol to cannabis pharmacology and analgesia have been scientifically demonstrated. Other phytocannabinoids, including tetrahydrocannabivarin, cannabigerol and cannabichromene, exert additional effects of therapeutic interest. Innovative conventional plant breeding has yielded cannabis chemotypes expressing high titres of each component for future study. This review will explore another echelon of phytotherapeutic agents, the cannabis terpenoids: limonene, myrcene, α-pinene, linalool, β-caryophyllene, caryophyllene oxide, nerolidol and phytol. Terpenoids share a precursor with phytocannabinoids, and are all flavour and fragrance components common to human diets that have been designated Generally Recognized as Safe by the US Food and Drug Administration and other regulatory agencies. Terpenoids are quite potent, and affect animal and even human behaviour when inhaled from ambient air at serum levels in the single digits ng·mL−1. They display unique therapeutic effects that may contribute meaningfully to the entourage effects of cannabis-based medicinal extracts. Particular focus will be placed on phytocannabinoid-terpenoid interactions that could produce synergy with respect to treatment of pain, inflammation, depression, anxiety, addiction, epilepsy, cancer, fungal and bacterial infections (including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus). Scientific evidence is presented for non-cannabinoid plant components as putative antidotes to intoxicating effects of THC that could increase its therapeutic index. Methods for investigating entourage effects in future experiments will be proposed. Phytocannabinoid-terpenoid synergy, if proven, increases the likelihood that an extensive pipeline of new therapeutic products is possible from this venerable plant. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed issue on Cannabinoids in Biology and Medicine. To view the other articles in this issue visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2011.163.issue-7

1,113 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Prospects on the benefits linked to the use of the -omics technologies, such as metabolomics and transcriptomics to speed up the identification and the large-scale production of lead agents from bioengineered Cannabis cell culture, are presented.
Abstract: Cannabis sativa L. is an important herbaceous species originating from Central Asia, which has been used in folk medicine and as a source of textile fiber since the dawn of times. This fast-growing plant has recently seen a resurgence of interest because of its multi-purpose applications: it is indeed a treasure trove of phytochemicals and a rich source of both cellulosic and woody fibers. Equally highly interested in this plant are the pharmaceutical and construction sectors, since its metabolites show potent bioactivities on human health and its outer and inner stem tissues can be used to make bioplastics and concrete-like material, respectively. In this review, the rich spectrum of hemp phytochemicals is discussed by putting a special emphasis on molecules of industrial interest, including cannabinoids, terpenes and phenolic compounds, and their biosynthetic routes. Cannabinoids represent the most studied group of compounds, mainly due to their wide range of pharmaceutical effects in humans, including psychotropic activities. The therapeutic and commercial interests of some terpenes and phenolic compounds, and in particular stilbenoids and lignans, are also highlighted in view of the most recent literature data. Biotechnological avenues to enhance the production and bioactivity of hemp secondary metabolites are proposed by discussing the power of plant genetic engineering and tissue culture. In particular two systems are reviewed, i.e., cell suspension and hairy root cultures. Additionally, an entire section is devoted to hemp trichomes, in the light of their importance as phytochemical factories. Ultimately, prospects on the benefits linked to the use of the -omics technologies, such as metabolomics and transcriptomics to speed up the identification and the large-scale production of lead agents from bioengineered Cannabis cell culture, are presented.

896 citations

William R. Boos1
11 May 2010
TL;DR: It is shown that, although Tibetan plateau heating locally enhances rainfall along its southern edge in an atmospheric model, the large-scale South Asian summer monsoon circulation is otherwise unaffected by removal of the plateau, provided that the narrow orography of the Himalayas and adjacent mountain ranges is preserved.
Abstract: The Tibetan plateau, like any landmass, emits energy into the atmosphere in the form of dry heat and water vapour, but its mean surface elevation is more than 5 km above sea level. This elevation is widely held to cause the plateau to serve as a heat source that drives the South Asian summer monsoon, potentially coupling uplift of the plateau to climate changes on geologic timescales. Observations of the present climate, however, do not clearly establish the Tibetan plateau as the dominant thermal forcing in the region: peak upper-tropospheric temperatures during boreal summer are located over continental India, south of the plateau. Here we show that, although Tibetan plateau heating locally enhances rainfall along its southern edge in an atmospheric model, the large-scale South Asian summer monsoon circulation is otherwise unaffected by removal of the plateau, provided that the narrow orography of the Himalayas and adjacent mountain ranges is preserved. Additional observational and model results suggest that these mountains produce a strong monsoon by insulating warm, moist air over continental India from the cold and dry extratropics. These results call for both a reinterpretation of how South Asian climate may have responded to orographic uplift, and a re-evaluation of how this climate may respond to modified land surface and radiative forcings in coming decades.

550 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, density function theory calculations reveal that nonelectroactive Zn behaves as an effective promoter for CoP-catalyzed hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) in both acidic and alkaline media.
Abstract: As a non-toxic species, Zn fulfills a multitude of biological roles, but its promoting effect on electrocatalysis has been rarely explored. Herein, the theoretic predications and experimental investigations that nonelectroactive Zn behaves as an effective promoter for CoP-catalyzed hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) in both acidic and alkaline media is reported. Density function theory calculations reveal that Zn doing leads to more thermal-neutral hydrogen adsorption free energy and thus enhanced HER activity for CoP catalyst. Electrochemical tests show that a Zn0.08Co0.92P nanowall array on titanium mesh (Zn0.08Co0.92P/TM) needs overpotentials of only 39 and 67 mV to drive a geometrical catalytic current of 10 mA cm-2 in 0.5 m H2SO4 and 1.0 m KOH, respectively. This Zn0.08Co0.92P/TM is also superior in activity over CoP/TM for urea oxidation reaction (UOR), driving 115 mA cm-2 at 0.6 V in 1.0 m KOH with 0.5 m urea. The high HER and UOR activity of this bifunctional electrode enables a Zn0.08Co0.92P/TM-based two-electrode electrolyzer for energy-saving hydrogen production, offering 10 mA cm-2 at a low voltage of 1.38 V with strong long-term electrochemical stability.

513 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The integrated inventory of these compounds and their biological macromolecular end-points highlights the opportunities that phytocannabinoids offer to access desirable drug-like space beyond the one associated to the narcotic target CB1.

507 citations