Bio: Suman Chakraborty is an academic researcher from S.N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences. The author has contributed to research in topics: Very low frequency & Ionosphere. The author has an hindex of 6, co-authored 19 publications receiving 98 citations. Previous affiliations of Suman Chakraborty include Indian Centre for Space Physics & Physical Research Laboratory.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present perturbations due to seismo-ionospheric coupling processes in propagation characteristics of sub-ionosphere Very Low Frequency (VLF) signals received at Ionospheric & Earthquake Research Centre (IERC) (Lat. 22.50°N, Long. 87.48°E), India.
Abstract: We present perturbations due to seismo-ionospheric coupling processes in propagation characteristics of sub-ionospheric Very Low Frequency (VLF) signals received at Ionospheric & Earthquake Research Centre (IERC) (Lat. 22.50°N, Long. 87.48°E), India. The study is done during and prior to an earthquake of Richter scale magnitude M = 7.3 occurring at a depth of 18 km at southeast of Kodari, Nepal on 12 May 2015 at 12:35:19 IST (07:05:19 UT). The recorded VLF signal of Japanese transmitter JJI at frequency 22.2 kHz (Lat. 32.08°N, Long. 130.83°E) suffers from strong shifts in sunrise and sunset terminator times towards nighttime starting from three to four days prior to the earthquake. The signal shows a similar variation in terminator times during a major aftershock of magnitude M = 6.7 on 16 May, 2015 at 17:04:10 IST (11:34:10 UT). These shifts in terminator times is numerically modeled using Long Wavelength Propagation Capability (LWPC) Programme. The unperturbed VLF signal is simulated by using the day and night variation of reflection height ( h ′ ) and steepness parameter ( β ) fed in LWPC for the entire path. The perturbed signal is obtained by additional variation of these parameters inside the earthquake preparation zone. It is found that the shift of the terminator time towards nighttime happens only when the reflection height is increased. We also calculate electron density profile by using the Wait’s exponential formula for specified location over the propagation path.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors studied the effects of seismic events on longwave radiation (OLR) and found significant presence of atmospheric gravity waves (periods of almost 1'h) four days before the Nepal earthquake.
Abstract: Earthquake preparation processes may start 1–30 days before its actual occurrence. Measurements of outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) and detection of the presence of atmospheric gravity waves (AGW) in very low frequency (VLF) radio signals can be used as tools to identify such processes. We studied these signals monitored prior to a recent major earthquake that occurred in Nepal at southeast of Kodari on May 12, 2015 at 12:50 pm local time (07:05 UTC) with Richter scale magnitude of M = 7.3 and depth 10 km (6.21 miles). It was preceded by another major earthquake on April 25, 2015 with magnitude M = 7.9. First, to study the effects of seismic events on OLR, we used NOAA/IR daily (two degree gridded) data from April 16 to May 30, 2015 and followed the method of Eddy field calculation mean to find pre-seismic anomalies. We found singularities in Eddy field OLR curves around the earthquake epicenter starting 3 days prior to the earthquake days and disappearance of such singularities after the events. Such singularities can be associated with a large amount of energy released by the earthquakes. Second, we analyzed very low frequency (VLF) data recorded at Ionospheric and Earthquake Research Centre (IERC) of Indian Centre for Space Physics transmitted from JJI (22.2 kHz) station of Japan. We looked for the presence of atmospheric gravity waves in the ionosphere which can be considered as an important factor in finding seismo-ionospheric correlations. We performed both fast Fourier transform (FFT) and wavelet analysis on the signal and found significant presence of such waves (periods of almost 1 h) four days before the earthquake.
TL;DR: In this paper, the amplitude and phase variations of the sub-ionospheric Very Low Frequency (VLF) signal were measured during the total solar eclipse (TSE) in North America.
Abstract: Solar eclipse is a unique opportunity to study the lower ionospheric variabilities under a controlled perturbation when the solar ultraviolet and X-ray are temporally occulted by the lunar disk. Sub-ionospheric Very Low Frequency (VLF) radio signal displays the ionospheric response of solar eclipse by modulating its amplitude and phase. During the Total Solar Eclipse (TSE) on August 21, 2017 in North America, data was recorded by a number of receivers as presented in public archive. Out of these, two receiving stations YADA in McBaine and K5TD in Tulsa could procure a reasonable quality of noise free data where the signal amplitude was clearly modulated due to the eclipse. During the lunar occultation, a C3.0 solar flare occurred and the signal received from Tulsa manifested the effect of sudden ionization due to the flare. The VLF amplitude in Tulsa shows the effect which is generally understood by superimposing effects of both the solar eclipse and flare. However, the signal by YADA did not perturb by the solar flare, as the flaring region was totally behind the lunar disk for the entire period. We numerically reproduced the observed signal amplitude variation at both the receiving locations by using Wait’s two component D-region ionospheric model and the well-known Long Wavelength Propagation Capability (LWPC) code. The perturbed electron density for both the cases is computed which matches satisfactorily with the true ionospheric conditions.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present perturbations in very low frequency (VLF) signals received at Ionospheric & Earthquake Research Centre (IERC) (Lat. 22.50°N, Long. 87.48°E) during and prior to two earthquakes, one on 11...
Abstract: We present perturbations in very low frequency (VLF) signals received at Ionospheric & Earthquake Research Centre (IERC) (Lat. 22.50°N, Long. 87.48°E) during and prior to two earthquakes, one on 11...
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present the use of very low frequency (VLF) radio data to study short-period (∼min-hrs) atmospheric gravity waves and long-period(∼days) planetary waves.
Abstract: Continuous ground-based monitoring of Very Low Frequency (VLF) transmitter signals is an efficient remote sensing tool for studying of the lower ionosphere (60–90 km). Here, we present the use of VLF radio data to study short-period (∼min–hrs) atmospheric gravity waves and long-period (∼days) planetary waves. We analyse VLF data from several receiving stations obtained by ICSP-VLF network during the total solar eclipse of July, 2009 to show the existence of short-period atmospheric gravity waves. We find dominant wave periods range from 10 min to 1 h around the time of maximum eclipse phase which could be associated with atmospheric gravity waves excited due to the eclipse. We also analyse VLF amplitude data of 2007 received at ICSP, Kolkata from VTX (18.2 kHz) transmitter for planetary wave-type oscillations in the mesosphere–lower ionosphere system. Fourier and wavelet analysis show presence of periodic structures with periodicity in the range of 5–27 days. We compare VLF planetary spectrum with spectrum obtained from total column density of Ozone and mesospheric average temperature data which may indicate vertical coupling between the stratosphere and ionosphere in winter to early spring time.
TL;DR: Junge as mentioned in this paper discusses air chemistry and radioactivity, and discusses the relationship between air chemistry, radioactivity and air physics, and shows that air chemistry can be viewed as a special case of radioactivity.
Abstract: Air Chemistry and Radioactivity By Christian E. Junge. (International Geophysics Series, Vol. 4.) Pp. xii + 382. (New York: Academic Press, Inc.; London: Academic Press, Inc. (London), Ltd., 1963.) 96s. 6d.
TL;DR: This paper provides a comprehensive review of the satellite missions, state-of-the art estimation algorithms and the satellite products, and also synthesizes current understanding of the EEB and spatio-temporal variations.
Abstract: The Earth’s climate is largely determined by its energy budget. Since the 1960s, satellite remote sensing has been used in estimating these energy budget components at both the top of the a...
17 Dec 2015
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present simulations of the loss of radiation belt electrons by resonant pitch angle diffusion caused by whistler mode hiss waves for March 2013, and validate these results globally at all L-shells and energies.
Abstract: We present simulations of the loss of radiation belt electrons by resonant pitch angle diffusion caused by whistler mode hiss waves for March 2013. Pitch angle diffusion coefficients are computed from the wave properties and the ambient plasma data obtained by the Van Allen Probes with a resolution of 8 hours and 0.1 L-shell. Loss rates follow a complex dynamic structure, imposed by the wave and plasma properties. Hiss effects can be strong, with minimum lifetimes (of ~1 day) moving from energies of ~100 keV at L~5 up to ~2 MeV at L~2, and stop abruptly, similarly to the observed energy-dependent inner belt edge. Periods when the plasmasphere extends beyond L~5 favor long-lasting hiss losses from the outer belt. Such loss rates are embedded in a reduced Fokker-Planck code and validated against MagEIS observations of the belts at all energy. Results are complemented with a sensitivity study involving different radial diffusion and lifetime models. Validation is carried out globally at all L-shells and energies. The good agreement between simulations and observations demonstrates that hiss waves drive the slot formation during quiet times. Combined with transport, they sculpt the energy-structure of the outer belt into an "S-shape". Low energy electrons (<0.3 MeV) are less subject to hiss scattering below L=4. In contrast, 0.3-1.5 MeV electrons evolve in a environment that depopulates them as they migrate from L~5 to L~2.5. Ultra-relativistic electrons are not affected by hiss losses until L~2-3.