Sunil Kumar Mahla
Other affiliations: Thapar University
Bio: Sunil Kumar Mahla is an academic researcher from Punjab Technical University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Diesel fuel & Diesel engine. The author has an hindex of 13, co-authored 37 publications receiving 557 citations. Previous affiliations of Sunil Kumar Mahla include Thapar University.
TL;DR: In this article, the effect of diesel, rice bran biodiesel and n-butanol on the performance and emission characteristics of a diesel engine was investigated using a single stage transesterification process.
Abstract: Due to the depletion of petroleum products and fatal emissions from the tailpipe of diesel engines it has become a need to seek for the alternative of petroleum products for long-term use. Currently, researchers and experts have come to the conclusion that biodiesel along with higher alcohols can be an appropriate substitute for this situation. Former investigations have presented that biodiesel and higher alcohol can help in improving the performance and depreciating harmful exhaust gases in a diesel engine. In the current investigation blends of diesel, rice bran biodiesel and n-butanol were prepared to check its effect on performance and emission characteristics of a diesel engine. Biodiesel was prepared by single stage alkaline transesterification process in this study and after that blends of diesel–biodiesel and diesel–biodiesel-n butanol were prepared as B10, B20, B10 nb10 and B20 nb20. Then these blends were tested in a single cylinder, small utility diesel engine with a rated power output of 3.73 kW to compare them with baseline diesel. Experimental investigation demonstrates that blends of rice bran biodiesel and n-butanol can be used as a fuel in a diesel engine without any change in the engine.
TL;DR: IoT application in AM improves production processes' efficiency followed by reduced manufacturing waste and fulfilled customer specifications and concludes that IoT application inAM improves production process' efficiency and fulfilled customers' specifications.
Abstract: Mass customization and personalization are the significant implications of Industry 4.0. Even though additive manufacturing (AM) technologies possess the capability to personalize final products, they cannot be used for mass production of the 3D printed job on a large scale. Their inability to perform production processes for large-sized objects adds to the disadvantages. Consequently, the industries are hesitant regarding the idea of AM techniques to carry out commercial productions. Therefore, this research-based study aims to efficiently identify and utilize Industry 4.0 technologies to improve AM processes' reliability and mass 3D print smart materials for manufacturers globally. We explore the requirement for Industry 4.0 technologies for AM processes and study the advantages of the application of information technologies (IT) in AM. Further, we analyze how the Internet of Things (IoT) additive manufacturing integrated techniques will benefit the industries and material manufacturers. However, the paperwork is confined to theoretical work. Since automation in AM is a fledgling concept, the available material for research-based study is limited. We conclude that IoT application in AM improves production processes' efficiency followed by reduced manufacturing waste and fulfilled customer specifications. AM has become an essential industrial technique for product innovation and development, therefore, it is necessary to bring reforms to make this technology customer-friendly.
TL;DR: In this article, a brief overview of the developments of various Ca-based catalysts derived from waste materials as an efficient catalyst for biodiesel production with significant yield is presented, where the waste materials employed as heterogeneous catalysts have an abundance of natural Ca content and they have high catalyst activity and selectivity.
Abstract: Recent studies on the exploration of eco-friendly approach by utilizing large-scale waste materials as potential catalyst in biodiesel production have attracted much attention. The development of heterogeneous catalysts especially from calcium has gained much awareness due to the large availability of calcium-rich waste materials and their corresponding high catalytic activity in the transesterification of oil. Most of the waste materials employed as heterogeneous catalysts have an abundance of natural Ca content and they have high catalyst activity and selectivity despite being environment-friendly and cost-effective. Heterogeneous catalysts with high activity can be produced from Ca based waste materials when calcined at high temperatures. This review gives a brief overview of the developments of various Ca based catalysts derived from waste materials as an efficient catalyst for biodiesel production with significant yield. Industrial wastes (red mud, slag, ash) and biological catalysts (chicken eggshells, mollusk shells, animal bones) possess enormous potential towards developing an economical catalyst and subsequently, low-cost biodiesel generation. However, future challenges await a better utilization of useless wastes into a useful resource to satisfy human needs.
TL;DR: In this article, an attempt has been made to introduce exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) under compressed natural gas (CNG) fuelled diesel engine using Jatropha biodiesel (B20) blend as pilot fuel.
Abstract: Dwindling fossil fuel resources and deteriorating ambient air quality has mandate the search for suitable alternative fuels for diesel engine. Dual fuel engines show remarkable engine performance characteristics at higher engine loads but suffer from high NOx-smoke opacity emissions trade-off. In the present study, an attempt has been made to introduce exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) under compressed natural gas (CNG) fuelled diesel engine using Jatropha biodiesel (B20) blend as pilot fuel. Experimental investigations were carried out in a single cylinder direct injection compression ignition engine, which was suitably modified to operate under dual fuel mode along with EGR. Comparative analysis was made on the basis of combustion, performance and emissions characteristics at different engine operating loads for fossil diesel, CNG and biodiesel blend (B20) with and without EGR. It was evident from the experimental investigations that dual fuel mode with EGR improved the NOx-smoke emission trade-off at higher engine loads without deteriorating engine combustion and performance characteristics.
TL;DR: In this paper, the effect of variable compression ratio (16:1, 17:1 and 18:1) on various engine characteristics by fuelling 20% palm biodiesel blending compression ignition engine was investigated.
Abstract: Limited fossil fuel reserves led to focus on alternatives fuels for combustion engines. Several studies reported optimal (20%) biodiesel blend for utility in compression ignition engine at constant compression ratio. Literature lacks on the study of palm-based biodiesel in blended form at varying engine compression ratios. In this study, an initiative was undertaken to study the effect of variable compression ratio (16:1, 17:1 and 18:1) on various engine characteristics by fuelling 20% palm biodiesel blending compression ignition engine. The ignition delay period decreased, whereas the peak cylinder pressure and brake thermal efficiency increased with increase in the engine compression ratio from 16:1 to 18:1. At 3.5 bar bmep, brake thermal efficiency values were observed to be 28.9, 30.8 and 33.8% at 16:1, 17:1 and 18:1 CRs, respectively in B20 fuel. Moreover, increasing compression ratio from 16:1 to 18:1, the average reduction in emissions of hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide and smoke opacity were observed to be 47.8, 41.0 and 35.7%, respectively whereas, oxides of nitrogen emissions increased by 41.1%. Thus, it is inferred that B20 fuel performed well at high engine compression ratio.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors focus on the recent finding in transesterification of non-edible sources for biodiesel production as well as its economic aspects, fuel properties, and by-products applications.
Abstract: Biodiesel has privileges than conventional diesel fuel because of its low toxicity, renewability, and eco-friendly properties. Biodiesel is produced from various edible and non-edible sources via transesterification process. Non-edible sources such as waste cooking oil (WCO), algal oil, non-edible vegetable oil, and waste animal oil are commonly used to produce biodiesel due to their low cost and no dependency on the food chain. The production process is influenced by several factors such as reaction temperature and time, alcohol to oil molar ratio, and catalyst type and concentration. The analyses of economic aspects of biodiesel production are crucial to reduce the cost of biodiesel production by finding alternatives to available technologies, catalyst, and feedstock. Moreover, the biodiesel production cost is affected by factors such as the type of raw material, by-product selling price, operation and labor cost, the catalyst, and the reaction type. Besides, crude glycerol is a major by-product of biodiesel production with yields ranging between 8% and 10%. Crude glycerol could be used as a beneficial material to produce biopolymers, hydrogen, ethanol, and fuel additive through pyrolysis and gasification processes. Therefore, this review focuses on the recent finding in transesterification of non-edible sources for biodiesel production as well as its economic aspects, fuel properties, and by-products applications. Finally, the economic aspects and process optimization of biodiesel production should be considered as important factors in order to enhance the economic sustainability of biodiesel production.
TL;DR: In this article, the state-of-the-art and perspectives for catalytic biodiesel production and assesses the critical operational variables that influence biodiesel synthesis along with the technological solutions for sustainable implementation of the process.
Abstract: Biodiesel is one of the potential alternative energy sources that can be derived from renewable and low-grade origin through different processes. One of the processes is alcoholysis or transesterification in the presence of a suitable catalyst. The catalyst can be either homogeneous or heterogeneous. This article reviews various catalysts used for biodiesel production to date, presents the state of the art of types of catalysts and compares their suitability and associated challenges in the transesterification process. Biodiesel production using homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis has been studied extensively and novel heterogeneous catalysts are being continuously investigated. Homogeneous catalysts are generally efficient in converting biodiesel with low free fatty acid (FFA) and water containing single-origin feedstock. Heterogeneous catalysts, on the other hand, provide superior activity, range of selectivity, good FFA and water adaptability. The quantity and strengths of active acid or basic sites control these properties. Some of the heterogeneous catalysts such as zirconia and zeolite-based catalysts can be used as both basic and acidic catalyst by suitable alteration. Heterogeneous catalysts from waste and biocatalysts play an essential role in attaining a sustainable alternative to traditional homogeneous catalysts for biodiesel production. Recently, high catalytic efficiency at mild operating conditions has drawn attention to nanocatalysts. This review evaluates the state of the art and perspectives for catalytic biodiesel production and assesses the critical operational variables that influence biodiesel production along with the technological solutions for sustainable implementation of the process.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors explored the comprehensive utilization of biodiesel as engine fuel and showed the prevalent global current adoption in automobiles engines, and the improved state of things in achieving effective power conversion from biodiesel combustion with minimal emission impact on the environment has been documented.
Abstract: Delving into the current chronicles of research findings, explorations of biodiesel production and utilization in diesel engines have been at the forefront of sustainable and creative energy discovery. Far beyond the problems of energy crises, renewable biodiesel offers unlimited solutions to the associated issues of depleting reserves and harmful emissions with fossil fuels. In overcoming the increasing energy demand owing to the growing worldwide population, the emergence of biodiesel and its global adoption in the transportation sector has brought along a reliable fuel supply that can be used in diesel engines without any modification. This study explores the comprehensive utilization of biodiesel as engine fuel and shows the prevalent global current adoption in automobiles engines. The production rates are documented globally and promoting policies that are being mandated in many countries of the world are discussed as well. The improved state of things in achieving effective power conversion from biodiesel combustion with minimal emission impact on the environment has been documented. Worldwide technological adoption has been captured according to production rate, usage and legislation favouring the economic feasibility of diesel engines that are suitable for biodiesel with little or no modification. With the progress made so far by many researchers to establish biodiesel as a viable engine fuel, coupled with the ability to eradicate environmental issues like global warming and sustainability, it is evident that biodiesel is designed to make a future energy investment and significant addition to the domestic and industrial automobile economy.
TL;DR: In this article, the application of rice bran oil-based biofuels to diesel engines was completely analyzed and critically discussed based on engine performance, combustion, and emissions characteristics.
Abstract: The drastic rise in global warming and the fossil fuel consumption have resulted in destruction of the ecological balance, reduction of the environmental quality, and demotion of the sustainable development. The utilization of biofuels have been paid much attention to by researchers and policy makers due to its benefits and indisputable contributions to protect the living environment. Free fatty acid-rich rice bran oil which is unsuitable for food purposes could be a good candidate for biofuel production. Accordingly, rice bran oil-based biofuels (straight oil and its biodiesel) as promising alternative fuels to petrodiesel were reviewed in this article from the sources, components, and physicochemical perspectives. In addition, biodiesel production from rice bran oil using various methods and catalysts was thoroughly detailed. The oxidative stability of rice bran biodiesel as a function of the storage time was also discussed. The application of rice bran oil-based biofuels to diesel engines was completely analyzed and critically discussed based on engine performance, combustion, and emissions characteristics. The effects of using rice bran oil-based biofuels on the lubricating oil degradation, deposit formation, wear, and sound intensity of diesel engines were explained in detail. Finally, the economic aspects of using rice bran oil and its biodiesel as fuels were also assessed. As a conclusion, the blend containing 20% rice bran oil biodiesel and 80% petrodiesel fuel, both in volume, could be the most effective composition considering the techno-economic aspects of diesel engines; meanwhile the remaining blends appeared to be improper for the existing diesel engines.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors investigated the performance of a single-cylinder diesel compression ignition engine with a dual fuel (biodiesel-CNG) combustion system and showed that the performance can be optimized for biodiesel and CNG dual fuel combustion by advancing the pilot injection timing for low loads and delaying the injection timing to compensate for high loads.
Abstract: Combustion and emissions characteristics of a compression ignition engine with a dual fuel (biodiesel–CNG) combustion system were investigated in this study. This experiment utilized a biodiesel pilot injection to ignite a main charge of compressed natural gas (CNG). The pilot injection pressure was maintained at approximately 120 MPa while the pilot injection timing was varied across the range 11–23 crank angle degrees (CAD) before top-dead-center (BTDC) to investigate the characteristics of engine performance and exhaust emissions in a single cylinder diesel engine. Results show that performance can be optimized for biodiesel–CNG dual fuel combustion (DFC) by advancing the pilot injection timing for low loads and delaying the injection timing for high loads. However, overall performance of diesel single fuel combustion (SFC) still exceeds that of biodiesel–CNG DFC. Slight cycle-to-cycle variations are observed when dual fuel is used, but remains less than 1.3% at all conditions. The combustion of biodiesel–CNG begins at a later CAD compared to that of diesel SFC due to the increase of ignition delay of the pilot fuel. The ignition delay in DFC is 1.6–4.4 CAD longer than that of the diesel SFC. Ignition delays are reduced with the increased engine load. BSEC of biodiesel–CNG DFC improves with advanced pilot injection timing at low load and with delayed pilot injection timing at full load. Smoke is decreased and NOx is increased with advanced pilot injection timing in the biodiesel–CNG DFC. Compared to the diesel SFC, however, smoke emissions are significantly reduced over the range of operating conditions and NOx emissions are also reduced except for the full load condition. DFC yields lower CO2 emissions compared to diesel SFC over all engine conditions. Biodiesel–CNG DFC results in relative high CO and HC emissions at low load conditions due to the low combustion temperature of CNG but no notable trend of HC emissions with variations of pilot injection timing were discovered.